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COPYRIGHT HEPOSfT. 



AN A<JT TO ACTIIOniZE A HISTORY OF XOHTH CAROLINA FOU Vk^ ^^ "^' <"OMMO\ 
SCHOOLS IN THIS STATE. 

Whereas, John W. Moore, of Hertford [county] has prt '^^^'^ ^ ilistory < 
North Carolina which has been examined and approved by the u "J^^t Coramiu' 
on Education : 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact : 

Section 1. That upon the publication of an abridgment of this \\'»^j'R''it'h'a i 
approval by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the same shall be used i.. 
the common schools of the State as a text-book : Provided, the State Board of 
Education shall have first agreed with the publishers as to [the] price wtiich said 
work shall be sold for. 

Sec. 2. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

Ratified the 1st day of March, A. D. 1879. 

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA, 
Office Superintendent Public Instruction. 
Raleigh, May 9th, 1879. 
In compliance with the foregoing statute, I hereby certify that I have exam- 
ined Moore's School History of North Carolina, and approve the same for 
use in the Public Schools of the State 

.JOHN C. SCARBOROUGH, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction 






\ < 



ERRATA. 

Pac^e 7, 14th line, for ^^1593," read ''1584." 
9, 27th Ihie, for ''1622,'' read '^ 1G07." 

51, 28th Ihie, for "on," read "with." 

52, 2d line, for " wasa,"' read "were." 
120, 4th line of caption, for " 1889," read " 1789." 
142, 4t]i line, for "adversaris," read "advisaris." 
167, date to chapter, for "1716to 1721," read "1816 to 1821." 
205, 10th line, for " Lilliman,'^read '• L. Sillinian." 
275, 25th line, for "Jnne," reaxl " Jnly " 



f 



J 



JOI 




SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 



SCHOOL HISTORY 



OF 



ORTH Carolina, 



From 1584 to 1879. 



By 

JOHN WHEELER MOORE, 



"" The old order chai.geth, yielding place to new." 

— Tennyson, 







RALEIGH, N. C. : 

ALFRED WILLIAMS & CO., BOOKSELLERS. 
1879. 






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year "iS79, hj 

Alfred Williams & Co., 
In the office of the Librarian ol Congress^ at Washington. 



Presses of 
Edwakds, Broughton & Co., 
Raleigh,. N. €*. 



Preface 



This little work is intended to supply a want long ex- 
perienced in North Carolina. Teachers of intelligence 
have, for years past, been demanding a brief yet compre- 
hensive statement of the State's greatness and growth. 
Our annals have been unwritten as to the century which 
lies between us and the men of the first Revolution. No 
succinct narrative has yet given the thrice-glorious record 
of the seven thronging years, when, amid disaster and de- 
feat, the indomitable spirit of North Carolina refused to 
succumb and sent out fresh thousands of her sons to die 
for liberty. 

If history be " philosophy teaching by example," how 
all-important that our youth should learn the riches of our 
ancestral glory. We have been taught minutely as to 
what has occurred in New England, but so careless are 
we of our own past that the grave of Gov. Caswell is now 
an unknown locality, amid the very people so much ben- 
efitted by his service. Years before the May-Flower bore 
the Puritans to Plymouth Rock, our shores had become 
historic in the heroism and misfortunes of Sir Walter 
Raleigh and his agents. The bloodshed of Alamance, the 
Mecklenburg Declaration, the instructions of April 12th, 
1776, to the North Carolina Delegates in Philadelphia, 
and the surpassing devotion shown the perishing cause of 
the late Confederacy, are subjects upon which not only the 



4 PREFACE. 

historic muse may dilate, but supply fit inspiration to 
the loftiest poetry and song. 

This humble work seeks with filial devotion to portray, 
as well as the necessary brevity of a school book admits, 
our claim to respect and consideration as a State. The 
author is but human, but in* good faith protests that he 
has set down nothing in malice, but told the tale in all 
truth and earnestness. He has shown how good and brave 
men may differ in their efforts to attain the same end, 
and would despise himself if capable of distorting the sa- 
cred truth of history. With the hope that what has been 
written in love may win the charitable speeches of the 
reader, and that only good motives may be attributed, 
where difierence of view may occur, he commits this book 
to his countrymen and the next ages. 

JNO. W, MOORE, 
Maple Lawn, Hertford Coiinty, N. C. 




History of North Carolina, 




INDIAN CHIEF. 



CHAPTER I. 

A. D. 1584 TO 1G03. 

Early Denizens of North Carolina — Their Habits— Keligious Belief— 
The Spaniards in America — Sir Hmnphrej^ Gilbert — Sir Walter 
Ealeigh — Ralph Lane— Sir Francis Drake — Gov. White and Vir^. 
ginia Dare — Death of Raleigh— Roanoke Abandoned for James- 
town — Roger Green and George Durant — King Charles II. and 
the Lords Proprietors. 

§N the latter part of the XVI. Century, the land now 
known as North Carolina was solely peopled by In- 
dians. The Tuscaroras in the east, Catawbas in the centre, 
and the Cherokees in the west, divided the soil among 



b HISTORY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

themselves. No white or hhack people had ever been seen 
in these limits. 

2. The Indians were called Red Men from their copper 
complexions. They were a proud, indolent and revenge- 
ful race. The men hunted, fished and engaged in petty 
wars upon their neighbors, and left to their women the 
culture of the small corn-fields they had cleared. They 
had no horses, sheep, cattle, hogs or poultry. Upon the 
wdld deer, turkeys, buffaloes and other animals was their 
dependence for food. They shot these with arrows and 
took them also by traps. 

3. The Indians believed in God, whom they called the 
Great Spirit. They had but little regard for any one but 
those of their own tribe, and resented visits of others to 
their hunting grounds by battle and murder. Their lives 
were filled with fears of invasion and death. They had 
little care for their own kindred when enfeebled by age 
or disease, and left the loiterer on a march to perish by 
neglect. 

4. Strong tribes continually drove off" and seized the 
homes of those v>dio could not raise enough warriors to 
prevent defeat. They considered their braves honorable 
according to the number of scalps they had taken from 
the heads of dead enemies, and were strangers to pity, 
justice and what is usually thought commendable among 
civilized people. 

Questions. — 1. Who lived in the country now known as Xorth 
Carolina in tlie XVI. Century? 2. Why were tlie Indians called Red 
Men? Did tliey keep domestic animals? On wliat flesh did they 
subsist? 3. What was their religious belief? Were they kind to 
strangers or their own disabled friends? 4. How did tiie strong 
tribes treat tlie weak ? What are scalps, and what did tliey signify ? 



EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 7 

5. The Spaniards had discovered America almost an 
liundred years before. That people had built up great 
settlements in the West Indies, Mexico and Peru. Eng- 
lishmen resolved to plant colonies to the northward of 
the Spanish possessions in America. Queen Elizabeth 
gave permission to Sir Humphrey Gilbert and his half- 
brother, AValter Raleigh, to search for new discoveries in 
North America. Gilbert came with two ships and was 
drowned with his crew by the sinking of the vessel he 
was in, but the other returned and reported their discov- 
eries and ill-fortune. Raleigh again, in 1584, sent two 
ships, under Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlow, across 
the Atlantic Ocean. These reached an inlet off Roanoke 
Island in July, 1593. They met the Indians and conversed 
with them by means of signs and returned to England with 
two of the Red Men, whose names were Manteo and Wa:Qi, 
chese. 

6. The next year Sir Walter Raleigh sent a colony, un- 
der Ralj)h Lane as Governor. These came to Roanoke 
Island and attempted a settlement. 

7. The City of Raleigh, as they called their village, was 
at the end of Albemarle Sound. Governor Lane went on 
voyages of discovery up the water courses, as did Sir 
Richard Grenville, who came over with him. They ex- 
plored Chowan River to the mouth of the Nottoway 

5. Where were the Spanish settlements in America in the XVI. 
Century? Who did Queen Elizabeth empower to make discoveries 
in this Continent ? What kin was Sir Humphrey Gilbert to Sir Walter 
Kaleigli '? What became of Sir Humphrey ? What two men did Sir 
Walter send in charge of h's ships in 1584? Where did they land? 
Whom did they carry back to England? (j. Who was Governor 
Lane and what did he do? 7. What Admiral carried back the colo- 



8 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Upon ascending the Roanoke, they were assailed by the 
Tusearoras, who Hved upon its banks. An Indian King 
named Wingina, engaged in plots to slay the English set- 
tlers. He and some of his head men were seized and put 
to death. Governor Lane was troubled for want of food 
for his people. The Indians ceased to bring in supplies, 
and there was prospect of a war. In this state of affairs 
a famous Admiral, Sir Francis Drake, came to anchor 
with a fleet near the settlement, and Governor Lane and 
he agreeing it was best for the colony, all sailed with 
Drake back to England. Sir Richard Grenville came 
with another fleet and succor too late. He left fifteen 
men and sailed in search of the Spaniards, who were in 
those days considered enemies by the English. 

8. Sir Walter Raleigh the next year again sent out 
another colony, under John AVhite. This consisted of 
m.ore than a hundred men, women and children. They 
found that the fifteen men left the 3^ear before at Roanoke 
had been murdered by the Indians. Governor White 
soon thought it necessary to return to England for help 
to the many wants of the colony, and did not return until 
1590. He found no trace of the people he had left, but 
the word '' Croatan " carved upon a tree. His daughter, 
whom he left on the island, had given birth to a little girl 
girl named Virginia Dare, whose name is yet borne by 
a county, and who was the first English child born in 
America. This baby and all the people were no doubt 
killed by the Indians. 

nists? What^f Sir Richard Greuville? 8. When did Governor 
White and his colony come over? Did they find the men left by 
Grenville? What became of White's colonists? Who was Virginia 



EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 9 

9. The brave and tireless Raleigh, who had expended 
so much money in attempts to settle the land he called 
Virginia, also fell into other misfortunes. James I., who 
become King upon the death of Elizabeth, became his 
enemy, in order to please the King of Spain. Sir Walter 
was charged falsely with crime, and after long imprison- 
ment was beheaded. Few greater or better persons have 
lived in the world than this brave, wise and resolute man. 
He was a statesman, soldier, poet, historian and navi- 
gator, and though so various in his gifts, was eminent in 
all. 

10. The settlement at Roanoke was wisely abandoned 
by those who were to follow in control of English emigra- 
tion to America. The safe entrance at Hampton Roads 
was substituted for the dangerous anchorage at Trinity 
Harbor. The storms could not then wreck the ships vis- 
iting the coast, and thus access and help were both greatly 
facilitated. Sir Robert Heath, and the more famous Sir 
Richard Hackluyt, with others, were the recipients of 
the King's gifts of American lands in this instance. It 
was at best doubtful morality in the Kings of Europe 
thus to dispose of King Powhatan's domain ; but it was 
the habit of that time to despise the rights of all men then 
called infidels. Under this term were included all people 
who did not agree as to material points of religious be- 
lief. 

11. The settlement at Jamestown was effected in 1622, 
mainly through the genius and bravery of Captain John 
Smith. From this point was to come the first permanent 

Dare? 9. What befel Raleio-h? lo. Why was Eoaiioke abandoned 
for .Tamestown ? 11. How did Governor Berkeley treat Baptists and 



10 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

occupation of Xortli Carolina by white people. By degrees 
the English extended their settlements to Xansemond Riv- 
er. Governor Berkeley, of Virginia, was a tyrant and bigot 
His treatment of the Baptists and Quakers led Roger 
Green, in 1653, to seek safety from persecution by retiring, 
with others, to the banks of Chowan and Roanoke Rivers. 
Nine years later, George Durant bought of the Yeopim 
Indians a neck of land on the Albemarle Sound. King 
Charles II. was then freshly restored to the throne, from 
which his father had been deposed and beheaded. This 
Prince, to reward those whom he had not money and places 
at home to satisfy, in 1663, gave to Lord Clarendon and 
others the whole of the lands now included in North and 
South Carolina. They were called Lords Proprietors, and 
obtained this magnificent gift to gratify their love of 
money and power. They were largely to control the 
affairs of the colony, and were to prove only stumbling- 
blocks to its real prosperity and happiness. 

Quakers? When did King Charles II. make another grant of 
Carolina ? 






<iOVERNOR DRUMMOND's ADMINISTRATION. 11 

CHAPTER 11. 

A. D. 1663 TO 1679. 

Gov. Drummond assumes control of Albemarle— Gen. Monk and Al- 
bemarle Sound— New England Settlers on the Cape Fear— Sir 
John Yeamans — Divisions of Albemarle — Gov. Stephens — The As- 
sembly of 1669— Death of Drummond — The Fundamental Con- 
stitutions—The Navigation Act—William Edmundson— Governor 
Cartwright — Eastchurch and Miller — Culpepper^'s Rebellion. 

i^giR William Berkeley, by orders of the Lords Pro- 
^^prietors, appointed AVilliam Drummond, Governor of 
Albemarle. He was a Scotchman of position in Virginia, 
and possessed virtues to justify his selection as ruler of the 
Carolina settlements. He found but few English people 
in the colony, except those living north of the Albemarle 
Sound. This fine body of water bears the name of the 
selfish and craft}'' Gen. George Monk, who w^as made Duke 
of Albemarle by Charles II. in gratitude for that mon- 
arch's restoration to the British throne. Governor Drum- 
mond is commemorated by the lake in the Dismal Swamp, 
which still bears his name. Carolina was named both 
by the English and the French in honor of the second 
Charles Stuart and Charles IX. of the latter kingdom. 
There had been a New England settlement at the mouth 
of Cape Fear River, established in 1660, but they offended 
the Indians of that section by carrying off their children 
on the pretense of educating them, but really to reduce 

Questions.— 1. Who was the first Governor of Albemarle? Who 
was the Duke of Albemarle? For whom was Carolina named? 
What of the !N^ow England settlements upon the Cape Fear? Why 



12 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

them to slavery. This same people were at this time im- 
porting African slaves into Carolina and Virginia. Their 
settlement was abandoned before the arrival of Sir John 
Yeamans in the same region in 1663, He was a planter 
of Barbadoes, and was a man of enough consideration to 
be knighted by the king. His gallant father was Sheriff 
of Bristol, in England, and was beheaded by order of 
Fairfax, who commanded the soldiers then fighting 
against Charles I. The confiscations under Cromwell 
ruined the estate of young John Yeamans, and he went 
to the Island of Barbadoes to restore his fortunes. The 
next year Sir John was made Governor of the new County 
of Clarendon, and settled upon the Cape Fear at its junc- 
tion with Old Town Creek. Several hundred colonists 
accompanied him, and Charlestown was a considerable 
village in less than a year from its foundation. In a short 
time Governor Yeamans was transferred to what is now 
South Carolina, and his people soon abandoned Cape Fear 
for the new seat upon Cooper and Ashley Elvers. 

2. In 1665, a new grant was procured of the King for 
the lands between the southern boundary of Virginia 
and the mouth of Chowan River. This territory had not 
been included in the first deed under the Great Seal of 
England. In the same year Governor Drummond con- 
vened the first session of the Grand Assembly of Albe- 
marle. This body was not as great in power and num- 
bers as its high-sounding title would indicate. Three 
Precincts — Carteret, Berkeley and Shaftesbury — sent up 

did they leave ? Who was Sir John Yeamans, and where did lie build 
a town? 2. When was the first Grand Assembly of Albemarle? 



GOVERNOR STEPHENS^ ADMINISTRATION. 13 

members, who met at a private residence and enacted 
laws for a few thousand people. 

3. Governor Drummond was replaced in 1667^ by Sam- 
uel Stephens, as ruler of Albemarle. The retiring magis- 
trate was soon to be put to death in Virginia, by Gover- 
nor Berkeley, who asserted that Drummond was aiding 
the rebellion of Colonel Bacon. King Charles said of Sir 
William Berkeley, " That old fool has put more people to 
death in that naked country than I in all England for the 
murder of my father." Governor Stephens was ordered 
by the Lords Proprietors to act with the advice of a coun- 
cil of twelve men. One half of these were his own ap- 
pointees ; the others elected by the free-holders. The As- 
sembly consisted of the Governor, his Council and the 
House of Assembly elected by the people, who were land- 
holders. They were to make laws and govern Albemarle 
very much as they pleased, so they respected the King 
and the Lords Proprietors. 

4. The earliest recorded legislation was in 1669. One 
statute of that year refused any process to collect a debt 
against a settler, who had contracted it previous to com- 
ing to Albemarle. Another provided that where people 
wished to marry, and no preacher was convenient, the 
man and woman were to become man and wife by simpl}^ 
declaring their intention of such a purpose before the 
Governor or any of his Council. The first law mentioned 
was to induce iminigration, and the second is accounted 
for by the fact that there were no preachers in the colony 

3. When did Samuel Stephens assume control ? 4. What laws were en- 
acted in 1669? What did Charles II. say of Uovernor Berkeley ? o. Who 



14 HISTOllY OF KORTII CAROLINA. 

and they alone, by law, could then solemnize the rites of 
matrimony. 

5. Governor Stephens' last official act was to announce 
to the people of Albemarle, the adoption, by the Lords 
Proprietors, of a system of government, which had been 
prepared by John Locke for the control of Carolina. 
This famous man had great wisdom and virtues, but the 
Fundamental Constitutions, as his scheme was called, was 
wholly unsuited to the people for whom it was prepared 
The Palatine, Landgraves and Cassiques were orders of 
nobility, and, with other cumbrous and misplaced in- 
congruities, were scorned and resisted by the whole people 
of Carolina. The Grand Model and Navigation Act were 
the first causes of dissension between England and the 
Carolina people. The latter neither wished to be ruled 
by titled dignitaries, or to lose the benefits of the New 
England trade; so a struggle began in 16G9, which was 
to continue for more than a century. The Navigation 
Act was passed at Cromwell's order, by the English Par- 
liament, to cripple the Dutch commerce. It was now re- 
vived in a selfish and wanton disregard of the promises 
contained in the charters of the different American colo- 
nies. 

^ 6. In 1070, population had extended southward of the 
Albemarle Sound, and families were found as far in that 
direction as Beaufort. The county of Albemarle was di- 
vided into three precincts : these were called Carteret, 
Berkeley and Shaftesbury. In those days, when as yet 

was the author of the Fmulamental Constitutions ? How did the peo- 
ple like the Grand Model? What M'as the first purpose of the Navi- 
gation Act? G. How was Albemarle divided in 1G70? Who preached 



GOVERNOR CARTWRIGHt'h AD^rINISTRATION. 15 

there was not even a village in North Carolina, there was 
but little commerce, culture, or religion, to be found. In 
1672, AVilliam Edmundson came with George Fox to 
America, and preached the first sermon ever heard in 
Albemarle, to the Quakers at Phelps' Point, where now 
stands the village of Hertford. 

7. Upon the death of Governor Stephens, in 1673. he 
Avas succeeded by George Cartwright, wdio had been 
Speaker of the House of Assembly, and was then Presi- 
dent of the Council. In the Dutch war of that period but 
little attention was bestowed upon affairs of Europe by 
the toiling men of Carolina. The new factions of the 
English Parliament, known as Whig and Tory, were 
neither understood or cared for by men who were each 
year encroaching upon the Tuscarora hunting grounds, 
and crowding back the Red Men toward the setting sun. 

8. King Philip in Ncav England, as chief of the Narra- 
gansetts, waged war upon the Puritans, and by his great 
ability extended his leagues even to Virginia. The upper 
districts of the Old Dominion were depopulated. Colonel 
Bacon drove them back, but Governor Berkeley declared 
him a rebel for doing so without his concurrence ; and, as 
has already been relat)sd, among others, put to death Wil- 
liam Drummond, the late Governor of Albemarle. 

9. Governor Cartwright met even more opposition to 
the enforcement of Locke's Grand ^lodel than had been 
offered to Governor Stephens. The Lords Proprietors 
were determined upon its enforcement. Cartwright be- 
came disgusted and resigned. Eastchurch and Miller, 

the first sermon heard in North Carolhia? 7. Who was Governor 
Cartwriojht ? 8. How did Governor Drummond die? 9. What led to 



16 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

two Carolinians, were in England when this happened. 
The former had been Speaker of the Assembly and had 
gone to remonstrate, as agent of the Province, against the 
polic}^ of the Proprietors. He forgot his duty to the peo- 
ple who sent him over, and was made Governor of Albe- 
marle, with Miller as his Secretary. 

10. They left England in 1677, with rigid orders for the 
enforcement of the Grand Model and the Navigation Act. 
On their way they stopped at the Island of Nevis, where 
Eastchurch became so charmed with a Creole lady that 
he sent Miller to assume the government of Albemarle, 
while he lingered at the feet of the woman. 

11. Miller assumed the government in July 1677. The 
population subject to his control then numbered but two 
thousand tax-payers. They made eight hundred thou- 
sand pounds of tobacco, besides corn, which was the main 
crop of the Province. Miller, as collector of the customs, 
displaced Bird from that office, and soon amassed five thou- 
sand dollars and thirty-three hogsheads of tobacco, by levy- 
inga penny a pound on every pound sent to other colonies. 
He attempted to exclude the New England vessels under 
his instructions, but George Durant was resolved to prevent 
this. A Yankee skipper named Gillam came with an 
armed vessel and supplies and produced a collision. John 
Culpepper and others seized Miller upon the latter's at- 
tempting to arrest Gillam, and put the Governor into 
prison. All of the Lords Proprietors' deputies suffered in 
like manner, and fifteen thousand dollars, belonging to 

the King, was seized and appropriated. 



Cartwright's resio'nation ? What of Eastchurch and Miller? 10. Wh 
did Eastchurch stop on his way home? 11. When did Miller assnm^ 
charge ? How many tax-payers then in Albemarle ? How was Miller 



GOVERNOR CARTWRIGHT's ADMINISTRATION. 17 

12. The amorous Eastcluirch had won his bride but 
lost all else. Culpepper scouted his claim to be Governor, 
and the unhappy man went to Williamsburg, Va., but to 
die of vexation at the ceremonious slowness of the Virginia 
officials. Miller escaped to England where Culpepper 
followed to justify his conduct. He was indicted for 
crime, but escaped punishment, through the defence of 
Lord Shaftesbury, who was almost as great a lawyer as he 
was a demagogue. 

deposed? 12. What did Culpepper lliid upon liis going to England? 
Who procured his acquittal there ? 




18 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER III. 

A. D. IGSO TO 1712. 

John Harvey becomes Governor— Governors Jenkins and Wilkin- 
son— Seth Sotliel and the Revolution of 1688— Governor Lndwell 
— Major Lillington, President of the Council — Henderson Walker 
and Governor Daniel — Lord Carteret and the Established Church — 
John Ashe and Edmund Porter — Colonel Carey— AYilliam Glover 
Edward Mosele}^— Philip de Richebouro-— Governor Hyde and the 
Tuscarora War— Colonels Barnwell and Moore— End of the War. 

JIt was not until 1680 that the Lords Proprietors really 
(^§i evinced interest in the usurpation of John Culpepper. 
In that year John Harvey was commissioned as Governor. 
He was the first in Albemarle of a name to become famous 
in subsequent times. He was soon followed in office by 
John Jenkins, who died in 1681, but had already been 
replaced by Henry Wilkinson. 

2. There was wretched misrule still in the province, 
and many of the best citizens went to Virginia to escape 
the resentment of those who were opposing the schemes 
of the Lords Proprietors. Seth Sothel had bought the 
interest of the late Earl of Clarendon, and was induced to 
start for Carolina with the hope that he could allay the 
disorders. He was captured at sea by an Algerine cor- 
sair, and did not reach Albemarle until 1683. It had 
been better that he never came. He was tyrannical as 
Sir William Berkeley, and the worst ruler ever known 
in America. By oppression and dishonest practices he 
drove the people to such fury that they seized him, and 

1. When did John Harvey become Governor of Albemarle ? 2. What 
was the condition of affairs in 1683 ? Who was Seth Sothel, and 



LUDWELL AND OTHERS. 19 

would have sent him in chains to England, but upon his 
cowardly entreaties he was allowed to leave Albemarle, 
upon his abdication. King Charles II. had been dead 
three years, and in England too was seen in this same 
year of 1G88, the expulsion of King James II. Brave 
William of Orange and the Princess Mary of England 
became King and Queen of Great Britain. 

3. In 1689, Philip Ludwell, of Virginia, was made Gov- 
ernor of Albemarle. He remained for four years in 
charge, and was then sent as ruler to the southern settle- 
ments. Major Alexander Lillington succeeded. He mar- 
ried a lady of the Adams family, in Massachusetts, and 
was the ancestor of the Lillingtons, Ashes, Moores, Mose- 
leys and Swanns, so highly distinguished in subsequent 
annals of North Carolina. During his rule the Grand 
Model was abrogated, and the discontents on that score 
ended. This occurred in 1693. Two years later, Thomas 
Harvey became Governor of Albemarle. John Archdale, 
a wise and godly Quaker, was made the ruler of all the 
settlements in both Carolinas. He was one of the Propri- 
etors, and rivals William Penn in the purity and benefi- 
cence of his life. 

4. Another Deputy Governor was not appointed until 
1704. In that time Henderson Walker had been ruler, 
by virtue of his place as President of the Council. Upon 
his death. Colonel Eobert Daniel, who had gone with 
Colonel James Moore, of South Carolina, in the late expe- 
dition against the Spaniards in Florida, became ruler of 

what is said of his habits as a ruler ? 3. When did Philip Ludwell be- 
come Governor, and when was he succeeded by Major Lillington? 
What Avere Governor Archdale's characteristics? 4. W' ho was Go V' 



20 HISTORY QF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Albemarle. He "\yas ordered by Lor(i Carteret, who was 
then Palatine, to create a State Church in Albemarle, 
The EiDiscopalians were but a small fraction of the people, 
and this act was directly opposed to the promises made 
the settlers, both by the King and Proprietors. Governor 
Daniel procured the passage of an act by the Provincial 
Assembly which made the Church of England supreme 
in Albemarle, The people were to be taxed for purchase 
of glebes, erection of churches and the support of rectors 
in the various parishes. The Quakers were greatly 
offended. John Ashe, of South Carolina, who has had 
many distinguished descendents in North Carolina, Avas 
sent by the Presbyterians of Colleton District to remon- 
strate in England. Edmund Porter, of Albemarle, was 
^,lso sent on the same mission by the Quakers, Ashe 
died in London, but their end was gained, and the House 
of Lords resolved that the recent colonial act " was 
founded in falsity in matter of fact, repugnant to the laws 
of England and contrary to the charter of the Lords Pro^ 
prietors." Queen Anne declared the law null and void, 
She had succeeded King William IIL, in 1703. 

5. Colonel Thomas Carey became Deputy Governor of 
Albemarle in 1705. He had been prominent in opposi- 
tion to Governor Daniel's policy, and was appointed at 
the request of John Archdg-le and other Quakers. He 
proved false to his professions, and continued the troubles 
by insisting upon test oaths, which excluded from office 
all but members of the Episcopal Church, There had 
been in Albemarle, until Governor Daniel's time, perfect 

ernor Daniel, and what odious policy did lie inaiiourate? 5. How did 
Colonel Carey treat the (Quakers {\fter procuring rule by their efforts? 



Culpepper's rebellion. 21. 

religious liberty. In Massachusetts and Virginia con- 
fiscation and the whipping-post had been too often the 
punishment of men and women who dared to disagree 
with the State regulations as to faith. 

6. If John Culpepper was seditious, Thomas Carey 
added to such a disposition the faults of obstinacy and 
revenge. John Porter, of Pasquotank, was sent to Eng- 
land to annul the new oppression of the test oaths. The 
Quakers were numerous and many of them loved office. 
They therefore procured the orders for the removal of 
Carey; but he disobeyed the commands of William 
Glover, who was elected as his successor, and Albemarle 
presented the spectacle of two rival factions, each claim-, 
ing to be the lawful government, Glover adhered to 
Carey's late rule as to test oaths, and the Quakers were in- 
duced by Carey to forgive his recent sins against them and 
take sides with him. 

7. The ablest man then in North Carolina was Edward 
Moseley. He was the leading lawyer and Speaker of the 
AssemiDly. He hated Thomas Pollock, who had great in- 
fluence in the Province, and mainly on that ground em- 
braced the cause of Thomas Carey. The trouble was car- 
ried to the Assembly for adjustment, but failed to be ac- 
commodated. 

8. In this distracted state of affairs the Province con-, 
tinned to grow in wealth and numbers. Some Hugonots, 
with Philip de Pichebourg, settled upon Trent River. A 
Swiss Baron, Christopher de Graffenreid, also established 
a colony at the present site of New Bern. There had been 

G. How was Glover tieated? 7. Who was Edward Moseley and Thomas 
^Qllock ? 8, When, did the Ilugonots nnd Swiss come to :N^ortli Carolina, 



22 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

incorporated in 1805 the town of Bath, but it has never 
been, at any time of its liistory, more than a mere hamlet. 
Colonel Pollock, and others, lived at tlie place then called 
Queen Anne's Creek, and, ere long, to be known as Eden- 
ton, but there was really, in 1707, no town in North Car- 
olina. 

9. In 1710, Edward Hyde came as Governor. He was 
to get his appointment, as ruler of Albemarle, from Ed- 
ward Tynte, who was Governor of all Carolina and had 
his residence in Charleston. The latter died before giv- 
ing Hyde his commission, but the new Chief Magistrate 
was induced to assume the government and procure the 
authentication of his appointment from England. He 
called an Assembly and procured the passage of an act to 
enquire into Carey's accountability for the public funds, 
and orders were issued for his arrest. He at once pre- 
pared for armed resistance. Governor Spottswood, of 
Virginia, was appealed to by Governor Hyde for help 
against the men who were seeking his own capture. On 
the approach of aid from Williamsburg, Carey fled. In 
his fall he stirred up the Tuscarora Indians to make war 
on the white people. On the night of September 22d, 
1711, the Eed Men, numbering sixteen hundred warriors, 
fell upon the people south of Albemarle Sound-and mur- 
dered more than two hundred. They seized de GrafFen- 
reid and John Lawson at the same time. The Swiss es- 
-caped, but the unlucky surveyor and historian, with a ne- 
gro servant, was tortured to death. 

10. The Province of Xorth Carolina was helpless, by 

and where did they settle? 9. When did Governor Hj'de arrive? 
How did the Tuscarora war arise? 10. Wliat of Colonel Barnwell? 



cjovj:knoil hydk. 23 

reason of dissension and consequent poverty, to repel the 
attack. Aid was procured from South Carolina. Colonel 
Barnwell came with a small body of white men, and near 
a thousand Yemassee Indians, and defeated Plandcock, 
tlie Tusearora Chief, in a bloody battle in the present 
limits of Craven County. Colonel Lewis Mitchell, and 
other North Carolina soldiers, aided in this signal success. 
Colonel Barnwell did not make such terms with the Tus- 
caroras as suited the people of North Carolina, and he was 
recalled. Handcock soon violated the treaty and the war 
continued. The Assembly voted twenty thousand dollars 
for supplies. Forts were built on Core Sound and Tar 
River. The Five Nations or Iroquois, of New York, 
seemed likely to join their Tusearora kinsmen. The yel- 
low fever also came for the first time and frightfully 
scourged the already stricken Province. One of its vic- 
tims was Governor Hyde, wdio was succeeded by Colonel 
Thomas Pollock as President of the Council. 

11. In addition to the one hundred and forty men un- 
der Colonels Mitchell and McKee, Governor Craven, of 
South Carolina, sent Colonel James Moore with fifty whites 
and a thousand Indians to the relief of the almost ruined 
Province. Such was the scarcity of provisions, these men 
were marched into Albemarle to get supplies. In Janu- 
ary, 1712, Colonel Moore found Handcock and his braves 
at a place they called Nahucke — now Snow Hill, in 
Greene county. The fort in which the Indians retired 
was defended by palisades. The seige began March 20th. 



11. Where did Colonel Moore defeat the Indians and end the war? 
Who were his ISTorth Carolina kinsmen ? 



24 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



With a loss of twenty-five wliites and thirty-six friendly 
Yemassees, the work was stormed and captured, with eight 
hundred prisoners. Hundreds of the Tuscaroras were 
slain and the war ended. This gallant James Moore had 
won applause before, in an expedition against St. Augus- 
tine. His brother, Col. Maurice Moore, and his posterity 
became celebrated in North Carolina. 







PRESIDPJXT POLLOCK, 25 

CHAPTER IV, 

A. D. 1713 TO 1748. 

Kino- Blnntand his Reservation —Governor Eden — Maurice Moore and 
the Yeinassee War— Black-beard the Pirate— President Thomas 
Pollock— Bertie Precinct— Grovernor Bnrrington — End of Proprie- 
tarj^ Rule- -Sir Richard Everliard— Burrington Again — The 
French in America— Governor Gabriel Johnston — St. Augustine 
Expedition — Culloden — Changes in tlie Assembly. 

iS§HE Indian War was thus at last happily ended and 
^, the power of the formidable Tuscaroras effectually 
broken. Tom Blunt, one of their chiefs, had remained 
neutral in the bloody contest, and was rewarded by having 
a reservation of land set apart for him and his people. 
This was located first south of the Albemarle Sound, and 
subsequently on the Roanoke Eiver, in the j^resent county 
of Bertie, where it is still known as the Indian Woods. 
Handcock, with the remainder of the tribe, withdrew to 
Oneida Lake, in the Province of New York, and became 
the Sixth Nation of the Iroquois. 

2. The extreme public danger had healed the dissen- 
sions of the people, and Governor Pollock reported the 
Quakers as being patriotic in supplying provisions for 
the troops. They were opposed to wars on principle 
and did not take part as soldiers. To meet the public 
debt incurred in the prosecution of hostilities, the first 
paper money was issued in North Carolina by the Assem- 
bly of 1713. The Duke of Beaufort as Palatine — that is, 

Questions.— Who was Tom Blunt, and where did Handcock and the 
other Tuscaroras go ? 2. What caused the first issue of paper money 
in North Carolina? Wlien did Governor Eden become the ruler ot 
2 



26 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

President of the Lords Proprietors — ^the same year sent 
over Charles Eden as Governor. He was told to discour- 
age too much expansion in the settlements. The titular 
owners of the Province were not receiving more than a 
hundred dollars apiece as profit from their vast American 
estates. Governor Elden dwelt upon Salmon Creek^ in 
what is now Bertie county. 

3. In 1715v the same Yemassee Indians who had aided 
in subduing the Tuscaroras, rose in arms against South 
Carolina, and Governor Eden sent forces of infantry and 
cavalry, under Colonel Maurice Moore, to aid those who 
had so promptly come to the i"elief of North Carolina four 
years before. Colonel Maurice was brother to Colonel 
James Moore, and they were grandsons of Sir John Yea- 
mans. 

4. The first recorded statutes of the Province vv^ere this 
year enacted at the house of Captain Richard Sanderson, 
in Perquimans Precinct. The Church of England was 
established, but full liberty of conscience permitted, and the 
Quakers were allowed to make affirmations in place of 
the test oaths. Edward ^^loseley, the Speaker of the As- 
sembly, was, as usual, found in opposition to the Gover- 
nor and his policy. Governor Eden was popular, and the 
new town on Queen Anne's Creek was called in his honor, 
Edenton. Moseley accused him of complicity with Ed- 
ward Teach, the noted pirate, who was also called Black- 
beard, and this charge, though probably unfounded, is 
yet remembered to his discredit. 

the Province. 3. What occiuTed between the people of South Caro- 
Ihia and the Yemassees in 1715 ? 4. Where were the first statutes 



GOVERNOR EDEN. 27 

5. Black-beard had for some j^ears been infesting the 
Atlantic coast, and the inland waters, with his forcible 
larcenies. He was chief of quite a fleet of armed vessels. 
His flag-ship carried forty guns, and a hundred men as a 
crew. Lieutenant Robert Maynard, of the Royal British 
Navy, was sent by CajDtain Brand against him. They met 
near Ocracoke Inlet, and Pamlico Sound witnessed a fu- 
rious naval battle. Teach was slain, and the survivors of 
liis erew were hanged at Williamsburg. 

6. Upon the death of Governor Eden, in 1722, Thomas 
Pollock, as President of the Council, again became Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina, but died the same year. Wil- 
liam Swann was Speaker at this time. His father, Major 
Samuel Swann, had filled the same office and that of col- 
lector of customs. Edward Moseley and Maurice Moore 
were under disability for violent conduct touching the 
public records. William Reed succeeded Colonel Pollock. 

7. North Carolina then comprised the counties of Albe- 
marle, Bath and Clarendon. A new precinct was added 
to Albemarle. It lay west of Chowan River, and was 
named Bertie. Court houses were built in each of the 
precincts, and private residences no longer used for the 
administration of public justice. 

8. George Burrington was made Governor in 1724. 
The incapacity of the Lords Proprietors for any wise con- 
trol in America was illustrated in the appointment of 
of this man. He was intemperate, wicked and rapacious, 
and had been convicted in England of beating an old 

DOW preserved enacted? 5. Who was Black-beard, and what befell 
him ? 6. Who became acting Governor after the death of Governor 
Eden? 8, What was the character of Governors Burrington and 



28) HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

woman, and imprisoned for so doing. Sir Richard Eve- 
rard was made Governor* in 1725. He was as weak and 
wicked as Burrington, and disgraced his executive func- 
tions by a street fight in Edenton, with his predecessor in. 
office as his antagonist. 

9. The Virginia and North Carolina line was traced in 
1728, by Colonel Byrd, of Westover, and Edward Moseley. 
They crossed the Dismal Swamp and pa.-'sed westward as 
far as Meherrin River. In the same year the king was 
petitioned to assume control of Carolina. Twelve months 
later this prayer was answered by the payment of forty- 
five thousand dollars by the Crown to the Lords Proprie- 
tors for all their claims, and, with the exception of Lord 
Carteret, all of them relinquished their rights and titles.. 
They had only embarrassed and hindered the growth of 
the new people, and were at last happily relieved from, 
future control. Lord Carteret, afterwards the Eai4 Gran-. 
ville, was assigned the north-eastern part of North Caro-- 
lina as his jDortion of the whole, and in those limits had 
Ms own land offices. Those of the King were confined 
to the remainder of the Province. 

10. Thus ended .the Proprietary Government sixty-six; 
years after its inception in 1663. Carolina then contain- 
ed twenty-five thousand people, ten thousand of whom 
were in the Northern portion of the Province. Albemarle 
county was then divided into the precincts of Currituck,. 
Pasquotank, Perquimans, Chowan, Bertie and Tyrrell;, 
Bath into Beaufort, Hyde, Craven and Carteret ; while 
Clarendon had but one precinct, called New Hanover.. 

Everard? 9. When was tlie Vlroinia line run? When did the Lords 
Proprietors sell out to the King? 10. How was Albeuu\rle dividecl i\^ 



GOVERNOR BURRINGTON, 29 

There were then upon the Cape Fear about five hundred 
people. Colonel Maurice Moore and his brotliers, George 
and Koger, had repeopled the old settlement of their 
grandfather, Sir John Yeamans, In the number of those 
living on the Cape Fear were also Samuel Swann, John 
B. Ashe and Cornelius Hariaett. The towns of Bath, 
Fdenton, New Bern and Beaufort, had been incorporated, 

11. The King returned Burrington as Governor. Ed^ 
^v^ard Moseley was again Speaker and leading lawyer, 
John Baptist Ashe, and his friends, charged the Chief 
Magistrate with disgraceful conduct and j)rocured his re-, 
moval. In the same year, the real separation long exists 
ing between l^orth and South Carolina received legal re^ 
cognition, and they have, since 1732, been treated as in-= 
dependent communities. 

12. Doctor John Brickell was sent on a mission of dis^ 
covery, and to treat with the Cherokees, Nathaniel Eice, 
as President of the Council, succeeded to the administra- 
tion of affairs, upon the departure of Governor Burring- 
ton, in 1731, The latter was afterwards murdered in 
London. Gabriel Johnston, a Scotchman, arrived in No- 
vember and took the oaths of office at Brunswick. He 
was one of the wisest and best Governors North Carolina 
has possessed at any time, and far exceeded in merit any 
of the colonial rulers. He married Penelope, the daugh-- 
ter of Governor Eden, and resided at Eden House, in 
Bertie. 

13. The French settlements in America, and their dar- 
ing encroachments, were become a source of uneasiness 

that time? 11. What followed the trouble between Ashe and But-^ 
rington? 12. Who was scat to visit th,e Cherokees? 13. What kiu(J 



80 HISTORY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

both to English and American statesmen, but North Car- 
olina was removed from immediate danger and manifest-^ 
ed but little concern in a matter so important to the 
Northern Provinces. Governor Johnston met his first 
Assembly in 1736, at New Bern. The King's revenue 
was raised by a poll-tax of five shillings a head on all 
titheable inhabitants. A general court was established 
at Edenton, and the village called Newton, on Cape Fear 
River, was changed as to its name, and has been since 
known as Wilmington. William Downing was Speaker 
of this Assembly, and Edward Moseley the leader of the 
opposition. 

14. In the war of 1740, Vv^ith Spain, four hundred men 
were sent from North Carolina to join Colonel Vander- 
dussen, and participated with General Oglethorpe in the 
siege of St. Augustine, and that of Carthagena, by Admi 
ral Vernon. In spite of poverty and scanty numbers, 
Governor Johnston was warmly seconded in this move- 
ment by the General Assembly. There was wise and liu- 
mane legislation at the same session as to marriage, for- 
eign bills, roads, navigation, weights and measures, tav- 
erns, and in behalf of j)risoners and English convicts. 

15. In 1744 occurred the French war. Prince Charles 
Edward, the exiled grandson of King James II., sailed on 
his daring attempt to recover the throne of his ancestors, 
and, in the great disaster at the battle of Culloden, led 
the Avay to large emigration by Highland Scotchmen to 
North Carolina. The next year Edward Moseley, Samuel 

pt ruler was Governor Gabriel Johnston. 14. How many jS'orth Car- 
olina troops were sent Soutl) iu 1740? 13. Wliei} was the l)i^ttle q| 



GOVERNOR JOHNSTON. 



31 



Swann, Enoch Hall and Thomas Barker were authorized 
to revise and print such Acts of the Assembly as were in 
force. The General Court was removed to New Bern, and 
Circuit Courts established to meet at Edenton, New Bern, 
Enfield and Wilmington. 

IG. In 1747, important changes were made in the man- 
ner of representation in the House of Assembly. The 
counties of Old Albemarle no longer had five members 
apiece, but sent, as did the others, but two. Borough 
members were allowed from Edenton, Bath, New Bern 
and AVilmington. Attention was called to depredations 
of Spanish privateers on the coast, and forts were estab- 
lished. A battle was fought by the Cape Fear people in 
1748 against one of their fleets, off Brunswick, whereni 
one of the enemy's ships was blown up and spoils secured, 
of which relicts are still preserved in Wilmington. 




82 HISTORY OF NOKTII CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER V. 

A. D. 1749 TO 1759. 

James Davis and the First Printino- Press— Tlie Moravians and Wac- 
hovia — Death of Governor Johnston — President Rice— Colonel 
Rowan and Major Washington— Colonel James IniTes and the 
French War -Governor Dobbs— John Campbell of Bertie— 
Braddock's Defeat— Presbyterian Settlements in tlie West— Col- 
onel Hugh Waddell— Tower Hill — The Court Laws — Francis Cor- 
bin— Colonial Manners— The Baptists of Sandy Creek— Colonel 
Waddell and the Cherokees. 

JIn 1749, James Davis set up in New Bern the first print- 
^S^ing press ever known in North Carolina. On it was 
printed the revisal of the statutes compiled by Samuel 
Swann, who was an able lawyer and often Speaker of 
Assembly. Sir William Berkeley had said, nearly a cen- 
tury before, he wished it might be long before printing 
was known in America, and his wish was fulfilled, so far 
as North Carolina was concerned. 

2. The Moravians of Germany, in the same year, pur- 
chased a large tract of land between Dan and Yadkin 
rivers, and established a settlement. They called it 
Wachovia, but it is now known as Forsythe County. 
This was sold them by Lord Granville. Salem was the 
nucleus of this new community, who called themselves 
the " United Brethren." 

3. Governor Johnston died in 1752. He was born in 
Dundee, a town of Scotland. He had greatly blessed 

Question. — 1. Who was the first printer of North Carolina, and 
when and where did he set up liis press ? 2. Where did the Mora- 
vians settle, and what did they call tlic place ? 3. When did Gov- 



PRESIDENT RICE. 33 

North Carolina by his rule. The people were three times 
as numerous as when he came. There were ten thousand 
slaves, besides the white people, and a great increase had 
come upon the exports. Naval stores, staves, corn and 
tobacco were sent abroad in large Cjuantities. Northamp- 
ton, Bladen, Anson, Johnston, Granville and Orange 
counties had been erected, and Highlanders were peopling 
the upper region of the Cape Fear. 

4. President Rice again assumed the administration of 
affairs, upon Governor Johnston's death, and remained in 
charge until his demise, in 1753. Colonel Mathew Rowan 
was his successor. The French had pushed their posts to 
the borders of A^irginia. Lord Dinwiddle, then Governor 
of the Old Dominion, sent a messenger to Governor 
Rowan, saying the French were erecting a fort at the 
junction of the rivers forming the Ohio, and that Major 
George Washington had been sent to investigate the mat- 
ter. Aid was requested against this dangerous move- 
ment. 

5. The Assembly was convened at Wilmington, in 
1754, and nine hundred men and two hundred thousand 
dollars were voted for militar}^ purposes. Colonel James 
Innes, of New Hanover, who had seen service at St. Au- 
gustine and Carthagena, was sent in command of the fine 
body of troops. He went forward to capture Fort Du 
Quesne, but soon found unexpected difficulties. Colonel 
Joshua Fry, who had been the Virginia commander-in- 
chief, died suddenly at Winchester, and Lord Dinwiddle 

ernor Gabriel JohnstOQ die, and what is said of his rule ? 4. Who 
was sent by Governor Dinwiddie to look after the French at Fort Da 
Qnesne? 5. Who commanded the North Carolina regiment in Vir- 



34 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

made Colonel Innes his successor. This ofFencled the 
Virginia House of Burgesses and military men, who 
wanted Washington to command. No supplies were fur- 
nished the North Carolina troops, and they were forced 
to return home to avoid starvation. They were anxious 
to fight the French and Indians, but were thwarted by 
the jealous pride of the Virginians. Three hundred and 
fifty remained at AVinchester until their sup^Dlies were all 
gone, w^hen they retraced their course and reached their 
homes in North Carolina. 

6. Major Arthur Dobbs was sent over as Governor of 
North Carolina, and took the oaths of office at New Bern, 
November 1st, 1754. He was a testy, long-winded Irish- 
man, who was ready to endanger an empire on a point of 
empty etiquette, but was still of honorable and chivalrous 
instincts. Barring his fondness of filling the public 
offices with his kinsmen and his efi'orts to make jobs for 
his own benefit, he was without reproach in the office, 
which he held for ten years. 

7. John Campbell, of Bertie, became Speaker of the 
House of Assembly, and was to be a leading member for 
many years. He lived at Colerain, on the Chowan River, 
twelve miles above Eden House. The large issue of bills 
of credit were entrusted to Samuel and John Swann, 
Lewis DeRossett, and John Starkey, who, upon the death 
of Edward Moseley, in 1749, became one of the two treas- 
urers of the Province. 

8. General Braddock, in 1755, suff'ered the terrible de- 
feat, in which so many English lives were lost. Major 

ginia, and why did the men return? G. What were the traits of Gov- 
ernor Dobbs? 8. Wliat North Carolinians were at Braddock'g de- 



GOVERNOR DOBBS. 35 

Hugh Waddcll, with two companies of North Carolina 
sokliors, participated in the unavailing slaughter. Had 
Colonel Innes' regiment of nine hundred and fifty men 
been present, the result might have been very different. 
The British regulars knew nothing of Indian warfare, and 
w^ere led like sheep to the slaughter. 

9. Governor Dobbs visited the western settlements dur- 
ing the course of the summer. The new county of Rowan 
was fast being peopled by a stern and devoted race, who 
were mainly Presbyterians, and were ministered to by 
Hugh McAden and Alexander Craighead. Shubal 
Stearns and the Baptists of Sandy Creek were but one of 
the many congregations of that sect. Shiloh, in Camden 
of this day, was the oldest seat in the Province of this 
denomination. 

10. When Governor Dobbs met the Assembly in the 
Fall, the Cherokees had been maddened into war by 
the cruel folly of Governor Lyttleton of South Carolina. 
A fort w^as established on the Yadkin to hold them in 
check, and Colonel Hugh Waddell, of Cape Fear, w^as sent 
against them, with a battalion, to relieve Captain Dennie, 
in Fort Tellico. Other troops were sent to join the expe- 
dition, under General Forbes, which captured Fort Du 
Quesne. This occurred in 1759, when William Pitt had 
become Premier of Great Britain, and was dazzling the 
world with his vigor and genius. 

11. Governor Dobbs had succeeded in inducing the 
Assembly of the Province to do a thing which redounded 
neither to his nor their credit. The seat of government 

feat? 10. Who caused the Cherokee War? 11. What was Governor 



86 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

had not been fixed at any one point. The Legislature 
met at whatever village they pleased. He procured the 
passage of an act which provided that his fann, on Con- 
tentnea Creek, called Tower Hill^ should be the capital. 
The Tuscaroras had called it Nahucke, and it was the scene 
of one of their disasters. It had nothing to recommend it 
as the capital of North Carolina, and the law was soon 
repealed. 

12. The Court laws, passed four years before, were re- 
pealed by proclamation. This was the beginning of long 
and bitter contests between Governor Dobbs and the 
House of Assembly. The men of North Carolina were 
tired of having all their judges selected from England, 
and certain parties in London sought a private advantage 
in altering the provincial law of attachment. 

13. Francis Corbin was then agent for the Earl of 
Granville, and was creating trouble by his frauds and 
extortions in land sales. In 1759, twelve men went to 
jOorbin's house, below Edenton, where the}^ seized him 
and conveyed him to Enfield, then in Edgecombe county. 
He was detained until he gave bond to produce his books 
and disgorge of his unlawful fees. He violated this ex- 
torted agreement, and brought suit against four of the 
abductors. They refused to give bail, and in its default 
were committed to prison. A mob collected the next 
day, and, breaking open the jail, released the men in con- 
finement. They had the countenance of Colonel Alexan- 
der McCulloh, one of His Majesty's Council for North 

Dobbs' Tower Hill project? 1^. What is said of the repeal of the 
Court laws? 13. Who was Corbin, and what befell him ? 14. What 



GOVERXOli DOBBH. 37 

Carolina, in so doing. Thus began the trouble kiiown as 
the War of the Regulation. 

14. Life in the eastern counties, to which Hertford was 
that year added, was full of pleasure and profit. The In-' 
dians, save those of King Blunt, on the Roanoke, were all 
gone toward the setting sun. The rude cabins of the 
first settlers had been replaced by brick or framed houses- 
Hospitality was unbounded, and the weddings and other 
social gatherings were largely attended. West India rum 
and the negro fiddlers added charms to the midnight 
revel. The strict morals of the Puritans and Quakers 
did not prevail in the Albemarle region. The curled and 
powdered gentlemen and the ladies in their big hoops 
were never so well pleased as when walking a minuet or 
betting at a rubber of whist. Horse races and pursuit of 
the fox were also in high favor as pastimes- 

15. Very different were the men of Rowan, Orange and 
Cumberland. Swarms of Cherokee warriors were just 
beyond the Blue Ridge Mountains, and death by the 
tomahawk was possible at any moment. Long persecu- 
tion had stimulated the zeal and enthusiasm of the Scotch- 
Irish until religious devotion became the absorbing habit 
of whole communities. The log churches were to them 
almost what Solomon's temple had been to the Jews. 
Tiie ministers in charge and the ruling elders were fol- 
lowed implicitly, both in matters of Church and State. 

16. Amid the Baptists of Sandy Creek and elsewhere, 
were also to be found zeal and devotion. They were ever 
the advocates of complete religious liberty. Each church 

was the condition of affairs in the eastern counties? 15. What is said 
of the west? 16, Qf the Baptists? 



38 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

was independent, and insisted that the State should have 
no connection with it or any other religious society. 
They were the men who conceiyed of resistance to intol- 
erable oppression, and were not responsible for the ex- 
cesses of others in subsequent years. 

17. The Cherokees were still on the war-path in 1760, 
and Colonel Hugh Waddell was stationed, with a regi- 
ment of infantry, at the new yillage of Salisbury, for the 
protection of the western settlements. Captain Cogdill, 
with a company of Tuscarora Indians, from Bertie, joined 
them in their expedition, in the Fall, and helped in the 
destruction of the Cowee or Underbill towns. The 
smoking wigwams were a mute protest to heaven against 
the violence and injustice of Governor Lyttleton, who had 
so wantonly driven the Red Men into warfare. 

17. Who was sent asfainst the Clierokees? 




GOVERKOR DOBBS. 39 

CHAPTER VI. 

A. D. 17G0 TO 17G7. 

The Hillsboro Kiotand Herman Husbands— Anthonj^ Bacon, Colonial 
Agent — Accession of King George HI. — Repeal of the Tower Hill 
Act— Peace of 1763— The Stamp Act and Governor Tryon— Mrs. 
Tryon and Miss Wake — The people in 1764 — George Whitefield — 
Opposition to the Stamp Act— Its provisions — Arrival of the Dili- 
gence — Consequences — Repeal of the Stamp Act — Suicide of 
Judge Berry — Colonel Harvey, Speaker — Tlie -Palace — The Courts 
— Judges — ^Navigation Act. 

I HE growing discontent of the peoj)le of North Caro- 
^^^ lina at the state of public affairs was further shown 
in 1760, by an election riot in Hillsboro'. This village 
was to become a centre of political excitement for more 
tlian ten consecutive years. Herman Husbands waB a 
Pennsylvania Quaker, who had settled near Sandy Creek, 
and was rapidly acquiring influence, both as a preacher 
and politician. 

2. Governor Dobbs, in continued obstinacy, would not 
approve any law for the Superior Courts, but was com- 
pelled to sign the bill for County Courts on the threat of 
the Burgesses to pass none for appropriations to the pub- 
lic expense. At William Pitt's suggestion, Anthon}^ Ba- 
con was sent by the Assemb}^, as agent for North Carolina, 
to reside in London and watch the interests of the Pro- 
vince there. 

3. George II. had died, and, on February 6th, 1761, the 
new King, George III., was proclaimed at Brunswick, on 

Questions.— 1. What is said of the riot in Hillsboro, and Herman 
Husbands? 2. Who suggested the employment of agents to the colo- 



40 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

the Cape Fear River. He was the grandson of his prede- 
cessor, and was a young man of talent and many virtues, 
but, like Governor Dobbs, he was obstinate, and bent on 
asserting his power in controlling American affairs. 

4. The Court troubles had so exasperated the members 
of the House of Assembly, that, in 1762, they refused to 
vote either men or money to aid Sir Jeffrey Amherst in 
finishing the war. They repealed the act locating the 
seat of goA' ernment at Tower Hill, and such was the feel- 
ing that even Governor Dobbs' nephew, Richard Spaight, 
voted against him in this matter he had taken so much 
to heart. 

5. At last peace came in 17G3. The great horror of In- 
dian massacres was ended and France deprived of all her 
lands East of the Mississippi River. The French states- 
man who had conducted their American affairs at once 
predicted that the English success would prove fatal to 
British rule in America. The colonies had grown too 
strong to need help in their contests with the Indians, 
and were too proud to submit to foreign oppression. 

6. In that very year a measure called the Stamp Act 
was foreshadowed in the resolutions of the British House 
of Commons. Governor Dobbs died before the storm 
arose concerning this matter, and was followed in office 
by William Tryon, who retained his rank as Lieutenant 
Colonel of the Queen's Guards. Governor Tryon was a 
bold, passionate and able man. He was insinuating and 
highly influential over those with whom he came in Con- 
nies? 3. Who succeeded George II. as King? 4. Whj^ did not North 
Carolina aid Sir Jeifrey Amlierst? 5. When did tlie Frencli war end? 
6. What was the famous act passed in 1764, and who was Governor 



GOVEKNOK TllYON. 41 

tact ; and to great ambition added the meanness of 
cruel and lasting resentments. 

7. The Governor's family consisted of two very lovely 
women and his children. j\Irs. Tryon and her sister, Miss 
Esther Wake, were powerful assistants to His Excellenc}^, 
and their charms and accomplishments are yet commem- 
orated in the name of the metropolitan county of the State. 
When, in the Revolution, the name of Tryon county was 
blotted from the state map, the proposition to change the 
name of Wake was indignantly voted down. 

8. Xorth Carolina, in 17(34, numbered in its population 
one hundred and eighty thousand white people, besides 
forty thousand African slaves. Wealth and even ele- 
gance were common in the eastern counties, where, apart 
from their opposition to Parliament's claim of the right 
to tax America without the consent of the colonies, there 
were perfect content and loyalty to the British Govern- 
ment. 

9. In 1765, the famous English preacher, George White- 
field, came on a mission to Carolina and other Provinces. 
He was an apostle of the new Methodist Church, and 
awakened thousands wherever he went with his zeal and 
elocpence. 

10. News arrived, early in the same year, of the passage 
of the Stamp Act. Governor Tryon asked John Ashe, 
then Speaker of the Assembly, what his House would do 
about it. "Resist it to blood and death," said the tri- 
bune of the people. Tryon had been selected with a view 

Tryon? 7. What is said of the ladies of his household? 8. What is 
said of population ? 9. When did George Whitefield visit ISTorth Caro- 
lina? 10. What did John Ashe say to Tryon about the Stamp Act? 



42 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

to his military training and capacity for popular repres- 
sion, but he quailed in the storm which then arose on all 
sides. He prorogued the Assembh^ and prevented their 
meeting ; but in every town there were assemblages of 
the leading citizens, who pledged themselves to resist the 
enforcement of the new law. 

11. The Stamp Act provided that all deeds, and other 
legal j^apers, advertisements in newspapers, college diplo- 
mas, and various other matters, should be invalid until a 
stamp should be put upon them. If America was to be 
taxed at all, by Parliament, the proposed way would have 
been the best ; but the colonists were everywhere agreed 
to resist, by force, the introduction and use of the obnox- 
ious stamps. 

12. The North Carolina people were not represented in 
the first Continental Congress by reason of Governor 
Tryon's preventing a meeting of the Provincial Assembly. 
Continued prorogations, and finally a dissolution, were 
used to that end. 

13. In January, 1765, His Britanic Majesty's sloop-of- 
war, Diligence, arrived in the Cape Fear River with the 
stamps. Colonels John Ashe, of New Hanover, and Plugh 
Waddell, of Brunswick, Avitli the militia of their com- 
mands, at once notified the commander of the ship of 
their determination to resist the landing of the stamps. 
While watching, they captured a boat of the Diligence 
and bore it to Wilmington on a wagon, where it figured 
at the head of a procession in the streets. 

11. What is said of its provisions? 12. Why was North Carolina not 
represented in the first Continental Congress? 13. What happen- 



GOVERNOR TRYON. 43 

14. James Houston had been appointed stamp agent. 
Colonel Ashe, at the head of his men, sought Houston at 
Governor Tryon's dwelling, and, upon a refusal to pro- 
duce him, threats were made to fire the house. The ter- 
rified culprit was then produced and made to swear that 
he would not perform the duties of his office. 

15. In the meanwhile the Stamp Act had been repealed. 
Pitt and General Conway induced the Bedford Ministry 
to undo their dangerous work. Governor Tryon issued a 
generous proclamation, announcing the fact and warning 
all public officials to beware of further extortion upon the 
people. Feasts and parades were gotten up to appease 
the men of Cape Fear, but they threw the Governor's 
roasted oxen in the river, and poured out his beer upon 
the sands. 

16. The excitement had a fatal termination. A Cap- 
tain and Lieutenant of the British Navy quarreled over 
the matter, and in a duel the superior officer was slain. 
The Governor procured the arrest, trial and conviction of 
the Lieutenant for murder. Chief Justice Berry granted 
him enough time before execution to enable him to es- 
cape. Tryon was furious, and so wrought upon the fears 
of Judge Berry that he committed suicide. 

17. When Governor Tryon met the new Assembly at 
New Bern, on November 3d, 1766, the Burgesses answered 
his address with polite reproaches for his late acts stifling 
the voice of the Province. John Harvey became Speaker 
in place of John Ashe. Few men have exceeded Colonel 

ed on the arrival of the Diligence ? 14. What befell James Housten ? 
15. How were Governor Tryon's treats relished by the people? 16. 
What is &m\ of Judge Berry ? 17, Give the Qharn.cter of Coloael 



44 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

I 

Harvey in force of character. He was grave even to stern- 
ness, and was of lofty and unspotted patriotism. This 
Assembly incorporated tlie New Bern Academy, which 
was the earliest institution of the kind known in North 
Carolina. Another act provided for the erection of a paL 
ace at New Bern, for the use of Governor Tryon and his 
successors in office, This was to prove a costly and un- 
popular step, and was largely complained of by the people, 

18. In the year 1767, a new circuit was added, and the 
court house was located at Hillsboro. The Superior 
Courts w^ere held twice a year, also, at Edenton, Halifax, 
New Bern and Wilmington. The Sheriffs of all the coun^ 
ties of the district were required to m+eet the Judges, and 
three were on duty by turns at a time throughout the 
term. Martin Howard was Chief Justice of the State, He 
was a man of large abilities, but a facile instrument in 
the hands of Governor Tryon, Judges Maurice Moore j 
p>nd Richard Henderson were the Associate Justices, 
Judge Moore was the ablest lawyer of his day, and to legal 
learning added rare literary culture g|.nd grace as a writer, 
He was the son of Colonel Maurice Moore, who had re^- 
established the old colony of Clarendon, Judge Hender* 
son lived in Granville, and was also an able lawyer who 
was to leave a gracious posterity, 

19. North Carolina was then feeling, in common with 
the other colonies, the inconvenience and loss consequent 
upon the ejiforcement of the Navigation Act, This cele= 
brated statute was drawn by Oliver St. John in CromweH's 
time, and excluded all ships from importing to England 

John Harvey. 18. What school was first incorporated in North Car- 
olina ? Who were the Jvidges imcler Governor Tryon ?• 



GOVERXOK TRYON. 



45 



any but the commodities of their own lands, American 
ships were forbidden the carriage of anything to European 
ports north of Cape Finesterre, except the single article of 
rice. The colonies saw the same odious discriminations 
practiced against them as had been vouchsafed the trade 
and manufactures of Ireland. They were gratified in the 
repeal of the Stamp Act, but were far from being satisfied. 
•^dth the increcising restrictions upon their commerce. 




46 HISTORY OP NORTH CAROLINA, 

CHAPTER VII. 

A. D. 17G8 TO 1771, 

Parliamont Proposes to Tax America— Extortion Produces the Mob 
—Herman Husbands Organizes the Eeguhitors— He Appears at 
Orange Inferior Court— Fanning stirs up a Riot— Husbands and 
Hunter Arrested— Ninian Bell Hamilton to the Rescue -Gov- 
ernor Tryon Interferes— Leaves Hillsboro for Salisbury— The 
Court and the Army— The Assembly— Resolutions againstBritish 
Taxation— H. E. McCulloh, Agent— Violence of the Regulators-^ 
Husbands Expelled from the Assembly and Imprisoned -The 
Force Bill— General Waddell goes to the Wesfc-Tryon Assembles 
an Army— Battle of Alamance. 

§N 1768, the Pari jam eiit of Great Britain and King 
George III, were still persevering in the course which 
had alread}^ been exemplified in the enactment and re^ 
peal of the Stamp Act. A great debt had been incurred 
in the late defence of the English settlements of America, 
And it was insisted that the colonies should bear their 
proper share of the general burdens of the empire. It 
w^as held in London that Parliament had power to fix the 
rate of American taxation. America said no taxes should 
be laid upon a people not represented in the body fixing 
the rate ; and thus the quarrel grew. 

2. For several years past there had been much discus-^ 
^ion in North Carolina as to the purposes of vague popu- 
lar movements. Certain men, known as the Mob, were 
creating uneasiness in the minds of guilty agents of the 
Crown and Lord Granville, Extortion and illegal fees 

Questions.— What action of the King and Parliament still disturb^ 
eil Jforth Carolina In J 708 f 3, What wevc the JSJob and tbejr jntents? 



HEIIMAN HUSBANDS AND THE REGULATOIIS. 47 

liail become an intolerable nuisance in Granville, Orange 
and Anson connties. The issues of paper money had 
been forbidden by the King, and there was almost no 
circulating medium in the Province. High taxes and 
clieap i)roduce had brought the western settlers to the 
utmost distress when pay-day came with the sheriffs. 

3. Herjnan Husbands, with selfish cunning, had in- 
duced the men of Sandy Creek to sign a paper, in 1767, 
wliich created a brotherhood known as the Regulators. 
They were pledged to each other to pay no taxes unless 
satisfied of their being correctly levied, nor illegal fees ; 
that they would often assemble for conference and, finally, 
to jointly contribute of their means to secure these ends. 
Petitions for redress and trials at law were to be the means 
of obtaining the correction of notorious abuses. Hus- 
bands origninated this league, but evaded making him- 
self a positive member. 

4. There was no wrong, but much wisdom in the aims 
of the Regulators so far. In 1766, a written protest 
against the habits of officials was read by Husbands at 
the Hillsboro County Court. A conference was asked at 
Mattock's Mill, between the county officials and the 
wronged farmers ; but this was defeated by machinations 
of Edmund Fanning. He was clerk of the Superior 
Court,' and shameless in his official inicjuities. 

5. In 1768, a meeting of the Regulators sent Peter Cra- 
ven and and another man to see the Sheriffs of Orange, 
and to arrange a conference. While thus engaged, the 
horse of one of these two envoys was seized in execution. 

3.. What was the league of the men of Sandy Creek? 4. What did 
^usbauds do at Hillsboro Court in 1766? 5. What happened at Jeter 



48 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

A rescue soon followed; and Fanning being held re- 
sponsible for the wanton conduct of the Deputy Sheriff, 
shots were fired into the roof of his house. The Episco- 
pal rector at Hillsboro interceded, and apparently effected 
a settlement of the whole matter. 

6. On that very Sunda}^ night, Fanning induced Tyree 
Harriss, one of the Sheriffs, to go to Sandy Creek, forty 
miles away from Hillsboro, and arrest Herman Husbands 
and William Hunter, who were regarded as chiefs of the 
Eegulators. They were carried to Hillsboro on false 
charges, and there released, after Fanning had extorted 
from Husbands a promise to desist from further agitation. 

7. On May 3d, 1768, the report of these arrests brought 
upon Hillsboro a body of several hundred men, under 
Ninian Bell Hamilton. Fanning and Isaac Edwards, 
Governor Tryon's private secretary, induced these men to 
disperse with promises from Tryon. 

8. Men were sent to Governor Tryon by the Regulators 
in consequence of Edwards' promises; but His Excel- 
lency, after disavowing his secretary's authority, only 
censured the discontented men of Orange, and announced 
his speedy approach to Hillsboro. 

9. He reached the village, and ordered out the militia 
on absurd rumors of the Regulators intending to attack 
him. He had volunteered to correct the abuses of which 
these men complained, but all his movements were now 
directed against them. He administered oaths to all in 
his reach ; and having assembled the Council and pro- 
Craven's conference with the Orange Sheriffs ? 6 What tlid Hamilton 
and Edwards do? 7. How did Governor Tryon fulfill Edwards' pro- 
mises? 8. What happened in Salisbury and Hillsboro? 9. Wliat 



GOVERNOR TRYOX. 49 

cured their endorsement of his recent acts, he set out for 
the western counties. 

10. Having appointed the officers needed for a consid- 
erable army, he returned with more than a thousand 
militia to attend the September term of Hillsboro Court, 
where Fanning stood indicted for extortion and exacting 
illegal fees, and several of the Regulators for riot. Sev- 
eral thousand Regulators approached the town and re- 
quested leave to enter. This was refused by Governor 
Tryon, unless they should come disarmed. A few sub- 
mitted to this condition, and saw Colonel Fanning con- 
victed and fined but a sixpence ; while two of the Regu- 
lators were punished for riot by six months' imprisonment 
and a fine of five hundred dollars. Husbands, who was 
the real author of the Regulation, escaped by an ac- 
quittal. 

11. The Assembly met in November. Colonel Harvey, 
as Speaker, laid before the House of Assembly the prop- 
osition of Massachusetts, requesting concert of action to 
resist the proposed British taxation of the colonies. Gov- 
ernor Tryon had expended much money in a military 
display, in running the Cherokee line, and with his late 
pageant at Hillsboro and the palace he was building ; so 
the taxes were still further increased. 

12. A new Assembly was chosen in 1769, and met at 
New Bern, October 23d. Governor Tryon announced 
that the King had no intention of adding to his taxes in 
America, but would soon diminish those in existence. 
In a subsequent session, the House of Assembly resolved 

fi-esh assurance was given tlie Assembly as to taxation? 

3 



50 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

that no power existed in the King to tax North Caroh'na 
without the consent of the Provincial Legislature. An 
address was prepared for the throne, and Henry Eustace 
McCulloh having heen appointed English agent was in- 
structed to present it. 

13. These resolves and the address had just been agreed 
on when the Governor sent a message rebuking the House 
and actually procured an apology from them for their 
patriotic course. They deplored his intended departure 
and made themselves ridiculous. 

14. When 1770 was come, the Regulators had greatly 
increased in numbers and violence. They had been mad- 
dened by the defeat of justice at the Hillsboro trials, and 
were grown frantic in their movements. They broke up 
the Court at Hillsboro, and Judge Henderson fled from 
the town. The lawyers were beaten, and even Judge 
Moore, who had all along been their recognized friend, 
acknowledged that in Rowan legal process could no longer 
be executed. 

15. In the Assembly of 1770, Herman Husbands was a 
member of the lower House. He made a wanton assault 
upon Judge Maurice Moore, in Davis' newspaper, for 
which he was expelled from his seat. KCe was still further 
pursued by Governor Tryon, who caused Judge Howard to 
commit him on a bench writ, and the leader of the Regu- 
lators was immured in New Bern jail. Before his release 
a great crowd of his supporters had marched to Cross 
Creek, and intended to liberate him and burn the new ^ 

13. Why did Governor Tryon rebuke the House of Assembly? 14. . 
How were the Superior Courts treated in 1770 by the Regulators? i 
15. Who was the new member of Assembly from Orange ? l(i. What ' 



GOVERNOR TRYOK 51 

palace of the Governor, when they learned he was at lib- 
erty and they returned to their homes. 

16. Tryon was tyrannical but the Regulators had become 
intolerable. A bill for their punishment in courts other 
than where they resided, was made a law, and soon in- 
dictments were found in Craven county against many of 
their leaders. The Governor was also empowered to raise 
troops and arrest these men, and, further, to run the lines 
of the new county of Guilford. Judge Moore and Thomas 
Barker, the northern Treasurer of the Province, consider- 
ed this Act unconstitutional and void. Mr. Barker re- 
fused to honor Governor Tryon's drafts for money with 
which to raise Albemarle's quota of troops, and thus not 
a man of that section took up arms against the Eegula- 
tors. 

17. General Hugh Waddell was sent to Salisbury to 
command the Western Militia in the expedition against 
the malcontents. On April 24th, 1771, Governor Tryon 
set out with his army from New Berru With him were 
Colonels Eichard Caswell, then Speaker of Assembly, 
Leach of Craven, Craig of Onslow, Thompson of Carteret, 
and Bryan of Beaufort. Captains John B. Ashe and 
James Moore, of New Hanover, led a company of Artillery, 
and Captain Neale, the Mounted Rangers. They were 
joined in Wake by Col. Hinton, and in Orange by Colonel 
Fanning and Captain Bullock, of Granville. 

18. At Hillsboro, Governor Tryon learned that General 
Waddell, on three hundred and forty men, had been 
confronted by greatly superior numbers of the Regulators 
and forced to return to Salisbury. This was a serious 
is said of the Force Bill? 17. Describe the military movements of 



6^^' 



HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



check to the intended campaign, but the courage and ca- 
pacity of the Governor was equal to the occasion, and he 
at once moved to Alamance, in the western portion of 
Orange, and, after short parley, engaged the men who 
had promptly assembled to disjiute his advance. 

19. Herman Husbands Avas present to prevent peace^ 
but fled the field with the firing of the first gun. The 
untrained Regulators fought bravely until shattered by 
artillery and exhausted of ammunition, and then left the 
scene in disorderly rout. This occurred on May 15th. 
Governor Tryon hanged some of his prisoners without 
trial. Others were convicted at a special session of the 
Superior Court for Orange county, and were also hanged. 
Oaths were forced on the whole community, and the ter- 
rified chiefs followed Herman Husbands' example and 
left the State. The Regulators were utterly crushed. 
Governor Tryon, a month after the battle of Alamance, 
left North Carolina to assume the government of Ncav 
York. There he was soon followed by Edward Fanning 
who married his daughter. 

1771. 18. What caused Governor Tryon to advance so speedily from 
Hillsboro? 19. What happened at Alamance ? 



GOVERNOR MARTIN. 53 

CHAPTER YIII. 

A. D. 1771 TO 1774'. 

Major Josiah Martin succeeds Governor Tr3^on — Colonel Harvey as 
Leader of tlie opposition — Amnesty to the Regulators — State of 
Provincial Finances— Leadino- Whigs— Court Laws — The South 
Carolina Line— Correspondence with Virginia— The Second Con- 
tinental Congress— Colonel Harvey calls a Provincial Congress — 
Governor Martin's Threats— Revolution Approaches — Dissolution 
of the Assembly— The Provincial Congress elect Caswell, Hooper 
and Hewes, as delegates to Philadelphia— The Boston Port Bill — 
Continental Congress — Chatham and America-^State of feeling 
in North Carolina. 

^|[|he conduct of affairs devolved upon James Hazell, 
^^upon Governor Tryon's departure. He was soon 
displaced by the arrival of Major Josiali Martin, selected 
by the King as Governor of North Carolina. He was 
more scrupulous than Tryon, but as obstinate as Dobbs, 
He resented the assertion of American rights as a personal 
injury to himself, and acted with studied coldness toward 
all those who, in the Assembly or elsewhere, went counter 
to his wishes. 

2. Colonel John Harvey, on motion of Richard Caswell 
of Dobbs county, was again made Speaker, and was, until 
his death, the acknowledged leader of the Whig party in 
the Province. The term Whig in that day meant oppo- 
sition to English claims of right detrimental to America, 
As in England, the Tories upheld the divine right of 
Kings to do many things now denied them by all sensible 
people. 

Questions —1, Who succeeded Governor Tryon? 2. Who was 



54 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

3. Governor Martin advised and procured the passage 
of an act of amnesty and oblivion toward the Regulators. 
He visited these unfortunate men, and in his dispatches 
bore testimony to the greatness of their provocations. 
His only troubles with the Assembly were the English or- 
ders forbidding the issues of paper money, and the old 
bone of contention about the attachment law. John Bur- 
gwyn, then Treasurer, proved that enough had been col- 
lected in taxes from the people to pay the provincial debts, 
and Samuel Johnston, of Chowan, a nephew of Governor 
Gabriel Johnston, introduced a bill to reduce the poll-tax 
which, with the excise on foreign liquors, had been de- 
voted to discharging the debt in question. Singular was 
the course of Governor Martin in opposing this alleviation 
of the public burden. 

4. There were some distinguished men in the Assembly 
of 1772. Besides Colonel Harvey, there were Caswell, 
Johnston, Hooper, Waddell, Maurice Moore, Harnett, 
Willie Jones, Abner Nash, Joseph Hewes, Thomas Polk, 
Abraham Alexander and Thomas Person. These were 
the Whig leaders, while Judge Howard, DeRossett, Cor- 
nell, John Rutherford and McGuire were avowed Tories, 

5. The Assembly of 1773 was principally engaged in a 
fruitless struggle with the Governor over the Court Laws. 
Neither the House or His Excellency would yield, and 
the result was, no lawful Courts could be held. Governor 
Martin attempted to establish Criminal ^ Courts, but they 
were upset by the objections started by ex-Judge Maurice 
Moore. 

Whig lender of North Carolina? 3. What policy divided Governor 
Martin and the Assembl}'' ? 4, What leading men were in the Assem- 
bly of 1772 ? 5. What was the principal work of the Assembly of 



GOVERNOR MARTIN. 55 

6. There was more ill-feeling engendered by Governor 
Martin's persistence in running the South Carolina line 
contrar}^ to the wishes of the Assembly. Thomas Polk 
Hud Abraham Alexander were employed on this matter 
and incurred the grave displeasure of their compatriots. 
Great services in the future were to atone, however, for 
their compliance on this occasion with the Tory policy. 

7. The Virginia House of Burgesses had resolved on the 
establishment of committees of correspondence in the dif- 
ferent colonies. A letter from them on this subject, and 
also others similar from the Northern Provinces, were laid 
before the House by Speaker Harvey. The House of As- 
sembly at once acceded to the proposition, and Mr. Speaker 
Harvey and Messrs. Caswell, Johnston, Hewes, Vail, Har- 
nett, Hooper, John Ashe and Howe, became the perma- 
nent committee for North Carolina. Their duty was to 
watch the doings of the English Parliament, and to con- 
cert with other Provinces in measures of general defence. 

8. When 1774 came upon North Carolina the people 
had resolved to hold another Continental Congress at Phil- 
adelphia. This step was dreaded by all Governors of the 
different colonies, but especially by Governor Martin. He 
intimated to Thomas Biggieston, his private secretary, 
that he would repeat Governor Tryon's old trick of proro- 
guing the Assembly, and prevent North Carolina from 
sending delegates. Biggieston told Colonel Harvey what 
was intended. The Perquimans statesman was fast sink- 
ing to the grave with incurable disease, but his resolution 
took fire at what he had learned. He had long been the 

1773? C. What is said of the South Oarolhia Vim? 7. Who were 
the Committee of CoiTespoiiclence ? 8. What did Biggieston tell 



56 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

leader of those who upheld colonial rights, and he resolved 
at once upon a course full of awful responsibility and 
peril to himself. 

9. Having consulted a few friends, Col. Harvey issuecj^ 
as Speaker of the Assembly, over his own proper signa- 
ture, a proclamation calling upon the people to elect mem- 
bers to a Provincial Congress, which would not be subject to 
the Governor's orders as to the time of its session. Gov- 
ernor Martin was furious when he learned this bold move- 
ment. He summoned his Council and issued procla- 
mations firmly denouncing the whole thing as treasonable, 
and forbade the assemblage of any such unlawful body. 

10. In spite of threats and proclamations the Assembly 
of 1774 was supplemented by the new body known as the 
first Provincial Congress of North Carolina. The Assem- 
bly and Congress were composed generally of the same 
men. Colonel Harvey was Speaker of the one and ]\Iod- 
erator of the other. 

11. Revolution, like a decree of Fate, slowly and inevi- 
tably drew near. The kindred communities of great Bri- 
tain and America, with so many ties of blood and interest, 
found that each day was widening the gap of divergence 
and estrangement. The trouble had begun with the en- 
forcement of the Navigation Act, but when John Adams 
had prevailed on America to yield on that subject. King 
George III. was still resolved on such treatment of Boston 
as made peace impossible. Thus, in the mere laj^se of 
time, human counsels were confounded, and from increas- 
ing strife grew larger opportunity for national and indi- 

Colonel Harvey? 9. What did Colonel Harvey do? 10. Who was 
Moderator of the First North Carolina Congress ? 12. Who were sent 



GOVERNOR MARTIN. 57 

yidual advancement. As of old by shed blood, the world, 
as well as America, was to be be baptized into a new hu- 
manity, such as had not entered the dreams or philosophy 
of the past. 

12. When Governor Martin saw how unavailing were 
all his measures for preventing the meeting of the Pro- 
vincial Congress he spitefully dissolved the Assembly, but 
this amounted to nothing. The Congress had already 
elected Richard Caswell, William Hooper and Joseph 
Hewes as delegates to Philadelphia. They prepared an 
address to the King and instructions to the delegates, and, 
having passed a resolution against the further importation 
of African slaves, the Congress adjourned November 1st 
1774. 

13. The Boston Port Bill had taken effect on June 1st. 
This act of ministerial vengeance had effectually closed 
the emporium of America. No ship but those of the Brit- 
ish Navy could enter or leave the sealed harbor. Not a 
bale of hay could be carried by water, and all movements 
of water craft were watched and prevented by ships of 
war. Thousands of sailors and artisans were left to idle- 
ness and approaching want. The hearts of all America 
throbbed with pity for the beleaguered city. North Caro- 
lina sent up substantial help in needed provisions. Four 
thousand dollars worth was sent at one time from Wil- 
mington and the Cape Fear. 

11. When, in September, Caswell, Hooper and Hewes 
met tbe delegates of all the Provinces save Georgia, there 
were but three men in America contemplating actual in- 

as Deleji^ates to Pliiladelphia? 13. Wliat is said of the Boston Port 
Bill ? 14. What three Aniorlcaii Statesmen then contemplated dis- 



58 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

dependence from the Crown. Patrick Henry, William 
Hooper and Samuel Adams had given utterance to senti- 
ments to that end. The Continental Congress avowed its 
loyalty to the King, and protested devotion to the British 
Constitution. They were united in determination to resist 
oppression, but would fain cling to the old order of things, 

15. When the results of their deliberations reached 
England the great Earl of Chatham, in the House of 
Lords, gave utterance to the following eulogium upon their 
session : "When your lordships look at the papers trans- 
mitted us from America, when you consider their decency, 
firmness and wisdom, you cannot but respect their cause 
and wish to make it your own. For myself I must own, 
in all my reading — and I have read Thucydides and stu- 
died and admired the master states of the world, for solid- 
it}^ of reason, force of sagacity, and wisdom of conclusion 
under a complication of difficult circumstances, no nation 
or body of men can stand in preference to the General 
Congress at Philadelphia. The histories of Greece and 
Pome give us nothing equal to it ; and all attempts to 
impose servitude upon such a mighty continental nation 
must be in vain." 

16. The people of North Carolina awaited, in painful 
suspense, the march of events. Governor Martin went to 
New York to meet the rulers of the diff'erent colonies in 
their consultation concerning the grave condition of 
America. The men of the east and those of the west were 
all resolved to resist what they deemed oppression. The 
victims of Culloden and Alamance shivered as they recall- 
union of the empire? 16. Who in K'orth Carolina were unwilling to 
resist British encroachments, and why? 



GOVERNOR MARTIN. 



59 



ed the sufferings they had undergone, and were the only 
draw-backs upon the general determination. Oaths taken 
and yet impending penalties for past treason festered their 
souls and divided them from the men who were prepared 
to die in defence of a free America. More in sorrow than 
in anger should the patriots of that day have looked upon 
these stricken victims of war. In the dispensations of a 
mysterious providence they were again doomed to attempt 
the defence of a hopeless cause. 




60 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER IX. 

A. D. 1775 TO 1776. 

Colonel HaiTey calls another Provincial Cono^ress— Governor Martin's 
Proclamation against it— Meeting of the Congress and Assembly 
at ISTevv Bern— Governor Martin's Speech—Answer of the Bur- 
gesses—The Continental Delegates Endorsed— Dissolution of 
Assembly— Kichard Cogdell puts Governor Martin to Flight- 
War Begins at Lexington — Effect of the News upon ]S"orth Caro- 
lina—The Mecklenburg Declaration —Death of Colonel Harvey- 
Samuel Johnston calls another Congress— It Meets at Hillsboro— 
The Regulators make Threats— Johnston Delays the Call for In- 
dependence—Military Preparations— Cornelius Hj^rnett. 

^N February, 1775, Colonel Harvey issued another 
^^ edition of his printed handbills, calling upon the 
people of North Carolina to elect delegates to a second 
Congress, to meet at New Bern at the same time with the 
Assembly. Governor Martin and his Council were again 
enraged at the audacious movements of the Speaker. A 
proclamation commanded the people to abstain from elect- 
ing such delegates. These orders were disobeyed, and the 
selected delegates were again saluted, on their arrival in 
New Bern, in the month of April, with another proclama- 
tion, which ordered them, on the penalty of the King's 
displeasure, "to forbear the holding of their intended 
convention, the election of delegates to Philadelphia, an*d 
all such unusual and unlawful purposes." 

2. Colonel Harvey triumphed in this ridiculous war of 
words, and on April 3d, 1775, the second Provincial Con- 



QUESTIONS.— What did Governor Martin do when Colonel Harvey 
called another Provincial Congress? 2. Who was m.ade Moderator 






GOVERNOR MARTIN. 



61 



gress of North Carolina met at.New Bern, in the shadow 
of the Governor's palace, and again made choice of the 
previous Moderator, who the next day was likewise elected 
Speaker of the House of Assembly. 

3. Governor Martin, for the last time, scolded the peo- 
ple's representatives for their adhesion to the liberties of 
America. As they gathered, with stem John Harvey at 
their head, the royal chief-magistrate little dreamed that 
never again would a British official, in that fair palace, 
dictate terms to an unwilling people. The perishing 
fabric of British supremacy was typified in the angry im- 
potence of Governor Martin, to whose official perplexities 
was also added a poignant and lasting sorrow from the 
loss of his son. The strenuous heart of Colonel Harvey 
sustained his fast-perishing frame, and he went forward 
in the great work of getting North Carolina into effective 
co-operation with the other American colonies. 

4. The House of Assembly appointed Robert Howe, 
Samuel Johnston, William Hooperand Thomas McKnight 
to answer the Governor's address, and they reported a 
paper of great strength and elegance, which, in indignant 
terms, refuted his aspersions upon the popular desires 
and justified the conduct of the American Whigs. Before 
a single act had been passed, the Assembly was angrily 
dissolve^! by Governor Martin, and thus ended the last 
session of the colonial legislatures. 

5. The course of Messrs. Caswell, Hooper and Hewes in 
the Continental Congress was fully approved, and these 

and Speaker hi 177o? 3. What loss added lo Governor Martin's trou- 
bles ? 4. Who were appointed to answer Governor Martin's address ? 
5. Was the course o| tlie Continental Delegates approved? 6. What 



62 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

able and patriotic gentl^nen were again honored by a 
return to the same distinguished post. Mr. Hooper had 
attracted attention by his brilliant eloquence at Philadel- 
phia, where he was considered one of the finest orators in 
America. Richard Caswell was even superior to him in 
true statesmanship, and was to be supreme in public con- 
fidence until his death, while still in the people's service. 
Mr. Hewes was a cultivated and gracious man, but did 
not equal his colleagues in the breadth and solidity of 
his powers. Failing health crippled his usefulness and 
consigned him to a premature grave. 

6. Articles of association had been agreed upon at Phil- 
adelphia, by which an obligation was made to abstain 
from all commerce with British marts. These were 
signed by almost every member of the New Bern Con- 
gress and by the people of the Province generally. Wil- 
mington and Cumberland were noted for the advanced 
opinions of their people, although so many men of the 
latter were to become loyalists in the progress of the Rev- 
olution. Upon the adjournment of the second North 
Carolina Provincial Congress, Governor Martin, to over- 
awe the men of New Bern, placed some pieces of artil- 
lery in position around the palace. These were seized by 
Richard Cogdell and the men he influenced, and the ter- 
rified Governor and his advisers fled at night to Fort 
Johnston, at the moutii of Cape Fear River ; and thus, 
after two centuries, British rule had forever departed 
from North Carolina. 

7. The City of Boston had for months past been in a 
state as of siege. The slow approach of poverty and 

was clone in the Second T^orth Carolina Frovincial Congress ? 7. WJ^^t 



THE REVOLUTION. 63 

despair seemed inevitable to the men and women who 
have, in all ages of its existence, been so remarkable for 
enterprise and thrift. At length came, on April 19th, 
1775, the fatal encounter at Lexington. We constantly 
hear of mere accidents greatly more destructive of 
human life; but that insignificant skirmish fired the 
hearts of a continent. Such an occurrence in this genera- 
tion outstrips the winds in its promulgation. In less than 
an hour it is known over the Mississippi Valley, across 
the Rocky Mountains, and along the far-off shores of the 
Pacific. But the men of the last century had no tele- 
graphs or railroads, and it was full two weeks after the 
slain militia men had stiff'ened in their gore before the 
people of North Carolina were aroused by the peal of war. 

8. Richard Caswell was at Petersburg, in Virginia, on 
his way to the Continental Congress, when, on May 1st, 
he met the New England courier hurrying south with 
the news. Not until the 19th of the same month did the 
intelligence reach Charlotte, in North Carolina. Colonel 
Thomas Polk had ordered the Mecklenburg militia to 
send up delegations to consult as to public affairs. The 
village on the 20th was swarming with men, who were 
ere long to be singled out by Lord Cornwallis as " the 
most disloyal in America." 

9. Abraham Alexander had already won consideration 
as a provincial statesman. He Avas made chairman of 
the convention, and Dr. Ephraim Brevard, a recent grad- 
uate of Nassau Hall, embodied in deathless words the 
high resolves of the men of Mecklenburg. Nothing but 

happened at Lexington, Mass., April 19th, 1775 ? 8. Where did Mr. 
Caswell meet the news of the battle ? 9. What occurred at Charlotte 



64 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

distance prevented the forwarding of substantial aid to 
Massachusetts; but the indignant patriots at once avowed 
their independence of control, and resolute enmity to any 
further governmental connection with Great Britain. 

10. This Mecklenburg Declaration was so far in advance 
of the public sentiment of the colonies, that Jefferson well 
pronounced it, at a subsequent time, " a gigantic step." 
It was bold and heroic, and most nobly vindicated in the 
after conduct of the men who thus early proclaimed their 
resolution to be free. 

11. Alas ! as America rose to armed assertion of her 
rights the noble and strenuous spirit of John Harvey 
winged its flight from earth. While danger and uncer- 
tainty hung over the future, his heart had nerved his fail- 
ing physical structure to life and activity, but, with the 
certainty of American vindication, the overtaxed energies 
relaxed and the great man, who had for twenty years con- 
trolled the struggle for the right, died at his ancestral seat 
in Harvey's Neck of Perquimans county. His early 
death had been foreseen and provided for. 

12. Samuel Johnston, of Chowan, became the successor 
of the dead Moderator under a resolution of the last New 
Bern Congress. He was alike massive in mind and body. 
A spotless integrity, untiring patriotism and great moder- 
ation of life, were to be of inestimable value in his long 
and illustrious course as a public man. He issued a call 
for a new Congress to Assemble at Hillsboro in August. 
This body selected Mr. Johnston as Moderator. 

13. Certain threats were made on the part of the men 

on May 20tli. 1775? 11. What o^reat leader died in June of tlie same 
year? 12. Who took his place ? 13. What is said of the course of the 



I' 



THE REVOLUTION. 66 

still known as Regulators, to disturb the proceedings. 
They had l)een told by emissaries of Governor Martin that 
unless tliey sided with the King they would be held liable 
for the old offenses of 1771. Thirteen members of the 
Congress were designated to confer with them and procure 
their aid to the American cause. Governor Tryon's oaths 
were yet fresh in their memories, and a few months later 
showed how ineffectual was the effort to gain them over. 

14. William Hooper and others advocated a plan of 
general and permanent confederation of all the colonies, 
but the conservatism of Samuel Johnston still hoped for 
accommodation of the disputes with Great Britain, and 
defeated their movement until the spring of the next year. 

15. One hundred and fifty thousand dollars w^ere voted 
for military purposes. The Province was divided into 
five districts and Colonels Vail, Caswell, Lillington, Wade 
and Long were selected to the military command in them. 
These were the militia reserves. 

16. Two battalions, of five hundred men each, were or- 
dered for the continental service. James Moore, of New 
Hanover, was put in command of one, and Robert How^e, 
of Brunswick, of the other. These gentlemen were to dis- 
play great bravery and conduct, and became highly dis- 
tinguished in the progress of the war. 

17. Cornelius Harnett was made chief of the Provincial 
Council. Pie had come to AVilmington in Governor Bur- 
rington's time, and, by zeal and intelligence, had already 

Regulators? 14. What did Hooper propose to the Third Provincial Con- 
gress? 15. Who were made chiefs of the military districts? 16. Who 
were the Colonels of the two tirst North Carolina Continental Battal- 
ions ? 17. Who constituted the Provisional Government ? 



66 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

been called the Samuel Adams of North Carolina. His 
associates in the Provincial Government were Samuel 
Ashe, Abner Nash, James Coor, Thomas Jones, Whitmel 
Hill, Thomas Eaton, Willie Jones, Thomas Person, John 
Kinchen, Samuel Spencer and Waightstill Avery. To 
them were committed the Avhole government and defence 
of North Carolina. 




THE REVOLUTION. W 

CHAPTER X. 

A. D. 1775 TO 1776. 

Battle of Great Bridge^ The Snow Campaign against the Scovilites-- 
Governor Martin stirs up the Higlilanders and Regulators— Colo- 
nel Moore's Strategy-Battle of Moore's Creek-Effects of the Vic- 
tory— Cornwallis leaves the Cape Fear— Northern Military Ope- 
rations—The King's feelings to America— Johnston's Conserva- 
tism—Thomas Jefferson- Fourth Provincial Congress— Delegates 
in Philadelphia instructed to propose Independence — Battle of 
Fort Moultrie— The Cherokee Massacre— General Rutherford 
takes Vengeance. 

lovERNOR DuNMORE, of Virginia, like Governor Martin, 
,^^^ was, in December, 1775, a fugitive at Norfolk, and 
wTrseeking to collect the Negroes and Tories of Albemarle 
to his support. Colonel Robert Howe marched with the 
Second North Carolina Contineiital Battalion, and some 
of the militia, to guard against this danger. On the 9th 
of December, Colonel Woodford, with the Second Virginia 
Battalion and the Culpepper Riflemen, defeated His Lord^ 
ship's forces at Great Bridge. On the 11th, Colonel Howe 
arrived with his North Carolina troops and assumed com- 
mand. Lord Dunmore was speedily driven from Norfolk, 
and Colonel Howe was made a Brigadier General for good 
conduct. 

2. About the same time, certain Tories of South Caro^ 
Una, known as the Scovilites, were making an insurrec- 
tion agaiust the Whig authorities of the Palmetto State. 
Colonels Griffith Ru therford, Thomas Polk and James 

Questions.— Who endangered the Albemarle country in Decem- 
ber, 1775? 2, Who weue the Scovilites, and what befell thero? 



3. Where was Governor Martin at this time, and wliat doing ? 4. Who 
commanded against the Higliland rising? u. Where did Col. Moore 



68 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Martin raised their militia, and, amid the cold and un- 
precedented falls of snow, effected a junction with Colonel 
Richardson, of South Carolina. The Tories were besieged 
in Ninet^^-Six and upon their attempted retreat were over- 
taken and defeated, 

3. Governor Martin had been, since his flight from 
New Bern, lingering in the British sloop-of-war. Cruiser, 
in the lower waters of Cape Fear River. From this point 
he had sent out agents to the Scotch Highlanders and the 
Regulators. These unhappy and mistaken people were 
informed that in February a formidable British fleet would 
reduce Wilmington, and their aid was demanded to this jj 
end. " 

4. Colonel James Moore was with the First North Caro- 
lina Continental Battalion at Wilmington, when he learn- 
ed that General Donald McDonald was at Cross Creek? 
and had raised the Royal Standard. The bi-ave and ca- 
pable Whig commander at once sent orders to Colonels 
Caswell of Dobbs, Thackston of Cumberland, James Mar- 
tin of Guilford, and others, to raise their militia and hurry 
to the seat of disturbance. 

5. On Februaiy 19th, Col. Moore took position on Rock- 
fish Creek, seven miles away from the loyalist camp. 
There he was reinforced by Colonel Lillington with one 
hundred and fifty AVilmington minute men. Colonel Ke- 
nan with two hundred of the Duplin militia, and by Col- 
onel John B. Ashe with a hundred volunteer rangers. 

6. General McDonald soon found Col. Moore was too 






THE REBELLION. 69 

strongly posted to be eftectually assailed, and that he was 
awaiting reinforcements which were rapidly ap})roach- 
ing on all sides. He was a brave and skillful officer 
and saw that w^ithout prompt movements he was sure 
to be suxTOunded in the masterly arrangements of Colo- 
nel Moore. Daunted by the thickening dangers some of 
the Regulators quailed and were dismissed with reproaches 
on their cowardice. 

7. Colonel Moore soon divined McDonald's purpose of 
flight, and sent Lillington and Ashe to occupy Moore's 
Creek bridge, in the event they were unable to join Colo- 
nel Caswell who was nearly up with eight hundred men 
of Dobbs and Craven. It was seen that the Loyalists were 
seeking to reach the mouth of the Cape Fear River, and 
Colonel Moore moved his battalion by boats down that 
stream. McDonald was foiled in his attempt to crush 
Caswell, and that astute officer hastened to where Lilling- 
ton and Ashe were already in position. 

8. On the evening of February 26th, 1776, Caswell went 
into camp on the north side of Moore's Creek. This was 
to deceive McDonald's spies. Late in the night the men 
were marched over to where Lillington and Ashe were 
already awaiting the enemy. The planks of the bridge 
were removed, and no means of crossing left save two log 
girders which spanned the deep and narrow stream. 

9. In the lingering obscurity of the earliest dawn on 
February 27th, Colonel Donald McLeod, in the place of 
his sick commander, led the brave Highlanders to a fruit- 
take position ? 6. What did Gen. McDonald find out? 7. Wliat were 
Col. Moore's disposition of troops? 8. Where was Col. Caswell Feb. 
26th? 9. When did the battle of Moore's Creek occur? 10. Who 



7^ HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

lass assault. The difficult}^ of crossing and the deadly 
fire of the Whig marksmen soon slew McLeod and all 
those who attempted to follow him across that bridge of 
death, 

10. As the repulsed Loyalists grew doubtful of the re- 
sult they were taken in flank by a daring attack under 
Captain Ezekiel Slocumb, who had crossed his company 
without orders and created a panic in the already falter- 
ing Tories. Headlong across the bridge poured the ex- 
ultant Whigs, and the eighteen hundred Loyalists were 
driven back to General McDonald's quarters in disorderly 
rout. 

11. There was not a more decisive victory in the whole 
war. It crushed the King's hopes for years in North Car- 
olina, and foiled the great armament which soon collected 
in the Cape Fear. The men of Culloden had been beaten 
by the riflemen who had never been under fire, and eight 
hundred prisoners and large quantities of military stores 
-vyere captured. Colonel Moore, who planned the cam- 
paign, nobly justified his promotion as Brigadier General. 

12. Lord Cornwallis came with his ships and regiments, 
but learning of the disaster, and the further fact that ten 
thousand Whigs of North Carolina had risen to oppose 
the Royal Standard, he soon left the coasts after an inglo- 
rious descent upon the plantation of General Howe. 

13. It is sad to relate that the exultant Whigs too often 
forgot mercy and magnanimity in their treatment of the 
crushed Loyalists, A singular fatality had long attended 
the brave and unfortunate Highlanders. They were ex- 

made the attack on the Tories' flank ? 11. What was Lord Cornwall 
J/s' conduct in Brunswick? 12, How were the beaten Highlanders 



THE rebi:llion. 71 

iles amid the pines of Cumberland for tlieir generous and 
uncalculating devotion to the lost House of Stuart, and 
their very heroism should, like eharity, have "covered a 
multitude of sins." 

14. The war for Independence had been in progress 
more than a year when April, 177G, dawned upon the 
contending armies. General Washington had expelled 
General Howe from Boston, and though the expedition to 
Canada Avas a failure, there was compensation in the 
Southern defeats of the British movements. The militia 
of North Carolina, in three Provinces, had crushed the 
efforts of native Loyalists and the powerful armaments 
sent to their aid. 

15. King George III. desired, above all things, the sub- 
jugation of the colonies, and was more unreasonable than 
Parliament in its assertion of power over the property 
and persons of American citizens. He scorned their claims 
as citizens of the British Empire, and was deaf to every 
petition and remonstrance sent over to gain his favor. 

16. Samuel Johnston had been largely influential in 
determining the course of affairs up to the time now un- 
der consideration. His wisdom and purity were on all 
sides acknowledged, and he had already been long in 
public favor ; but his admiration of British precedents 
was becoming distasteful to men who w^ere resolved on a 
different polity, and other counsellors were sought. These 
were Caswell and Willie Jones. 

17. The creative genius of Thomas Jefferson was, in 
Virginia, leading men to new ideas of human govern- 

treated ? 14. Wh<at was the military conditioji of affairs at the North"^ 
15. What were Kino; George's feelin2:s toward America? 10. What 



72 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

nieiit. Absolute religious liberty, separation of Church 
and State, liberty of the press, and choice of rulers by the 
people at the ballot box, were as original as beneficial to 
mankind. These, and kindred novelties, were insisted on 
by the democratic leaders of North Carolina, while Mod- 
erator Johnston favored an aristocratic system. 

18. The Fourth Provincial Congress met at Halifax 
April 4th, 1776, and the same presiding officer was chosen. 
The question of Independence was uppermost in all 
minds. On the Sth, Harnett, General Allen Jones, 
Thomas Jones, xibner Nash, Thomas Burke, John Kinchin 
and General Person, were made a committee to report on 
the subject. Four days later, Chairman Harnett sub- 
mitted a resolution in the following words : " That the 
Delegates of this colony in the Continental Congress be 
empowered to concur w^ith the Delegates of the other col- 
onies in declaring Independence, and forming foreign al- 
liances, reserving to this colony the sole and' exclusive 
right for forming a constitution and laws for this colony, 
and of appointing Delegates from time to time — under 
the direction of a general representation thereof — to meet 
the Delegates of other colonies, for such purposes as may 
be hereafter pointed out." Thus, in advance of all the 
colonies. North Carolina lifted her voice for separation 
and Independence. 

19. The North Carolina Continentals, under General 
Moore, and a brigade of militia under General John Ashe, 
were sent to Charleston, and were present when Sir Peter 
Parker's fleet was beaten off from its attack upon Fort 
Moultrie. This occurred on June Sth. 

is said of SamiielJolmston? 17. Of Thomas Jefffrson? 



J 



THE REVOLUTION. 73 

20. On the same day the Cherokee Indians, incited by- 
British agents, fell upon the western settlers and murder- 
ed two hundred of them. General Rutherford, with Col- 
onels Thomas Polk and James Martin, marched nineteen 
hundred men into what is now Tennessee and took ven- 
geance on the Red Men. 

21. With the Philadelphia Declaration of Independence 
came the resolution in North Carolina to form a perma- 
nent system of government. This was effected in Decem- 
ber by a Convention at Halifax, over Avhose deliberations 
Richard Caswell presided. He was made the first Gover- 
nor of the State of North Carolina, and justified, by wis- 
dom and patriotism, that proud distinction. 

famous resolution was passed hy the Fourth Provincial Congress? 
19. What did the Clierokees do.^ 21. Who was first Governor of the 
State of North Carolina ? 




74 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER XI. 

A. D. 1777 TO 1780. 

General "Washin^on as a Military Commander— Governor Cas^velI — 
The Continentals sent North— Deatl)ft of General James and Jud<^e 
Maurice Moore — The Assembly— The Judges— Battles of Brandy- 
wine, Princeton and Germantown — ^Folsonie and the Tf>rles- — 
Whitmel Hill and Thomas Benbnry — Judge Williams — Monmouth 
— General Sumner — General Howe and the Battle of Savannah — 
Defeat at Brier Creek— Major Murfree and Stony Point— Conlis- 
cations — Memucan Hunt — Battle of Stono — Caswell takes the 
Field. 

(^S§HE new year of 1777 came upon North Carolina re- 
^^^ deemed, renovated and disenthralled. Military 
movements were confined to the North, where General 
Washington, amid the greatest difficulties, was displaying 
his superior fitness for the position he had reluctantly ac- 
cepted at the conjoint request of all the colonies. Patient, 
vigilant, and often bold, he was fast acquiring fame as a 
military leader, and the world's admiration for the nobil- 
ity and grandeur of his character. 

2. Governor Caswell, as the Chief IMagistrate in a new 
and untried system of government, exhibited also aston- 
ishing fitness for the position. The utmost foresight and 
delicacy were required to harmonize the parties so easily 
made discordant. He was versatile as he was profound, 
and equally remarkable for his promptness and forbear- 
ance. Idol of the dominant Democrats, he was at the 

Questions. — 1. What is said of General Washington and army 
movements at the North ? 2. What of Governor Caswell's iirst ad- 



THE EEVOLUTION. 75 

same time beloved and trusted by the men who followed 
Samuel Johnston in his political views. 

3. Early in 1777 the North Carolina Continentals were 
ordered to the support of General Washington in the 
North. Four other Continental battalions had been 
raised, and they were soon to acquire a bloody distinction 
in the war. General James Moore and his brother, Judge 
Maurice Moore, both died on the same day, in the same 
house, in Wilmington, and the son-in-law of the latter, 
Colonel Francis Nash, was made Brigadier General in 
place of General Moore. The new commander was brother 
of the conspicuoiLS lawyer and statesman, Abner Nash. 

4. The first State Legislature met at New Bern on April 
8th, 1777- Abner Nash in the Senate, and Samuel Ashe 
in the House of Commons, were elected Speakers. Mr. 
Ashe was the brother of General Johzi Ashe, and the sec- 
ond son of that John Baptist Ashe who had been promi- 
nent in Governor Burrington's time. 

5. In the Fall of the same year there was another ses- 
sion, in which Samuel Ashe, James Iredell and Samuel 
Spencer were elected Judges of the Superior Courts, and 
Waightstill Aver}^, Attorney General of the State. The 
Courts continued, as of old, to be held at Edenton, New 
Bern, Wilmington, Halifax, Hillsboro and Salisbury. 

G. When General Washington had retreated from New 
York and met the British under Howe at Brandywine, 
the whole of the jS^orth Carolina Continentals were with 
him, and were joined in the battle by Thomas Burke, 

ministration ? 3. Where were the North Carolina Continentals sent 
in 1777? 4. Who were the Speakers of the first State Legislature ? 
o. Who were tlje Judges and Attorney General? 6. Wliat is said of 



76 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

then a member of the Continental Congress. At Prince- 
ton a portion were also engaged. At Germantown a 
bloody and glorious record was made, and on that fatal 
field, General Nash, Colonel Buncombe and Lieutenant 
Colonel Irwin were all slain, besides a large number of 
North Carolina subalterns and privates. 

7. The third year of the war found Nortli Carolina still 
undisturbed by invasion or any sign of rebellion among 
the lately subdued malcontents. They v;ere, however, 
but biding their time for wholesale revenge and confusion. 
Such men as Ebenezer Folsome, by cruelty had widened 
the gap between them and the Whigs. Gentle and heroic 
Flora McDonald sadly went back to her native heaths 
and left Cumberland to its petty feuds and atrocities. 

8. In the Assembly of 1778, Whitmel Hill, of Martin, 
and Thomas Benbury, of Chowan, were the Speakers of 
their respective Houses. The Democratic element still 
dominated every portion of the civil service, and their 
prominent opponents were mostly in retirement. John 
Penn, of Granville, Cornelius Harnett, of New Hanover, 
and Thomas Burke, of Orange, were the Delegates to the 
General Congress. 

9. The long suspended Courts were again in full opera- 
tion. Judge Iredell, of Chowan, resigned and was replaced 
by John Williams, of Granville. The leading lawyers 
were William Hooper, Archibald Maclaine, James Iredell, 
Samuel Johnston, William Sharpe, Abner Nash and 
Thomas Jones. Indictments for treason were the princi- 
pal employment of Attorney General Avery, 

the battles of Brandy wine and Princeton? 7. Wliat is said of the 
Highlanders? 8. Describe the Acts of the Assembly of 1778? 
9, What is said of the Courts aud lawyers? 10. Who was Speaker of 



THE REVOLUTION. 77 

10. Such was the strenuousness of the times that two 
sessions were held in the course of a year by the General 
Assembly. At Hillsboro, General Allen Jones succeeded 
Whitmel Hill in the Chair of the Senate, but there was 
no change in that of the House. The legislation chiefly 
concerned the Continental troops, the State Seal, and the 
salaries of civil officers, 

11. The North Carolina Continentals were again en- 
gaged at the well-contested and bloody field of Monmouth, 
General Lincoln was soon after ordered to Charleston^ 
in South Carolina, with all the North Carolina battalions 
but the second and fifth. Colonel Jethro Sumner of the 
Third North Carolina battalion, was made Brigadier in 
place of the brave and lamented General Nash. 

12. General Robert Howe had been sent to Georgia and 
was in command at Savannah. He Avas so unfortunate 
as to incur the ill-will of Governor Houston of that State, 
and Christopher Gadsden, of South Carolina, In this 
way he met with continual opposition and embarrassments 
so that when the large British force under General Prevost 
assailed him, there were but one North Carolina battalion 
of Continentals and enough militia to swell his force to 
twelve hundred men. After a brav.e defence Howe was 
defeated and driven from the field. Among his most re- 
doubtable assailants was the regiment of North Carolina 
Loyalists under Colonel John Hamilton, of Halifax. The 
contest between these and the Continentals was very se- 
vere. 

13. Gadsden's comments on this affair led to a hostile 

the Senate ? 11. Who was made a General in place of General Nash ? 
12. What is said of General Robert Howe? 13. Who had a duel with 



78 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

meeting with General Howe. The latter was transferred 
to the North and was to win high distinction under the 
eye of General Washington, He was a brilliant and ver- 
satile man and was soon made a Major General and put 
in command of West Point on the Hudson River. 

14. In the beginning of 1779, General Ashe, with two 
thousand North Carolina militia, was sent unprepared to 
Georgia, and was there surprised and defeated by General 
Prevost at Brier Creek. General Lincoln did not heed 
General Ashe's i^emonstrances against this precipitation, 
and the result was disastrous. The brave old General 
was so saddened by this misfortune that he left the army 
and was in no more active service. 

15. This defeat at Brier Creek only nerved the General 
Assembly to order the eni*ollment of eight thousand fresh 
North Carolina levies. These were, at the request of the 
General Congress, to be placed under the command of 
General Richard Caswell, upon the close of his official 
service as Governor of North Carolina. 

16. In the month of July occurred the brilliant attack 
upon, and capture of Stony Point, This was a hill on 
Hudson River, between New York and West Point, and 
was a strong fortification. General Wayne made his as- 
sault, with unloaded muskets, just before midnight. Ma- 
jor Hardy Murfree, of Hertford, led two companies as a 
forlorn hope in this desperate enterprise. They were both 
of the Second North Carolina Continental Battalion, 
Captain John Daves, of Newbern, his second in command, 
was badly wounded. 

General Howe? 14. What misfortune occurred at Brier Creek? 
J5, AVhat was done by the General Assembly? IG. Who led the for^ 



THE REVOLUTION. 79 

17. One of the prominent subjects of legislation occu- 
pying the Assembly of 1779 was the act confiscating the 
estates of the rich non-residents of North Carolina. Henry 
E. McCulloh, Sir Nathaniel Dukenfield, and others, had 
laroe estates. These were declared forfeited by reason of 
their being alien enemies. Nations have always acted on 
the same' principle, but the policy is at least of doubtful 
morality. That mere political opinions should work a 
forfeiture of property is both unjust and ungenerous. 

18. Great issues of State bills of credit were added to 
those already in circulation, and Memucan Hunt, of Gran- 
ville, continued as Treasurer of the State. Thomas Burke, 
William Sharpe, Allen Jones, Harnett, Penn, AVhitmel 
Hill and Hewes, were again elected members of the Con- 
tinental Congress. 

19. Late in the year 1779, the forces at Charleston, un- 
der General Lincoln consisted mainly of the six North 
Carolina Continental battalions. By years of service they 
had become seasoned veterans. With these in the centre 
of his line of battle, and the mounted corps of chivalrous 
INIajor Davie on his right, General Lincoln fought the 
bloody and indecisive battle of Stono. This occurred on 
October 13th, 1779. The French troops and North Caro- 
linians participated in the costly and fruitless assault. 

20. By the terms of the Constitution of 1776, the Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina could not continue in office more 
than three years in any four. Thus it Avas that Governor 
Caswell ceased to be the Chief Magistrate at the close of 

lorn hope at Stony Point':' 17. What is said of confiscations? 

18. Who were State Treasurer, and members of the General Congress? 

19. What troops fought the British at Stono? 20. Why did Caswell 



80 



HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



the year. He did not repose upon his laurels, hut made 
ready for further service as ^lajor General of all the North 
Carolina militia. He was like Colonel Alexander Ham- 
ilton in the variety and splendor of his service. 

21. As a General in the field, main architect of the Con- 
stitution, as first Governor of the State, as Public Treas- 
urer and Delegate in the General Congress, General Cas- 
well was equally brilliant and useful. Few^ had dreamed 
thirty years before, that the unfriended Maryland boy, 
who had just arrived in Orange county, was destined to 
so noble a career. 

cease to be Governor? 21. What is said of his gifts and qualities? 









TIIK REVOLUTION. 81 

CHAPTER XII. 

A. D. 1780. 

Condition of the State— General Assembly—Abner ISTash becomes 
Governor— Great Levies of Militia — Major-General Caswell— Fall 
of Charleston— Lord Cornwallis— Colonel Buford's Defeat —Ram- 
seur's Mill — Major Davie and his Battles — The McDowells, Shelby 
and Sevier— General Howe and Arnold— General Gates— The De- 
feat at Camden— Snmter's Defeat— The Forlorn Situation— Corn- 
wallis invades ISTorth Carolina — Davies' Heroism at Charlotte. 

I HERE were no invaders upon the soil of North Caro- 
lina when the year 1780 had come, but everything 
indicated a change of British operations from the North. 
A formidable force of them was alread}^ in possession * of 
Georgia, and South Carolina was understood to be the 
next point of attack. 

2. The General Assembly met at New Bern, April 17th, 
and organized, with Colonel Alexander Martin, of Guil- 
ford, in the Chair of the Senate, and Thomas Benbury, of 
Chowan, in that of the House of Commons. Willie Jones, 
William Hooper, Thomas Person, Archibald Maclaine, 
James Coor, Timothy Bloodworth, General Rutherford, 
Elisha Battle, William Haywood and Colonel Thomas 
Owen, were the prominent members. Major Joseph Mc- 
Dowell and Nathaniel ^lacon were seen for the first time 
in a deliberative body. 

3. Abner Nash was chosen to succeed General Caswell 
as Governor. He was an able and patriotic man, but was 
lacking in the deliberation and conciliator}^ adroitness of 

Questions — 1. What was the State's condition on January 1st, 
1780? 2. Who were Speakers and leading men of that Assembly ? 



82 HISTORY or NORTH CAROLINA. 

his predecessor. He had married the widow of Governor 
Dobbs, and his house at Pembroke, near New Bern, was 
famous for the elegance and bount}^ of its hospitality. 

4. Great preparations were made against the approach- 
ing struggle in South Carolina. In addition to the six 
Continental Battalions then with General Lincoln at 
Charleston, eight thousand militia were being assembled 
from all portions of the State, to be under the command 
of Major General Richard Caswell. Six million of dollars 
were voted for the coming campaign, and Colonel Benja- 
min Hawkins was sent, as agent of the State, to procure 
supplies from abroad. 

5. On February 11th, 1780, Sir Henry Clinton, with an 
overwhelming force, landed on the Islands below Charles- 
ton and began the siege of that doomed city. After a 
brave but unavailing resistance. General Lincoln capitu- 
lated on May 12th, 1780. Thus all the North Carolina 
Continentals and a thousand militia of the same State 
were consigned to captivity. 

6. The blow was fearful to the Old North State. Almost 
the whole of her trained soldiers were thus consigned to 
military inactivity and could not fire a gun in all the 
coming stress and agony of Lord Cornwallis' invasion. 
This able commander at once assumed charge of the 
movements for subjecting South Carolina to British rule. 
He was the boldest and most capable of all the King's 
commanders in America, and was as highly distinguished 
for his culture and humanity as for the heroism and glory 
of his career. 

3. Who succeeded Caswell as Governor? 4. Who was to command 
the North Carolina militia? 5. When was Charleston besieged? 
What weie the North Carolina losses at the capitulation ? 6. Who 



THE RKVOLUTIOX. 83 

7. As soon as Charleston had fallen, Lieutenant Colonel 
Banastre Tarleton was sent by Lord Cornwallis in search 
of a column of Virginians approaching Charleston under 
Colonel Buford, These were surprised at Waxliaw and 
mercilessly sabred. In this bloody afiair Captain John 
Stokes, of North Carolina, participated with his companj^, 
and was terribly mutilated. Colonel Tarleton was the 
right arm of Lord Cornwallis and was avS dangerous as he 
was merciless in battle. Colonel Buford lost one hundred 
and nineteen killed, besides many prisoners, 

8. The Southern disasters to the patriot cause animated 
the native Loj^alists to fresh hopes of restoring the King's 
authority. In June, John Moore, Lieutenant Colonel of 
tiamilton's Tory regiment, collected thirteen hundred 
men at Ramseur's Mill, where Lincolnton now stands. 
General Rutherford, w^ith his militia near Charlotte, w^as 
then threatened by a forward movement of Cornwallis 
from Camden. He dared not leave his post, but sent or- 
ders to Colonel Francis Locke, of Rowan, to embody his 
militia and disperse the Royalists. 

9. On June 20th, 1780, Colonel Locke, with four hun- 
dred men, fell upon the enemy at Ramseur's Mill, and 
drove them, routed, from the field, though they outnum- 
bered his force three to one. It was a bloody and heroic 
affair, and was a foretaste of the resistance the iron men 
of the west were to manifest until the close of the war. 
It was a struggle between neighbors and previous friends 
and carried mourning to hundreds of bereaved firesides. 

did Tarleton surprise at Waxhaw? 8. Who collected the Tories at 
Ramseur's Mill? 9. ^yho commanded the men that defeated them ? 



84 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

10. Major William K. Davie, with a troop of cavalry 
and two companies of mounted infantr}^, was still posted 
at Waxhaw, on the South Carolina line. He was already 
distinguished for valor, patriotism and consummate abil- 
ity. Having been reinforced. Major Davie captured a 
wagon train, near the British post at Flat Eock. Again 
at Hanging Rock he intercepted and cut to pieces three 
companies under the very noses of the garrison. Both 
these affairs occurred in July. 

11. On the 6th, the attack was made on Hanging Rock. 
This entrenched camp was garrisoned by five hundred 
men under Major Garden. Colonel Sumter joined in this 
enterprise, and shared in the glory of plundering the cap- 
tured encampments. 

12. There were other North Carolinians who came to 
the rescue, wdien not a Continental soldier was left to de- 
fend the State. Colonel Charles McDowell and his brother, 
Major Joseph McDowell, Colonel Isaac Shelby, and Colo- 
nel Sevier, with rare heroism, on August 13th, defeated 
the Tories at Musgrove's Mill, while hundreds of British 
regulars, under Major Ferguson, were close at hand. 
Thus, wholly unaided by the Continental authorities, did 
the bold men of the mountains resist the advancing tide 
of British invasion. 

13. General Washington was induced about this time 
to replace Major General Robert Howe, of North Carolina, 
by Benedict Arnold, as commandant at the all-important 
post of West Point. This foul traitor had persuaded various 
members of the General Congress to aid him in his base 

10. Who commancled in the attacks upon Flat and Hani^nig Rock? 
12, What befell the Tories at Miis^roves' Mill ? 13. Wlio tried to give 



THE PtEVOLITTOX. 85 

scheme of betraying the stronghold of his country into 
the hands of the enem3\ It was sad that one so trusted 
coukl stoop to such infamy, but sadder that it cost the 
life of the braye and lamented ]\Iajor Andre. He was an 
officer sent to confer with Arnold, who was captured and 
hanged as a spy. 

14. Upon the fall of Charleston, General Horatio Gates 
was sent to command the military department of the 
South. He had won reputation for his yictory at Sara- 
toga, but was neither a great or wise man. On July 25th, 
Gates reached the camp of Baron DeKalb on Deep Riyer. 
There were two battalions of Continentals from Maryland 
and Delaware, Colonel Armand's Light Horse, and three 
companies of artillery, at this point. 

15. With these troops, and some slight reinforcements 
which oyertook him on the route. General Gates two days 
later, set out upon a march to Cheraw, in South Carolina. 
There General Caswell Ayas posted witli a considerable 
portion of the North Carolina militia. August 15th, Gen- 
eral Gates marched with the purpose of surprising the 
British at Camden. In the dead of the night his col- 
umn collided with the enemy, who were as ignorant as 
General Gates of the presence of their foes. Colonel Ar- 
mand in front, recoiled upon and confused the troops in 
his rear, which threatened a general panic. Porterfield, 
Armstrong and the North Carolina light infantry pressed 
forward and checked the enemy's adyance on both sides 
of the road. Both armies halted and awaited daylight to 
renew the battle. 

16. With the earliest dawn Cornwallis sent the British 



West Point to the Britis}! ? 14. Who was the new Southern command- 



8B HISTORY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

regulars, 'with fixed bayonets upon the militia, that fled 
outright before the advancing lines of steel. The few 
Continentals, with Dickson's North Carolinians, bravely 
held their own at fearful disadvantage until their uncov- 
ered left flank was supported by General Smallwood with 
the reserves, when the enemy fell back and this remnant. „ 
of the American Army left the field. II 

17. The victory of Cornwallis was complete. Two thou- 
sand Americans were killed, wounded or prisoners. All 
the artillery and wagons were captured, and such was 
General Gates' demoralization that he spurred on to Hills- 
boro, more than two hundred miles away, in three days. 
General DeKalb was slain, and General Rutherford and 
Colonels Lockhart and Geddy were numbered among the 
prisoners. As if this terrible blow was insufficient, Tarle- 
ton surprised and routed, four days later, the eight hundred 
men in the command of General Sumter. Major Davie 
had warned him of his danger all in vain. 

18. It is impossible to realize the forlornness of the 
American cause in the South. With no organized force 
but the few troopers with Davie, the Assembly went reso- . 
lutely to w^ork to meet Lord Cornwallis as he came. Again 
cruel mismanagement had scattered the means of South- 
ern defence. There was no faltering in support of the 
good cause and troops were hurried toward Charlotte. j 

19. The troopers of Col. Davie awaited the coming in- 
vaders at Waxhaw while Generals Sumner and Davidson ! 
were near by witli North Carolina militia. In September, 
Lord Cornwallis, having sent Major Ferguson to the West, 

er? 15. What is said of the battle of Camden? 17. What were tlie 
American losses? 19. What happened at Charlotte? 



THE REVOLUTION'. / 87 

moved on Charlotte. At Captain "Wahab's farm, near 
Waxhaw, Colonel Davie struck his first blow upon the 
advancing enemy, but in the streets of Charlotte, with 
less than t^Yo hundred men, he repeatedly drove back the 
boasted troopers of Tarleton, and for a considerable time, 
held in check the whole British army. Major Joseph 
Graham, his companion in this glorious feat, was terribly 
wounded, but Davie was skillful as he was daring and 
safely withdrew his command from its perilous encounter. 




88 



HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 




GENERAL JOSEPH GRAHAM. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

A. D. 17 80 TO 1781 



I 



Affair at Mclnt5^re's— Battle of King's Mountain— General Greene 
Assumes Comniantl— State Efforts for Defense— General Morgan 
sent West— Party Struggles cease among the Whigs — Mutiny iii; 
the Northern Army— Battle of Cowpens- The Long Retreat—' 
Generals Greene and Morgan— Death of General Davidson— ^ 
Affair at Torrence's Tavern— The Retreat Ends— Major Graham's'; 
Affair at Hart's Mill— Colonel P3ie's Hacking Match— Lieutenant! 
Colonel Webster— Battle of Guilford Court House. I 



-^^OL. Davie's daring feat at Charlotte prepared Lord'^ 
^^ Cornwallis for the desperate resistance to be expected 
upon his further advance into North Carolina. He had; 
gone just sixteen miles into the State and halted 



fori 



THE REVOLUTION. 89 

tidings of INIajor Ferguson in the west. While thus 
awaiting, parties were sent out to collect subsistence from 
the surrounding country. One of these, numbering four 
hundred men, was attacked by militiamen, under George 
Graham, a brother of the brave Major Joseph Graham, 
then disabled with many wounds. The British foragers 
were driven into confusion, and finally utterly routed, 
fled to Charlotte, with heavy loss. This occurred at Mc- 
Intyre's farm. 

2. Major Patrick Ferguson was the ablest of all the 
British partisan officers. To great skill in his profession 
he added dauntless courage and magnetic power over the 
men he sought to influence. With one hundred and fifty 
British regulars, he was posted at Gilbert-town, where a 
thousand Tories had joined him, when he found that the 
men of the mountains were gathering against him. He 
sent couriers for assistance, and retreated to King's Moun- 
tain, on the South Carolina line. On October 7th, Col- 
onels McDowell, Cleavland, Shelby and Sevier, of North 
Carolina, having magnanimously yielded the command 
to Colonel Campbell, of Virginia, and having been joined 
by Colonel Williams, of South Carolina, proceeded to the 
assault of the daring chief, who had told the Loyalists 
that they were in position from which there was no possi- 
bility of driving them. 

3. The bold riders dismounted from the saddles in 
which they had been continuously for thirty hours of 
drenching rain. The mountain was surrounded, and 
from all sides so deadly a fire saluted the British that the 

1. What happened at Mclntyre's farm? 2. Describe the battle of 
King's Mountain. 3. What became of the British engaged? 4. What 



90 , HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

desperate charges of the regulars were unavailing. Major 
Ferguson was slain, and his entire force killed, wounded 
or captured. 

4. This was one of the most complete victories of the 
war. It so haflled the aims of Lord Cornwallis that he 
retreated at once to Wynnsboro, in South Carolina ; and 
for a second time the greatest of the English captains re- 
tired without laurels from attempted invasion of the Old 
North State. Cornwallis had been in command of the 
land forces that entered Cape Fear River in 1776. 

5. Nine hundred of the mountain militia had thus ut- 
terly crushed eleven hundred and fifty of the enemy. 
The whole of the British loss was more than two hun- 
dred killed, beside the prisoners. The Whigs mourned 
for Colonel Williams, Major Hambrite, Major Chronicle 
and Captain Mattocks, with fifty-three privates. 

6. On December 6th, General Gates, in general orders, 
announced the arrival of General Greene, and the assump- 
tion by the latter of the command of the military depart- 
ment of the South. Temporary deliverance had followed 
upon the brave movements of the militia at King's Moun- 
tain, but a greater assurance of ultimate success was 
implied in the fact of the presence and conduct of Na- 
thaniel Greene. With the single exception of Washing- 
ton, he was the greatest and most capable of the American 
generals. He was still young ; but to serenity in danger 
and entire devotion to the patriot cause, he added such 
qualities as mark and adorn the greatest of warriors. He 
could face danger and prepare for defeat. Under his 

did Cornwallis do on the reception of the news? 5. Who were slain? 
6. Who succeeded General Gates, and what is said of the new com- 



THE REVOLUTION. 91 

guidance, North Carolina was no more to see years of 
preparation wasted on a single and irretrievable battle. 

7. The utmost alacrity was seen in arming and collect- 
ing men in the State for the renewed advance of Lord 
Cornwallis. The poverty of the Commonwealth as to 
means of subsistence and military equipments caused 
thousands to be returned to their homes after being started 
to the seat of war. The men under Generals Allen Jones 
and Isaac Gregory were thus disbanded after being en- 
rolled. General Greene divided the force near Charlotte, 
and General William L. Davidson was left in command 
there, while the remainder of the militia were sent to 
Cheraw, under General Jethro Sumner. 

8. With a view of easy subsistence and to watch the 
foe. General Morgan, of Virginia, with his own riflemen 
and the North Carolinians of Major McDowell, was sent 
across the South Carolina line, and took position near 
Cowpens. 

9. In the presence of the great and common danger, the 
party troubles of North Carolina sank out of sight. Sam- 
uel Johnston had been defeated for a place in the General 
Assemblv for several years past; but both he and his 
rival, Willie Jones, were elected in 1780 as members of 
the Continental Congress. William Sharpe, of Eowan, 
Thomas Burke, of Orange, and Whitmel Hill, of Martin, 
were continued as delegates to the same body. 

10. General- Arnold's treason added much to the gloom 
and distresses of the American people. It suggested 

niander? 7. What was done to replace the army lost at Camden? 
8. Where were new posts establislied? 9. How did danger act upon 
tlie party divisions among the Whigs of Xorth Carolina? 10. Who 



92 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

doubt where trust was all-important, and added to a 
growing spirit of insubordination in the main army with 
General Washington. The shameful conduct of the 
Pennsylvania Continental line was sought to be repeated 
by the troops of New Jersey ; but the commander-in-chief 
was determined to arrest the evil. General Robert Howe 
was ordered with enough force from the Hudson, and 
soon order was restored. 

11. General Daniel Morgan was posted on Broad River, 
in South Carolina, when, on January 17th, 1781, Tarle- 
ton, with eleven hundred British regulars, attacked him 
at Cowpens. Morgan had three hundred Continentals 
and five hundred militia,' chiefly North Carolinians, under 
Major Joseph McDowell. The bold riders of the Legion, 
with their chief in the lead, made a gallant assault, but 
were met with a valor so unyielding, that the discomfited 
assailants becoming disordered, their defeat became over- 
whelming, when Lieutenant Colonel William Washing- 
ton, with the American Light Horse, fell upon them with 
their sabres. Tarleton lost five hundred and two prison- 
ers, one hundred and ten dead, and U\o hundred wounded. 
The routed British were pursued for twenty-four miles, 

12. General Morgan, with his prisoners, at once started 
for retreat. He knew that Cornwallis would be mad- 
dened, and seek to x^epair the disaster. The captured 
stores were destroyed and the wounded left under a flag 
of truce. The British army was at Turkey Creek, twenty- 
five miles from Cowpens, when the news came of Tarle- 
ton's overthrow, and the race for life began. 

crushed the mutiny in the Army of the North ? 11. Describe the bat- 
tle of Cowpens. 12. Why did Morgnn retreat? 13. What happened 



THE REVOLUTIOX. 93" 

13. For twelve days the flying victors pressed on, until 
pthey reached Island Ford, on Catawba River. As the 
'sun had nearly gone for the day. Brigadier General 
O'Hara appeared with the vanguard of the pursuing 
British. Lord Corn wal lis had overtaken the weary 
Americans, and felt assured of their capture the next 
day. This short delay in crossing saved General Morgan. 
That night the rain fell in torrents, and the Catawba was 
so swollen in the mornino; that for two davs there was no 
means of crossing. 

14. General ^lorgan sent the militia on with the pris- 
oners, but turned with the regulars down the left bank of 
the river, and met General Greene at Sherrill's. There a 
serious disagreement ensued between the two as to what 
should be the line of retreat, and General Morgan soon 
left the service. 

15. General Greene in the two days of grace consequent 
upon the freshet, posted troops at Seattle's and Cowan's 
Fords to resist the crossing of the British. At the latter 
point. General William Lee Davidson, with the Mecklen- 
burg and Rowan militia, bravely encountered the British, 
and slew Colonel Hall and forty of his men ; but General 
Davidson was killed, and his men retreated. He was a, 
great loss to the cause h-e so faithfully served. 

16. The militia, thus deprived of their wonted leader, 
went on six miles and halted at Torrence's Tavern. Here 
they were speedily assailed by Tarleton and dispersed, 
with small loss. They waited till the next day, when the 
British army was passed by toward Salisbury, when they 

at Island Ford? 14. What at Sherriirs? 15. Who was killed at 
Cowan's Ford? 16. What was done at Torrenqe's Tavern ? 17. 



94 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

collected and selected General Andrew Pickens as tempo- 
rary leader. 

17. General Greene was again blessed by an opportune 
rise of the Yadkin River. Cornwallis was forced to turn 
up the stream, while the Americans pressed on to join the 
forces from Cheraw, at Guilford. The pursuit was by no 
means yet abandoned. The British Earl made for the 
upper fords of Dan River, and supposed that Greene's 
escape was impossible at Boyd's Ferry, But he was soon 
to find that General Greene had made abundant prepara- 
tions, and was safely confronting him across the wide and 
impassable river. 

IS. Thus ended this famous and masterly retreat. It 
had extended over a space of two hundred and thirty 
miles, and at once established General Greene's fame as a 
great captain. North Carolina found that all her men 
and preparations were not to be wasted by rash and in- 
competent leaders, as at Charleston and Camden, and 
took fresh heart in the contest, 

19. The British retired to Hillsboro, where the royal 
standard was erected and proclamations sent out, calling 
upon the people to submit to the King. General Pickens, 
w^ith the militia, followed their march, and was watching, 
on Stoney Creek, when Major Joseph Graham, then just 
recovered of his wounds, captured the picket at Hart's 
Mill, a mile and a half from Cornwallis' headquarters. 
The daring partisan, with twenty-five prisoners, reached 
Pickens just before Colonel Henry Lee, of Virginia, with 
his famous dragoons, came up. 

What was the result of the lon^ retreat? 18. Was General Greene 
applaudeU? 19, Who beat up the British .at Harfs Mill? 20, Pe'| 



) 



THE REVOLUTIOX. 95 

20. On the next day, six hundred Tories, under Colonel 
John Pyle, rode upon the Americans, seeking for Tarle- 

■ton. The unhappy Loyalists onh^ discovered their fatal 

nnistake when the gleam of hostile sabres followed the 
bugle's order to chaise. In a few moments ninet}' of 

lithem lay dead upon the field, and almost all had been 

!cut down. It was a piteous and horrible slaughter. 

? 21. General Greene had been reinforced, and crossing 
the Dan River, came back to give Lord Cornwallis his 

•long-sought opportunity of battle. The brilliant courage 
I of Lieutenant Colonel Webster at WhitseFs Mill was 
shown in a fruitless effort of this British officer to cut off 

:the American advance, under Colonel Otho H. Williams, 
of Maryland. 

^ 22. On the 22d of March, the British attacked General 
Greene at Guilford Court House. The militia in the first 

•line of battle gave way, and, with the exception of a bat- 
talion from the Hawfields, did not reflect any credit upon 
North Carolina. But the second and third lines so bravely 
met the British advance, that a full thiixi of the invaders 
were lost in carrying the field. 

scribe Colonel Pyle's ''Haeking Match." 2'2. What is said of the bat- 
.tie of Guilford Court House? 



96 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

A. D. 1781 . 

Lord Coniwallis retreats to Wihninoton — Major Craig — General 
Greene goes to South Carolina — Cornwallis goes to his doom in 
Virginia — General Gregory— Assembly of 1781--Thomas Burke 
becomes Governor— General Thomas Polk — Benjamin Hawkins- 
Harnett and General Aslie — David Fanning and Tory Vengeance 
— Piney Bottom — Battle of McFall's Mill — Capture of Governor 
Burke — Battle of Lindley's Mill — Alexander Martin becomes Gov- 
ernor — Battle of Elizabethtown— Battle of Eutaw Springs — Gen- 
eral Rutherford delivers Wilmington — Tidings from Yorktovvn — 
Colonel Davie — The Carnage Ceases Between the Armies. } 

HE military career of the Earl of Cornwallis had 
^ been so far most brilliant and successful. With in- 
ferior numbers he had annihilated General Gates at Cam- 
den, and, under the same disadvantage at Guilford, he 
remained in jiossession of the bloody field. But he was 
like Pyrrhus when he exclaimed, "another such victory 
and I am undone." The lives of gentle and heroic Web- 
ster and a third of his army were the price of apparent 
triumph. General Greene, after three days of rest, sought 
a renewal of the conflict, but the British w^ere gone and 
in full retreat for Wilmiugton. 

2. Major James H. Craig had occujDied that place on 
the 29ih of the preceding January. His five hundred 
soldiers were borne in several ships of war, and no resist- 
ance was made to their landing. This was to prove a 
source of many injuries to North Carolina. Major Craig 

Questions —What is said of Earl Cornwallis and the battle of 
Guilford? 2. Who captured Wilmington? 3. Where did General 



THE REVOLITION. 97 

added great viiidictiveiiess to his military abilities, and 
the people were soon to discover how cruel was his na- 
ture. He first beat up General Lillington's quarters at 
Heron's Bridge, and then proceeded to fortify the town. 

3. General Greene pursued the British as far as Ram- 
sey's Mill, on Deep River, where he turned south and 
sought, by a rapid movement, to crush Lord Rawdon in 
South Carolina. This was not accomplished at Hobkirk's 
Hill. 

4. Lord Cornwallis, late in April, left Wilmington, and 
passing along the present route of the railroad, went by 
Halifax to Virginia. The people of the Albemarle coun- 
try had been in continual terror from the movements of 
the British under Generals Leslie and Arnold. Brigadier 
General Isaac Gregory, with the militia, was posted near 
Suffolk, where, in the latter portion of June, his quarters 
were disturbed by the enemy, but no important advan- 
tage gained. By a base and unworthy trick the English 
commander so abused General Gregory in the eyes of his 
own troops that they arrested him as a traitor. His in- 
nocence was soon established, but the wounded spirit of 
the patriot was greatly humiliated. 

5. In the Assembly of 1781 attention was given to the 
condition of the North Carolina Continentals. They had 
been paroled the year before and exchanged in April. 
The six battalions were distributed into four, and put 
under the command of Brigadier General Sumner, in 
South Carolina. The Board of War was discontinued, 
and the Council Extraordinary substituted in its place. 

Greene halt and turn oft" to Soiitli Carolina? 4. Where did Cornwal- 
lis go from Wilmington ? 5. Who comiimnded the North Carolina 
5 



98 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

6. In June, Governor Nash was succeeded in office by- 
Thomas Burke, of Orange. This bold and impulsive man 
undertook the guidance of public affairs but protested 
against any unconstitutional interference with the duties 
of his office. 

7. General Thomas Polk succeeded General Andrew 
Pickens in the command of the western militia about the 
time of the battle of Guilford. General Sumter obtained 
a large proportion of his command from these same men 
of Mecklenburg and Rowan. Colonels William Polk, 
Wade Hampton and Hill procured the men of their bat- 
talions principally from the same prolific and patriotic 
region of North Carolina. 

8. The Assembly elected Benjamin Hawkins, of War- 
ren, to the Continental Congress in place of Cornelius 
Harnett, who had been captured b}^ Major Craig and was 
to die in captivity. General John Ashe was likewise pur- 
sued in his retirement, and, after tedious confinement and 
the loathsome horrors of small-pox, also fell a victim to 
the cruelty of the heartless tyrant. He was released, but, 
broken in heart and body, he reached the house of his 
friend, Colonel John Sampson, only to die. 

9. With the capture of Wilmington, the Tories from 
the Yadkin to Neuse River arose for vengeance on the 
Whigs. Many of the latter left their homes for safety. 
Colonel Thomas Wade, with others, returned fi-om about 
New Bern, and were murderously assaulted and robbed 

Continentals in 1781? 6. Who succeeded Abner Nash as Governor? 
7. What South Carolina commands were largely composed of North 
Carolinians? 8. WTiO succeeded Harnett as member of the Conti- 
nental Congress? 9. What*is Siiid of Colonel Fanning and the To- 



THE REVOLUTION. 



99 



at Piney Bottom, in Cumberland. David Fanning be- 
came leader of the Tories in such movements and won 
an immortality of shame in his conjoined rapacity and 
slaughter of the people. 

10. His first exploit of importance was on July 18th, 
1781, when, with forty men, he dashed into Pittsboro and 
captured those who were there in attendance upon a 
court-martiaL He next assaulted and captured n party 
in the House of Colonel Philip Alston, in Chatliam. In 
August, he badly defeated a superior force of the Whigs 
under Colonel Wade at McFall's Mill. From this point, 
the daring partisan proceeded straight to Hillsboro, and, 
on the night of September 13th, surprised that village, 
where Governor Burke and other men of importance were 
taken prisoners. 

11. Fanning was bold, but well understood the neces- 
sity of instant retreat after this Last blow. He started for 
Wilmington with his captives, but found the way blocka- 
ded at Lindley s Mill, on Cane Creek in Cliatham county. 
It was a strong point of defence, and brave old Colonel 
Hector McNeill, who had fa.ced death at Culloden, shrank 
from the perilous task of dislodging the Whigs under 
General Butler and the brave Major Robert Mebane, 
Fanning's brutal taunts so stung the ancient Highlander 
that he charged at the head of the column and was slain 
with the first volle}^ 

12. Time and again were the Tories beaten back, until 
Fanning effected a crossing and attacked the Whigs in 
the rear. General Butler was demoralized and ordered a 

ries? 10. Wlien did lie capture Governor Burke? 11. Describe the 
b^ijttJe of Linlej's Mill. 12. WJio greatly distinguished himself in the 



100 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

retreat in spite of the remonstrances of Major ^lebane. 
He, forsaken by the greater portion of his comrades, held 
his jDosition until his ammunition was exhausted. This 
bloody and well-contested affair resulted in the deaths of 
more than one hundred men, and about fifteen hundred 
were engaged. 

13. Colonel Alexander Martin, of Guilford, as Speaker 
of the Senate, became the chief executive by virtue of his. 
office. He, like Burke, was an Irishman, and was more 
admired as a j)olitician than soldier. He was brother of 
Colonel James Martin, so prominent in tlie Scovilite and 
Cherokee expeditions. He had been succeeded in the 
command of the First North Caix)lina Continental Bat- 
talion by Colonel Thomas Clark, of New^ Hanover, 

14. The capture of Governor Burke was speedily fol- 
lowed b}^ a gallant feat on the part of the Whigs on the 
Cape Fear. Major Craig had established a strong outpost 
at Elizabethtown, where Lord Cornwallis had buried the 
gallant Colonel Webster so shortly before. Three hun- 
dred Loyalists, under Colonel John Slingsby, w^ere there 
as a garrison. Sixty brave men, under Colonel Thomas 
Brown, in the darkness of the night, forded the river, and, 
by ruse and desperate fighting, slew Colonel Slingsby and 
many of his men, and drove the others in wild disorder 
from the place. 

15. On the 8th of this same September, General Greene 
had again most nobly contested the field at Eutaw Springs, 
in South Carolina. His first line of battle consisted of 
Marion's, Sumter's and Colonel Pleasant Henderson's regi- 

engagement ? 13. Who became Governor during Burke's captivity ? 
14. What befell the Tories of Elizabethtown ? 1"), Pesenbe the bat- 



r 



THE REVOLUTION. lOJ 

ments, Lee's Legion, and Pickens' corps. These were first 
engaged and behaved well ; but the main fighting was 
done by the second line. This was composed of Sumner's 
brigade of North Carolina Continentals under Colonel 
John B. Ashe, Major Armstrong and Major Blount, with 
Virginians on the left and Marylanders in the centre. 
The British were driven from the field, and only escaped 
utter rout by siezing a large brick house, from which their 
fire was so destructive that General Greene forbore further 
attack. 

1(3. Tliis was the most stubborn and bloody battle of 
the war, in proportion to the numbers engaged. About 
two thousand men on each side were on the field, and of 
these twelve hundred were left upon the ground. Morq 
than half the American force v>'as from North Carolina. 

17. Major Craig, with four hundred regulars and three 
hundred royalist militia, * in company with Governor 
Josiah Martin, made an expedition to New Bern, but 
hastily retreated upon hearing of General Wayne's ap- 
proach with a Continental force. 

18. General Rutherford had been released but a short 
time when he collected the militia of the w^est to look after 
Major Craig in Wilmington. Major Graham routed the 
Tories on Rockfish, on October loth, and soon they con- 
fronted the works defending the approaches to the town 
on the Cape Fear. Without any combat, save some skir- 
mishes across the river. Major Craig, on November 19th, 
1781, too]?, to his ships; and thus ended British occupa- 
tion of North Carolina. 

tie of Eutaw Springs. IQ. What is said of the loss? 17. Who CvoYQ 
Major Crt^i^ from Wilraingtou ? IS, Wheii (.]kl British occupation 



102 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

19. After great and persistent efforts, the last armed in- 
vader was driven from the soil of the State, The people 
Jiad been beggared in the fierceness of the struggle. Want 
was on all sides, and in too many households sulTering 
had produced concessions in order to reach Major Craig's 
flesh pots at Wilmington. At last deliverance seemed 
close at hand. The tidings from Yorktown had gone out 
to the world, and Lord North was wildly exclaiming in 
London, " Oh God, it is all over," There was no longer 
ja fear that America would be subjected to such treatment 
.as had been vouchsafed unhappy Ix'eland, Not only 
w^ould Great Britain fail in the efl'ort to tax America, but 
the fairest jewel in the crown was forever lost, There 
liave been few sadder pictures than that of old King 
George repeating in his insanity, " Give me back my col- 
onies." 

20. Colonel W, R, Pavie Imd been then for more than 
a year the Commissary General of the Southern Army. 
General Thomas Polk had preceded him in the same of- 
fice. It became a matter of the utmost difficulty to feed 
and clothe the men in the American Army. The Conti- 
nental paper money had depreciated until it was almost 
worthless, while supplies of all kinds were made scarce 
by the interruptions and waste of the war. 

21. The war was virtually ended, The two British ar> 
mies in New York and Charleston were ordered by Sir 
Guy Carleton to abstain froni all offensive operations and 
to cultivate kind relations with the people. General 
Washington did not credit these pacific intentions, and 

of North Carolina cease? 19. Wliat did Lord North say? 20. What 
was Colonel Pavie's position in 1781 ? 31, When did the Revolution- 



THE REVOLUTION. 



103 



I 



exhorted the States to sustain their armies until peace 
should be formally declared. The English people were 
determined to shed the blood of tlieir American kindred 
no longer, and thus, though tlie King was about the last 
man in Great Britain to become reconciled to Colonial 
Independence, still the wishes of the nation prevailed. 

22. North Carolina had made many great sacrifices 
for the public good. Thousands had perished of disease 
contracted in the malarious climate of South Carolina. 
Many had fallen in the unrecorded neighborhood feuds 
of the Whigs and Tories. Tarleton declared in his book 
that, had the war long continued, with the same animos- 
ity between contending parties, the State would have been 
depopulated. 



ary War virtually cease ? 
substance ? 



What is said of the losses of men and 




104 HISTORY OF XOKTH CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER XA^ 

A. D. 17 82 TO 1784. 

The Results of a Cessation of Hostilities — David Fanning Excliulecl 
from mercy — Escape of Governor Burke and his Resinnption of 
Power— General Assembly of 1782— James Iredell leplaced as At- 
torney General by Alfred Moore— Bounty to General Greene and 
the late Continentals — State Trials at Salisbury— Davie and Moore 
—The North Carolina Bar— The ParisTreaty— Assembly of 1783— 
The Land officer — Return of tlie Refugee Tories— Weakness of 
the Confederation — General Howe and the Philadelphia Mob- 
Official Announcement of Peace— The Wlii*;-s and the Bar— The 
Cincinnati — Death of Governor Burke — Political Questions in 
1784— Judge Ashe ^nd the lawyers— Assembly of 1784— North 
Carolina tenders the Western Territory to the General Govern- 
ernment— Commissioners of Confiscation— Propriety of Magna- 
nimity. 

^1 FTER seven years of clanger, privation and wasting 
^^ anxiety, 1782 came in. as a season of rest and re- 
cuperation to the war-worn people of North Carolina. 
The Whig refugees returned to their ruined homes, and, 
with hopeful hearts, entered upon the Avork of restoration. 
Very different was the outlook of the unhappy Loyalists. 
Everywhere was peace but in the Scotch and Regulator 
settlements. In many instances vengeance was still in 
store for those who liad upheld the cause of the King, hut 
this state of affairs was princi})ally in the region indicated. 
2. No concession was made to David Fanning, and his 
efforts to secure oblivion for former misdeeds were una- 
vailing. In furious malice he wrought a bloody revenge 
for the capture and execution of several of his subordi- 
nates; and, double-dyed villian as he was, escaped all 



GOVERNOR BURKE. 105 

punishment for his crimes save banisliment from the land 
he had disgraced. 

3. Governor Burke escaped from his pLace of parole and 
resumed control in April. The Legislature did not just- 
ify this violation of his promise to the British authorities, 
but the studied and atrocious cruelty of his captors largely 
excused his desperate remedy. Upon his defeat for re- 
election as Governor he deeply brooded and sank to a 
premature grave. 

4. The Assembly of 1782 contained a number of debu- 
tants who were to achieve prominence in the future. 
Charles Johnson of Chowan, Mathew Locke of Rowan, 
Joseph Riddick of Gates, Benjamin Williams of Johnston, 
Edward Starkey of Onslow, and Richard Dobbs Spaight 
of Craven, were among them, and were all adorned with 
talent and patriotism. 

5. Judge Iredell had been replaced on the Superior 
Court Bench by John Williams, of Granville, and then 
had become Attorney General. In the latter position he 
was succeeded by Alfred Moore, of Wilmington. This 
great lawyer was the son of Judge Maurice JNIoore, and at 
the time of his appointment had but slight knowledge of 
the law. He was soon to become a leader of the North 
Carolina Bar, and was one of the greatest advocates of his 
day. 

6. The acts of confiscation against certain Loyalists 
mentioned in the bills, were again brought up, and the 

Questions - State what was the feeling toward tlie Tories in 1782 ? 
2. How did Fanning act? 3. What was Governor Burke's course as 
to his parole ? 4. Wiiat able men tirst appeared in tlie Assembly that 
year? 5. Who succeeded Judge Iredell on the bench, and who as At- 



106 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLIXA. 

estates in question directed to be sold. In lieu of pay and 
j^ensions to the Continental troops of the State, large land 
grants were made them in the Western Territory, now 
the State of Tennessee. Twenty-five thousand acres were 
settled upon General Greene, and half that much given 
to the Brigadiers of the North Carolina Continental Line. 

7. At the Spring Term of Rowan Court there were 
memorable prosecutions for treason. Moore for the State, 
and Colonel Davie for the defence, made brilliant reputa- 
tions as advocates, and at once passed to the highest hon- 
ors and emoluments of their profession. 

8. The North Carolina Bar yet contained Hooper, Mac- 
laine, Iredell, Johnston, Nash, and others, already famous 
before the war. John Hay of Fayetteville, John Penn of 
Granville, and John Sitgreaves of New Bern, constituted 
most worthy additions. 

9. On march 23d, 1783, the first news of the prelimi- 
nary treaty of peace between Great Britain and the Uni- 
ted States reached Philadelphia. It had been sent over 
by LafLiyette, who, in good will to the people he had shed 
his blood to assist, was now the first to transmit the glad 
tidings. 

10. In the Assembly of 1783, Colonel Charles and Jo- 
seph McDowell, Waightstill Avery, General Gregory, Ben- 
jamin Smith, and Alexander Mebane were debutants, and 
destined to political honors. Ex-Governor Caswell pre- 
sided in the Senate, and Edward Starke}^ in the House. 

torney GeneiMl? 6. What was done for the North Carolina Conti- 
nentals? 7. What two lawyers first became famous in the ti-ials for 
treason at Salisbury ? 9. Who sent the first news of peace to America? 
10. What is said of the Assembly of 17S3 ? 12. What feelings still con- 



GOVERNOR BURKE, 107 

11. A half million of dollars were voted to pay off the 
State's Continentals, and for redemption of outstanding 
bills. A land office was established in what is now Ten- 
nessee, and Colonel Martin Armstrong was made Surveyor 
for the State. Anthony Bledsoe, Absalom Tatom, and 
Colonel Isaac Shelby, as Commissioners, had already laid 
off the lands voted the officers of the Continental line. 
Willie Jones, Ben McCulloh, and Henry Montfort, all of 
Halifax, were constituted a Board of Audit to settle the 
soldiers' claims. 

12. With the departure of the British troops from New 
York and Charleston, under the treaty of peace, there 
were many Loyalists who returned to their old homes in 
North Carolina. It had been agreed that these men 
should not suffer for their adhesion to the King ; but too 
often the memory of past violence on their parts stirred 
up thoughts of revenge. The heat of conflict had been 
too great and recent for deliberate justice in the hearts of 
the triumphant Whigs. Even Judge Iredell, in drawing 
up the Edenton Resolutions, expressed the opinion that 
such refugees should not be permitted to return. 

13. The great political desideratum was some certain 
means of support of the General Government of the Uni- 
ted States. It was not only unable to pay the accrued in- 
terest on the war debt, but could not levy a dollar for cur- 
rent expenses. General Washington sent a circular letter 
to Governor Martin and the other executives of the States, 
but his appeal was unheeded, and the Articles of Confed- 
eration became of no account, in the helplessness of the 
fabric they had created. 

tinned to Loyalists? 13. What is said of the wants of the General 



108 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLIXA. 

14. Ruthless mobs in Philadelphia attempted to over- 
awe the Congress, and General Robert Howe, as his last 
conspicuous military act, brought them, by force, to a 
proper respect for constituted authority. Benjamin Haw- 
kins, Abner Nash, Hugh Williamson, and Richard Dobbs 
Spa'ight, were, at this time, elected members of the Na- 
tional Legislature. 

15. On January 14th, 1783, the glad tidings of peace 
and independence were authoritatively j^roclaimed by 
Thomas Mifflin, President of the Continental Congress, 
and the United States assumed its position among the na- 
tions of the world. A new jDCople, baptized in their own 
best blood, were about to commence the solution of many 
problems in human government. Mankind, already at- 
tracted by the character of General Washington, awaited 
further developments, and acknowledged that in him and 
his coadjutors the dignity of the whole human race had 
been magnified. 

16. With the full assurance of Independence to the 
Whigs in North Carolina, came a feeling of deeper hostil- 
ity toward the kte Loyalists. Many of these, trusting 
in the recent treaty stipulations, retained lawyers to de- 
fend their titles to confiscated property, and thus arose a 
wide resentment toward the legal profession. However, 
this feeling did not exist in tlie eastern counties. Colonel 
John Hamilton, who had so bravely led his regiment in 
the war on the side of the King, went back to full recog- 
nition and companionship in the cultivated circles at Hal- 
ifax. He and Willie Jones were close friends. Colonel 

Government? 14. Who quelled the Philadelphia mob ? 15. When 
was peace declared by President Mifflin? IG. What is said of John 



DEATH OF GOVERNOR BURKE. 109 

Hamilton had been noted for his kindness to all Whigs 
captured and amenable to his friendly offices. 

17. The feeling against the lawyers was particularly 
bitter in the hearts of a large number of the returned Con- 
tinental officers. The Society of the Cincinnati for the 
State met at Hillsborough April 18th, and elected Gene- 
ral Sumner as President. Colonel Lyttle, Major Reading 
Blount, and Major Griffith J. McRee, were sent as dele- 
gates to a general meeting at Philadelphia. The lawyers 
had their revenge in producing public distrust of this ex- 
clusive and aristocratic movement. 

18. Governor Burke, weighed down by physical infirm- 
ities and sorrow, died a few days before Christmas, and 
was mourned by a large number of admiring and devoted 
friends. His services and misfortunes atoned for all his 
mistakes, and his generosity was only remembered. There 
is but little doubt that mental anguish caused his death. 

19. The State elections of 1784 turned principally upon 
the terms of the British treaty in regard to absentees. 
Governor Nash and General Rutherford were leaders of 
those who disregarded the national engagements as to 
the Loyalists ; Johnston, Hooper, and Judge Iredell, were 
of opposite sentiments. 

20. Another exciting topic was the proposition to 
change the Articles of Confederation so as to allow Con- 
gress to levy a tax of five per cent, on foreign importa- 
tions. The General Government, as first formed, could 
not levy a cent, and was wholly dependent upon the in- 
dividual States for the means of its existence. 

Hamilton ? 17. How did the lawyers incur odium ? 18. What killed 
Governor Burke? 19. What political questions divided the people in 



110 HISTORY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

21. In addition to the feud between the lawyers and 
military men, bad feelings arose between Judge Ashe and 
certain members of the Bar, headed by John Hay. The 
quarrel was bitter and protracted, but ended in the dis- 
comfiture of the Cumberland jurist. 

22. The Assembly met at Hillsboro, April 9th, 1784, 
with Governor Caswell and Thomas Benbury as Speakers. 
Messrs. Johnston, Hooper, Maclaine, Willie and Allen 
Jones, Nash, Hill, Bloodworth, Coor, Rutherford, Starkey, 
AYilliam Blount, Macon, Johnson, Lenoir, Person, Rid- 
dick, and Mebane, wxre well known by previous service ; 
but Colonel Davie, Colonel John B. Ashe, and Stephen 
Cabarrus, were debutants in an arena in which they were 
all to grow famous. 

23. The General Government received North Carolina's 
assent to the request of power to levy imports. The State's 
delegates in Congress were likew^ise instructed to tender to 
the General Government the Western Territory belong- 
ing to North Carolina. Tl^is magnificent gift which ulti- 
mately became the State of Tennessee, was not accepted 
at tlie time, and the attempted munificence, as wall be 
seen, gave trouble to the mother State. 

24. As a further benefit to distinguisJied officers of the 
late Continental line, it w^as enacted by this Legislature 
that John Walker, Charles Bruce, Archibald L^^ttle, Nich- 
olas Long, Hardy ^lurfree, and G. J. IMcRee should be 
Commissioners to sell the lands confiscated as the property 
of absentee Loyalists. The fifth article of the Treaty of 

1784? 21. What is said of Judge Ashe and John Hay ? 22. Who pre- 
sided in the Assembly of 1784? 23. What did the Assembly ofter the 
General Government? 



CONFlSCxVTlON. Ill 

Paris was thus disregarded by North Carolina, as in other 
States, and was England's pretext for retaining possession 
of the western forts, and other violations of the compact. 

25. The forgiveness of injuries is the noblest but most 
difficult of human virtues. The men of this day would 
be apt to repeat this selfish and angry course of the vic- 
tors of the last century. It may be that greed and resent- 
ment will ever control human legislation, but it Avere far 
better to forget in peace the feelings engendered in war, 
and to cease from the punishment of individuals for the 
acts of whole communities. 




112 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

\ 

CHAPTER XVI. 

A. D. 1785 TO 1788. 

llicharcl Caswell ai^aiii becomes Governor — The General Government 
Declines the gift of Tennessee — Colonel Sevier attempts to make 
the new State of Frankland — Governor Caswell's Proclamation — 
Colonel Tipton— Assembly of 1785 — Troubles of the Confedera- 
tion — The Annapolis Convention Proposes a Convention of all 
the States— Cono-ress Ratifies the Proposition — As^emblj'of 1786 — 
Troops sent West— Deleo^ates to the Philadelphia Convention — 
Death of General Howe — Madison and Hamilton Advocate Difter- 
ent Systems for the New Government— Judge Ashe's Decision in 
Bayard and Wife vs. Singleton— The United States Constitution 
agreed upon at Pliiladelpliia— The Feelhig in North Carolina — 
Assembl}' of 1787 — Samuel Johnston becomes Governor — Members 
of Congress— Convention to Consider the United States Constitu- 
tion Ordered— The Elections — TheHillsboro Convention and non- 
Ratification. 

liCHARD Caswell again became Governor of North 
Carolina in 1785. William Blount and John 
Sitgreaves of Craven, Timothy Bloodworth of New Han- 
over, Adlai Osborne of Rowan, and Charles Johnston of 
Chowan, were chosen Delegates to the General Congress. 
Memucan Hunt was continued as State Treasurer. 

2. North Carolina, in noble unselfishness, had tendered 
the struggling government of the United States her mag- 
nificent Western Territory, as a free gift. The course of 
the New England States had thw^arted this act of intended 
munificence. Congress, through policy, declined the gift 
Until wiser counsels should prevail. 

3. That which had only been intended for the national 
good became a source of trouble and danger to the State. 



GOVEKNOK CASWELL. 113 

Colonel John Sevier, by brave service in the war and elo- 
quence in his addresses, persuaded the settlers in the new 
country that self-respect required them to assume control 
of their own affairs ; for that North Carolina, in the offer 
of cession, had renounced all care and control of them. 

4. In consequence a Convention met at Greenville in 
November, 1785, and erected a State Government, with 
Sevier as Governor. Governor Caswell issued a procla- 
mation declaring the proposed State of Frankland abor- 
tive, and only the outgrowth of rebellion. Colonel John 
Tipton and a large party upheld North Carolina's claim 
to jurisdiction, and, in this way, strife and bloodshed w^ere 
the results of the Old North State's devotion to the com- 
mon good. 

5. The General Assembly met in New Bern in Novem- 
ber, 1785, and selected ex-Governor Martin as Speaker of 
the Senate, and Richard Dobbs Spaight, of Craven, Speaker 
of the House. Eobert Montgomery, of Hertford, and 
Jesse Franklin, of Surry, were, for the first time, members. 
Amnesty was voted for Sevier and his supporters, and as- 
surance given that North Carolina would protect the peo- 
ple of the West until they were in fit condition for sepa- 
rate government. 

6. Each day was demonstrating the futility of the Ar- 
ticles of Confederation. The General Governmenf, under 
its provisions, could borrow money and create debt, but 

Questions.— 1. When did Richard Caswell a second thne become 
Governor of Xorth Carolina? 2. What prevented the acceptance of 
tlie State's offer of the Western Territory ? 3. What was the effect 
upon the people of the West? 4. Who led in the movement to create 
the State of Frankland ? 5. Wlio were Speakers and new members 



114 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

could not levy a dollar to meet such a liabilit}' . The 
mode of assessing the several States to pay off the general 
indebtedness was, that each should contribute according 
to its relative value of real estate. There was a proposi- 
tion in 1785 to substitute population for this test. White 
people and free blacks were to be counted according to 
their real number, but only three-fifths of the slaves were 
to be computed. This rule was to become one of the great 
compromises of the Constitution of 1787. 

7. With the coming in of 1786, four years had passed 
since the cessation of hostilities. With the removal of 
foreign restraint came unhappy jealousies among the in- 
dividual States. England neglected her promised cession 
of the western forts, and New Jersey refused any contri- 
bution to the general expense until New York should ac- 
cede to the proposed imposts. To the wisest and best 
men of that day the future was full of painful uncertainty. 
Grand prospects and opportunities seemed hourly to grow 
more remote and impossible. Jealousy and selfishness 
seemed to grow upon the individual States, while suspi- 
cion and calumny continually poisoned the public mind. 
The Society of the Cincinnati was at best a social broth- 
erhood, but was denounced as a conspiracy against the 
liberties of the people. The very men who had achieved 
the freedom of America were accused of a plot against it. 

8. These divisions and contentions led to the Annapo- 
lis Convention, in which the States of Virginia and jNhiry- 
land met to adjust matters peculiar to themselves. This 

of the Assembly of 178.") ? G. Wluit Is said of the weakness of the Gei - 
eral Government? 7. What were the feelings and conduct of the 
States under the Articles of Confederation ? 8. What is siaid of tlie 



» 



GOVERNOR CASWELL. 115 

was on September 11th, 1786. Before final adjournment, 
they resolved to rceoiuniend to the General Congress a 
Convention of all the States. Congress approved the sug- 
gestion and thus originated the present government of 
the United States. 

9. The General Assembly met at Fayetteville, Novem- 
ber ISth, and organized with James Coor, of New Bern, 
as Speaker of the Senate, and John Baptiste Ashe, of Hal- 
jfax, in the House of Commons. Mr. Coor had long been 
prominent for talent and wealth. He was not an orator 
like Colonel Ashe, but of consummate prudence and tact 
as a politician, The Speaker of the House was of a fam- 
ily long noted for patriotism, valor and ability. He was 
one of the six Ashes who had served in the late war. 

10. Governor Caswell directed attention to the condi- 
tion of affairs in the west, and three companies were or- 
dered to be raised for service in the disaffected region. 
The declared reason for their enrollment was to defend 
the settlement against Indian incursion, but more proba- 
bly they were to aid Tipton in his contest with Sevier. 

11. In consequence of the recommendation of the 
General Congi^ess, five Delegates were chosen to represent 
North Carolina in the Convention which was to meet in 
Philadelphia in the following May, These were Richard 
Caswell, William R. Davie, Alexander Martin, Willie 
Jones and Richard Dobbs Spaight, Messj^s. Caswell and 
Jones declined the high honor thus tendered, and Dr, 
Hugh Williamson, of Chowan, and William Blount, of 
Craven, took their places. Willie Jones disliked any of- 
fice but his place in the Assembly. 

AniiapoUs Convention ? 9, Who were Speakers in the Assembly of 



116 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

12. General Robert Howe was elected a member of this 
Assembly but sickeDed and died on his way, at the house 
of General Thomas Clark. General Howe had attained 
high distinction in arms and was greatly respected, botli 
as a soldier and statesman. 

13. Timothy Bloodworth, William Blount, Benjamin 
Hawkins, and Alexander White, were elected by the As» 
sembly as members of the Continental Congress. 

14. The new year, 1787, dawned with gracious portents 
upon America. Division and consequent impotence were 
soon to be replaced by wisdom, concert and the most won« 
derful material growth seen at any age of the world. Two 
great men in America headed the parties who differed as 
to the form and features of the new government. James 
Madison contended for popular power and large reserved 
rights in the States ; while Colonel Alexander Hamiltou 
advocated a strong central power and small control in the 
people. 

15. Much excitement was observable in 1787, over al» 
leged frauds by the military commissioners. At a Special 
Court, held at Warrenton, Benjamin McCulloh, one of the 
Commissioners, and three other men, were convicted and 
heavily fined and imprisoned. 

16. The omnipotence of the British Parliament had 
been often asserted, and many men in North Caroling, 
held that no power existed in the Courts to annul a stat> 
ute of the Assembly. This doctrine was overthrown in 

1786? 10. What was done as to the West? 11. Who were elected 
Delegates to Philadelphia ? 12. Who was General Howe, and where 
did he die ? 14. Who were leaders of American opinion as to the fea- 
tures of th.e proposed iiew government? 15, Who was convicted of 



GOVERNOR CASWELL. 117 

the celebrated decision of Judge Samuel Ashe, in the case 
of Bayard and wife against Singleton. The Assembly 
liad attempted to prevent all pei^ons from suing for con- 
fiscated property, which act was declared by the Court to 
be unconstitutional and void. 

17. The Convention in Philadelphia, after elaborate de- 
bate and deliberation, agreed upon a Constitution for the 
United States which was to be submitted to the several 
States and to be of force on those acceding to its provisions 
after being ratified by nine of the States. 

18. Judge Iredell was the most conspicuous and labo- 
rious advocate of the new government, in North Carolina, 
His wife's brother, Samuel Johnson, and William Hooper, 
Colonel Davie, Maclaine, General Allen Jone^ and E. D, 
Spaight, were all leaders in the same direction, Vv'illie 
Jones was unquestionably the head of those who at once 
resolved that North Carolina should not ratify the pro- 
posed Constitution until largely amended. 

19. In the Assembly of 1787 ex^Governor Martin presided 
in the Senate, and John Sitgreaves, of Craven, in the 
House. This was the first appearance of Major Joseph 
Winston, of Surry, He had been a gallant leader at 
King's Mountain and elsewhere, and, with Waightstill 
Avery and Colonel William Lenoir, had arranged the In- 
dian treaty of Long Island of the Holston, William 
Barry Grove of Cumberland, Colonel Nathan Bryan of 
Jones, and General Thomas Wynns of Hertford, VMive also 
enjoying their first political experience. 

20. General Caswell again retired from the executive 

fraud? 16. What did Judge Ashe decide? 17. Who were leading" 
Federalists and Repuhlicans? 20, Who succeeded Governor CnsweU ? 



118 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

office, and was followed by Samuel Johnston, of Chowan, 
as Governor. To great wisdom, learning and probity, he 
added large and varied experience in public affairs. No 
man was more respected, and the people of the State for- 
gave his distrust of their capacity for self-government in 
their knowledge of his great patriotism. Governor Jolni- 
ston was well descended, and possessed a large estate. 

21. Colonel Jolni B. Ashe of Halifax, Robert Burton of 
Granville, John Swann of Pasquotank, and Dr. William- 
son of Chowan, were elected Delegates to Congress. The 
jnost important action of this Legislature was the calling 
of a Convention to deliberate on the proposed Constitution 
of the United States. 

22. In April occurred the elections for the Convention. 
Willie Jones, and his friends throughout the State, made 
a bitter canvass against adoption, and defeated Hooper, 
General Jones, Governor Martin, William Blount, Alfred 
Moore, and Judge Williams. Such was the heat of the 
contest that General Thomas Person and others did not 
scruple to denounce General Washington for affixing his 
name to the Federal Constitution. 

23. The Convention to consider the Constitution met 
in Hillsboro on July 21st, 1788, The Republicans had 
elected a great majority of the delegates, but selected the 
chief of the Federalists, in the person of Governor John- 
ston, as President. Judge Iredell far surpassed any one 
in the.depth and brilliancy of his appeals in iiivor of the 
new Federal Constitution. Colonel Davie, Maclaine, John 
Steele, and the President, were eloquent to no purpose. 

21. Who wore elected memboi-s of Congress? 22. How cliil the Spring 
electioj)s result? 23, What i^ said of tlie Hillsboro Convention? 



GOVERNOR JOHNSTON. 119 

Willie Jones had abundant assurance of their defeat and 
smilingly declined to debate on the matter. He was ably 
sustained by Bloodworth, Colonel Joseph McDowell, Judge 
Spencer, Dr. Caldwell, and Elisha Battle. Upon a divi- 
sion the motion to ratify was defeated by a large majority. 
24. George Mason, of Virginia, and Jefferson, were anx- 
ious for the addition of important amendments, and whilo 
the latter was solicitous that nine States should ratify and 
thus secure the new Government, he was desirous that 
some should forbear long enough to secure the needed 
modification. 




120 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

A. D. 178S TO 1791. 

North Carolina Delaj^s Action as to Joining the Proposed Union — 
Seat of State Government fixed in Wake Countj'^ — Assembly of 
1788— United States Government Inau^^urated— The French Rev- 
olution Begins — Willie Jones fails in his Plans— Assembly of 1889 
— The Convention Ratifies the United States Constitution— Gover- 
nor Johnston and Colonel Hawkins United States Senators — 
Death of Governor Caswell— The University Established— Judges 
Iredell and Stokes — Judgs McKay and Attorney General Hay- 
wood— Assembly of 1790— Alexander Martin again Becomes Gov- 
ernor—Deaths of Hooper and Maclaine— The Dismal Swamp Ca- 
nal Party Issues — Troubles in the Courts — The Churches and 

Divines— General Washington's visit— Assembly of 1791— Stephen 

Cabarrus — General Lenoir — David Stone and W. J. Dawson 

The Court Ridings. 

^^feoRTH Carolina had not ratified the new Federal 
<|^^ Constitution at Hillsboro, but still had not positive- 
ly rejected it. A bill of rights and twenty-six amend- 
ments were suggested, and it was determined that the 
State should await the further action of sister Common- 
wealths in this all-important matter. 

2. The Convention had been empowered to settle upon 
a place as the seat of government in North Carolina. It 
had been nomadic previously, and this had produced 
much eviL The struggles of rival towns to secure the 
honor of the presence of the General Assembly, and the 
profits thereby accruing, occasioned great caballing and 
waste of public time. It was agreed tliat some point in 
the vicinity of the farm of Isaac Hunter, in the county of 
Wake, should be the site of the capital city. 



iiOVPrnXOR JOHNSTON. 121 

3. The Legislature met at Fayetteville, on November 
3rd, 1788, with Governor Martin and John Sitgreaves still 
the presiding officers of the two Houses. Among the new 
members were Major Joseph Graham of Mecklenburg, 
John Leigh of Edg€combe, Frederick Hargett of Jones, 
Thomas Devane of New Hanover and Edward Jones of 
the borough of Wilmington. 

4. The principal questions discussed were the new Con- 
vention bill and a proposed war upon the Indians of the 
West. Memucan Hunt was succeeded by John Haywood, 
as State Treasurer. General Joseph Martin was sent with 
a battalion against the Chicamauga Indians. 

5. The new government of the United States went into 
operation in the Spring of 1789. General Washington 
had commanded the armies that achieved independence, 
he had presided in the Convention which framed the Con- 
stitution, and was chosen the first President of the Nation. 
He took the oaths of office on April 30th. The 4th of 
March had been set for the meeting of Congress, but a 
quorum of the House of Representatives was not had un- 
til the 30th, and of the Senate until a week later. 

6. General Washington had not been in office a month 
when in France was seen the famous gathering of the 
States General at Versailles. The exam^^le of free Amer- 
ica had wrought a mighty upheaval in France and the 
Titans of coming disaster began their work of humbling 
the King and nobles in that ancient realm. The world 

Questions— What did the State await in reoard to the United 
States ConstitiUion ? 2. What did the Convention do about fixing the 
seat of government? 3. Who were Speakers and new members of 
Assembly in 1788 y 4. Who became State Treasurer? 5. WhoPres- 



122 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA . 

was to stand aghast as a mighty drama of blood and con- 
fusion unfolded its scenes. Soon, amid the darkness and 
stench of an insupportable night — ^as Avith the suddenness 
and glare of a meteor — was to arise the star of Napoleon. 

7. North Carolina, in the Fall of 1789, listened to the 
echoes of the French uproar, and grew more excited over 
the question of adopting- the Federal Constitution. Willie 
Jones was held responsible for the fact that the State was 
not yet in the Union, and the people revolted at his prop- 
osition to remain so for five years longer. Great efforts 
were made to defeat him in Halifax. General Ruther- 
ford was beaten in Rowan and withdrew to the West. 

8. The Assembly met at Fayetteville, November 2nd„ 
1789, and chose Charles Johnson, of Chowan, as Speaker 
of the Senate, and Stephen Cabarrus^ of the same count}^ 
to the chair of the House. The Convention met at the. 
same time and place> and re-elected Governor Johnston 
as President. The amended Constitution was ratified by 
a majority of one hundred votes,, and North Carolina 
took her place in the Federal Union. 

9. In the two Conventions that considered the United 
States Constitution five delegates were allowed each county 
and one for each borough. In the act of Assembly call- 
ing the last Convention^ tlie town of Fayetteville was re- 
commended to the body for the privilege of sending a rep- 
resentative to the House of Commons. This advice was 
adopted. 

10. Governor Johnston^ in addition to his multiplied 

jdent of the United States* 6. What occnri*efl In France ? 7. What 
leadei-s retired from public life? 8. What occurred at Faj^ctteville? 
9. What town became a boi'ouL'h ? 10. Wlio were Senators aud mem- 



aOVERNOE JOHNSTCm. 123 

honors, -was also elected the first United States Senator 
from North Carolina, and Benjamin Hawkins was made 
his colleague. Elections were also at once ordered for 
jnembers of the national House of Eepresentatives, and 
.Dr. Williamson, Colonel i.slie. General Steele, Timothy 
Bloodworth, and Colonel Sevier, were chosen by the peo- 
ple. 

11. Governor Caswell wsis serving as Sen^itor for Dobbs 
<count3^ when, on the third /Xay of the session, he was 
:stricken with pa.iialj^sis ^rhile in his seat during the pro- 
<:eedings. He never spoke after his attack, and, lingering 
till November lOth^ Ixe expired amid the regrets of the 
'whole people of th^ Btate. After long, varied and illus- 
trious service, he died in the discliarge of public dutj. 
;Since 1754 he had been tho constant occupant of great 
positions. He was wise as Johnston, versatile as Davie 
and more variouslj honored than any other man in the 
history of Nojth Carolina. 

12. This Legislature was f^arther signalized by the es- 
tablishment of the University of North Caroliiua. To Col- 
onel Davie jesp^cially belongs tho honor of thus fulfilling 
the requirements of the Halifax Constitaztion, The dis- 
tinguislied men of the State were constituted a Board of 
Trustees; and thus origiiiated this ancient and widely re- 
:nowned Beat of learning at Chapel Hilh 

13. General Washington appointed James Iredell, of 
C'howan, one of the Associate Justices of tli^ Supreme 
€ourt of the United States. William Blount, of Craven, 
^vas nxade Governor of the Western Territory, which had 

fopi-s of Congress? 11. Who died November 10th, 1789? 12. What 
^.!ege jv.9,>;e;6.t9,bllsl)ed.? 13^ What Federal appohitments were made 



124 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



ohiiB 



been eeclccl and was to be known as Tennessee. John' 
Stokes, of Montgomery, became Judge of the United States 
District Court for North Carolina, with William H. Hill, 
of New Hanover, as District Attorney. 

14. By statute, another judicial district was created in 
North Carolina, and Spruce McKay, of Rowan, became 
the fourth Judge of the Superior Courts. A new law offi' 
cer, known as the Solicitor General, was created, and the 
place given to Edward Jones, of Wilmington, This led 
to the resignation of Attorney General Alfred Moore, and 
he was replaced by the able and learned John Haywood^ 
of Halifax. 

15. In the Assembly of 1700, Colonel William Lenoir, 
of Wilkes, became Speaker of the Senate, and Mr. Cabai> 
rus continued to preside in the House, There was much 
feeling in the Assembly against the United States Sena* 
tors from North Carolina on very insufficient grounds. 

16. Alexander Martin, of Guilford, a third time became 
Governor of North Carolina. He triumphed over Colonel 
Davie, and other old Continentals, in his political suc- 
cesses. They did not admire his military conduct and 
ridiculed his bad poetr3\ Governor Martin was a bache- 
lor all his days, 

17. There was general sorrow at the death of the great 
orator and jurist, William Hooper. He expired at his 
home in Hillsboro on October 14th, 1790, and was speed- 
ily followed by his learned compeer, Archibald ]\hiclaine, 
of Wilmington. Willie Jones, too, had retired from po^ 
litical life and was living in retirement in Wake. He 

in North Carolina ? 14. Who was the new State Judge? 15. Who 
were Speakers of Assembly In 1790? 16, WhoUoveruov? 17, Wh;\t 



GOVERNOB MARTIN, 1^5 

was sorely tried at being overruled in the early adoption 
pf the United States Constitution, and was no more to ap- 
pear oil the arena in which he had been so long a great 
actor. 

18, The most important act of the legislature of 1790, 
was the charter of the Dismal Svyanip Canal, Joseph and 
Benjamin Jones, of Pasquotank, had been for years advo^ 
eating this project, and Colonel George Washington, i^ 
1763, had explored the swamp to Lake Drummond and 
pronounced the project feasible, 

19, The life of every free people is of necessity filled 
with more or less of contention. Colonel Hamilton's pol- 
icy, as Secretary pf the Treasury, created a wide diver- 
gence of views. The Federalists applauded his bold 
pchemes of financial restoration, while the Republican^ 
strenuously resisted them as dangerous and upconstitu- 
tional Even the majesty and long service of General 
Washington did not secure his adniinistration from the 
fiercest criticism. Especially was objection made to the 
proposition for the General Government to assume the 
debts of the several States, Massachusetts had produced 
Shay's Rebellion in a noble effort to relieve the common 
indebtedness, and it was insisted that it would be gross 
injustice to reward the delinquent States to her disadvan-. 
tage. 

20, To increase the anxiety of the new Federal Govern- 
ment, there was serious menace of trouble in the clashing 
of State and Federal Courts. In North Carolina was a 
case, in which Josiah Collins, of Edenton, as executor of 

other clistinguishetl men died in October, 1789? 18. What canal was 
Qhi^rteretl ? 19, Wh?it was said o| (.he iiew TJnited States Goveranient? 



126 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

Bobert Smith, had been sued by the English heirs of his 
testator. This case was in the Superior Coiirt, and upon 
the plea of coufiscation set up by Collins, the plaintiffs 
sought relief in the United States Circuit Court, Upon cer^ 
tiorari, the State Judges had refused to send up the case, 
and the Legislature at Fayetteyille had passed a vote of 
thanks for their so doipg, m\ 

21. During the progress of the Revolutionary War, 
there had been au interruption of all extended church or^ 
ganizations in North Carolina. The Kehukee Baptist 
Association had been established in 1765, and the Pres* 
bytery of Orange in 1770. In 1788 the Syjiod of the Car» 
olinas was set off, In 1789, a Cojivention of the Episco* 
pal Diocese of North Carolina met at Tarboro and elected 
Kev. Charles Pettigrew, Bishop ; but, by reason of yellow 
■fever in Philadelphia, there was no meeting of Bishops, 
and so Mr. Pettigrew died before consecration. 

22. Geiieral Washington made a tour of the Southern 
States in 1791, and was with Governor Max^tin at the 
stately palace built in Tryon's time, It had been strip= 
ped of the lead on the roof, aud otherwise shorn of its' 
former splendors. He returned from Savannah by ycaj 
of the western counties, • 

23. The Assembly met at New Bern in December, 179L 
Colonel Lenoir and Mr. Cabarrus again presided In theip 
respective Houses, Colonel William Polk had the session 
before opposed Mr. Cabarrus for Speaker, and it is re^ 
niarkable that one so popular and widely connected 
should have been defeated by a man who shortly be= 

20. What of the Courts? 21. What is said of the cluirelies? 
2S, Where m General W.-ishin^tou go \n 1701 ? 23. Wliat is sM of 



GOYEKNOR MARTIN. 127 

fore had come to the State an unknown foreigner. He 
was to continue in the Chair of the House for years to 
come, and to leave his name in the immortal keeping of 
one of tlie finest counties in the commonwealth. Colonel 
Lenoir had not such qualities of elocjuence and address, 
but in his modest yet brave adhesion to what he believed 
was right, he went through life with the same valiant 
simplicity he manifested, when leading his men upon 
their quarry at King's Mountain. 

24. Bertie sent two strong young men in David Stone 
and William Johnston Dawson. Willis Alston, of Hali- 
fax was also to attain distinction in State and Federal 
politics. Among the statutes was one confirming Judge 
Iredell's revisal of the statutes. Another provided for a 
new Seal of State. Lenoir, Glasgow, Buncombe and Per- 
son counties were erected. 

25. The Superior Courts were at this time divided into 
Eastern and Western Ridings. Morganton, Salisbury, 
Hillsboro and Fayetteville constituted the one, and Hali- 
fax, Edenton, New Bern and Wilmington the other. Two 
Judges, with the Attorney General, attended the Eastern, 
and two with the Solicitor General the Western Riding. 
The old colonial habits still prevailed. The Judges in- 
sisted upon the wearing of gowns in open court, and 
would allow^ no lawyer to address them unless so arrayed. 

Colonel Lenoir and Mr. Cabarrus. 24. Who were distinguished mem- 
bers, and what important statutes passed in 1791 ? 25. What is said 
of the Courts ? 



128 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER XA^II. 

A. D. 1792 TO 1796. 

Jefferson and Hamilton Disagree as to the Construction of the United 
States Constitution— Assembly of 1792— Alexander Martin, Uni- 
ted States Senator— Kichard D. Spaight Governor — The Legisla- 
ture adopts the Report Locating the City of Raleigh— Members of 
Congress — North Carolina under the First Apportionment — As- 
sembly of 1793— The North Carolina Militia— Extra Session of the 
Assembly — The Forts— General Washington— Assembly of 1794— 
Death of Judge Spencer — John Haywood, of Halifax — The Slaves 
— The Political Parties— Assembly of 1795 — Congressmen— Sam- 
uel Ashe becomes Governor— State of Feeling- The French Up- 
roar — Washington Retires. 

^^HE year 1792 was characterized by a continuance of 
*^^, political discontent, and military defeat in the North- 
western 'Territory. Both Generals, Harmar and St. Clair, 
had come to grief in their Indian expeditions. Jefferson 
and Hamilton, though members of the same Cabinet, so 
differed in their construction of the United States Consti- 
tution that the divergence of the Republican and Federal 
parties was continually becoming more marked. The 
former was strict and the latter loose in construction of 
the vested powers. 

2. The Assembly met at New Bern, November 15th, 
1792, with the same presiding officers as of the last session. 
Charles Johnson of Chowan, Alfred Moore of Brunswick, 
Mussendine Mathews of Iredell, and Joseph Graham of 
Mecklenburg, were the most prominent members. It v/as 
the first session of John Louis Taylor, of Cumberland, as 
also of Joshua Granger Wright, of Wilmington, Avho were 
both to become renowned as jurists. 



GOVERNOR SPAIGHT. 129 

o. Governor Alexander Martin was elected to succeed 
ex-Governor Samuel Johnston in the United States Senate, 
and Richard Dobbs Spaight became Chief Executive of 
North Carolina. He was remarkable in more respects 
than the fact that he was the first native-born son of the 
State who presided over its fortunes. He had high de- 
scent, brilliant talents and abiding popularity. 

4. The report of tlie commissioners locating the city of 
Raleigh, which was to be the future seat of government 
of the State, was confirmed, and the farm of Colonel Joel 
Lane, at Wake Court House, was the spot selected. Al- 
though one session of the Legislature had been held there 
before chosen for the capital, it was a mere hamlet. It 
had required several years after the passage of the ordi- 
nance by the Hillsboro Convention of 1788, to procure the 
necessary preparations as to accommodation for the As- 
sembly and State officers. 

5. The Congressional elections of 1793 were marked by 
violent excitement. Dr. Williamson was replaced by 
William J. Dawson, a grandson of Governor Gabriel John- 
ston. Thomas Blount of Edgecombe, John B. Ashe of 
Halifax, James Gillespie of Duplin, William B. Grove of 
Cumberland, ^lathew Locke of Rowan, Nathaniel Macon 
of Warren, Joseph McDowell of Burke, Alexander Me- 
bane of Orange, Benjamin Williams of Moore, and Jo- 
seph Winston of Surr}^, were his colleagues. 

6. It is to be remarked that under the first apportion- 
ment North Carolina had been allowed but five members 

Questions.— What was the State of affairs in 1792 ? 2. Who pre- 
sided that year in the Assemblj^? 3. Who became Governor in place 
of SamuelJohnston? 4. Where was Raleigh located ? 5. Who were 



130 HISTORY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

of the lower branch in Congress. That number was 
doubled by the first census returns, although Tennessee 
had been ceded in the meanwhile, and not computed, as 
before, as part of the State. Thus it has ever been, by 
the General Government and sister States, to depreciate 
and undervalue North Carolina until the sternest of facts 
are adduced in her vindication. 

7. The Assembly of 1793 continued Colonel Lenoir as 
Speaker of the Senate, but chose John Leigh, of Edge- 
combe, as presiding officer of the House of Commons. 
Colonel Davie, Major Graham, General Riddick, and Gen- 
eral Wynns were prominent members of this body. 

9. Under the laws of the United States for the estab- 
lishment of an uniform militia, a statute provided for the 
enrollment of the men of the State, into regiments, brig- 
ades and divisions. The new Seal was approved and or- 
dered to be used in all public acts. 

10. The grave danger of war with Great Britain and 
France produced an extra session of the Assembly at New 
Bern, July 7th, 1794. Lands were ceded to the General 
Government for the erection of forts, and the State's quota 
of troops, under the recent act of Congress, was provided 
for. The insolence of the French agents was beyond be- 
lief, while Great Britain not onl}^ retained possession of 
Detroit, and otlier military posts, but commenced search- 
ing American ships at sea and impressing seamen there- 
from. 

11. General Washington reluctantly marched troops 

elected Congressmen in 1793? 6. What is said of the increase in 
members ? 8. Who presided, and who were leading members of As- 
sembly in 1793? 9. What is said of the militia? 10. What war was 



OOVERNOR SPAIGIIT. 131 

against those engaged in the Pennsylvania Whiskey Re- 
bellion. His display of force crushed all opposition and 
there was no blood shed. Among those who were arrested 
as ring-leaders in the disturbance, was Herman Husbands, 
who had in earlier years been so prominent in fomenting 
rebellion in North Carolina, He was released through 
the efforts of Benjamin Rush and Rev. Dr. David Cald- 
well, of Guilford, who happened to be visiting Philadel- 
phia at the time. 

12. The Assembly of 1794 met at the City of Raleigh, 
on December 30th. There was no change in the presid- 
ing officers of the two Houses. Benjamin Smith of Bruns- 
wick, General John Steele of Rowan, and Peter Forney of 
Lincoln, were among the prominent members. 

13. Judge Spencer, of the Superior Courts, had died in 
a most singular manner. He was greatly enfeebled by 
disease and had been placed in the shade of a tree in his 
yard, when a turkey-gobbler, attracted by some red flan- 
nel in his clothing, became enraged and beat him with 
beak and wings until he sank under the injuries. He 
was a man of good natural abilities but lacking in culture 
and refinement. 

14. The vacancy thus occasioned was filled by one of 
the greatest lawyers then in America. John Haywood, 
of Halifax, as has been seen, succeeded Alfred Moore as 
Attorney General. He was elected to Judge Spencer's 
place, and brought profound learning and great natural 
acuteness to the discharge of his judicial duties. 

tlircatened? 11. Who was imprisoned for complicity in the Whiskey 
Rebellion? 12. Who presided at the session of 1794? 13. How did 
Judge Spencer come to his death ? 14. Who was made Judge in his 



132 HISTORY OF XORTH CAROLIXA. 

15. The second act of the Legislature was to provide 
heavy penalties upon any one bringing slaves to North 
Carolina for the purpose of selling or hiring them. No 
obstacle was opposed to emigrants from other States bring- 
ing m their servants. The Presbyterian Synod two years 
later expressed the opinion that it would redound to^'hap- 
pmess to emancipate, but discouraged inflammatory pul- 
pit denunciations. Jefferson had provided for freedom in 
his ordinance for the Northwest Territorv, and Southern 
sentiment was fast developing into justice to the colored 
race. Abolition petitions and remonstrances were to 
check this outgrowth of generosity. Sectional pride and 
resentment were to supplant justice and magnanimitv un- 
til, m angry intolerance, Southern men would refuse to 
have the subject discussed. This was to be justified by 
Nat. Turner's insurrection. It was to be held dangerous 
and seditious to canvass a great matter of human right 
and It is lamentable to add that a want of charity on both 
sides soon grew up in the great dispute concerning the 
disposition of the black people. 

16. The year 1795 but increased the divisions between 
the Federalists and the Republicans of North Carolina 
Mr. Jefferson, though a member of General Washington's 
Cabinet, was by no means a friend to manv of its meas- 
ures. Colonel Monroe, as Minister to France, exhibited 
the same spirit of opposition to the policy of the Admin- 
istration. 

17. The Assembly of 1795 met in Ealeio-h, on Novem- 
ber 3rd, and selected^ enjai^^ ^^ 

place ? 15. What was enacted as to Iniportatiou of slaves into North 
Carohna? IG. What is said of politics? 17. Who were Benjamin 



GOVERNOK bTAlGHT. 133 

Speaker of the Senate, and John Leigh, of Edgecombe, as 
Speaker of the House of Commons. Mr. Smith was a pa- 
triotic and impulsive man. He made great gifts to the 
infant University, and was largely honored in his day. 
Speaker Leigh was of cooler temperament and noted for 
his ability and discretion, 

18. General Thomas Person, of Granville, also bestowed 
a present of thirty thousand acres of land to the Stat© 
College. This institution was this year commenced at 
Chapel Hill. Colonel Davie, as Grand Master of the Ma- 
sons in North Carolina, had laid the corner-stone of the 
first building and the Rev. Dr. McCorkle made an ad- 
dress ; this occurred in 1793. In February, 1795, Rev. 
David Kerr and Samuel A. Holmes, as a faculty^ began 
teaching. Hinton James, of Wilmington, was the first 
student, who was admitted. 

19. The elections of 1795 resulted in the choice of 
Thomas Blount of Edgecombe, James Gillespie of Duplin, 
W. B. Grove of Cumberland, Mathew Locke of Rowan, 
Nathaniel Macon of Warren, Nathan Bryan of Jones, 
Dempsey Burgess of Camden, William Chadwicke and 
James Holland of Sampson, Jesse Franklin of Surry, and 
Absalom Tatom of Orange, as members of Congress, 
Timothy Bloodworth was elected by a majority of one 
vote over Alfred Moore to the United States Senate, in 
place of Colonel Hawkins. 

20- Judge iSamuel Ashe became Governor of the State 
in place of R. p. Spaight. Governor Ashe brought large 
experience and much native ability to the discharge of his 

Smith and Jol?n Lei^h ? 18. Whsii did the University commence op- 
erations? UK Wl}0 ^ye\•e the Congressmen elected in 1795? 20. Who 



184 HISTOKY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

high duties, and continued the long established honors 
belonging to his family. He was an ultra-Republican in 
his views, and was one of those who never doubted the 
capacity of the people for self-government. 

21. In the few dim memorials, now surviving, of po- 
litical action in North Carolina during 1790, there is 
enough to show^ that the State shared in the general ex- 
citement of the world, touching the French Revolution. 
Change and upheaval w^ere confounding the men of Eu- 
rope. America had inspired France wdth the desire of 
liberty, and that gallant people were become the armed 
assertors of universal freedofti. Their armies were strik- 
ing dow^n the dismayed Kings, and Napoleon Bonaparte, 
as their leader, was to rival the successes of Alexander 
and Csesar. 

22. Because France had assisted America in the w^ar 
with King George III., and was also upholding popular 
rights, it was insisted by many Americans that the Uni- 
ted States should join in the crusade against the Kings 
and make common cause wdth these disturbers of the gen- 
eral peace. General Washington, witli that rare wisdom 
and forbearance which ever marked his actions, resolutely 
opposed any intangling alliance wdth France, and, by the 
weiglit of his great name, held back his people from so 
ruinous a policy. He w^as foully maligned, but was im- 
movable in this patriotic purpose. 

23. He was soon to retire from public life, and set an 
example w^hich has yet been imitated by all his successors 

became Governor of North Carolina after Spaio^ht ? 21. Wliat is s.iid 
of Freneli affairs ? 22. What did General Wasliinoton resist? 23. 
Why did lie refuse to be President a third time, 



GOVEllKOR ASHE. 135 

in office, of refusing to be a candidate after serving two 
terms as President of the United States. Diocletian and 
Charles Y. had laid down the rods of empire, when dis- 
gusted with long rule ; but the majestic American had 
the thought of his duty to God and the people he had so 
long served, as his motive in this rare and noble resolu- 
tion. He had been first both in war and peace, and by 
this act more than ever became supreme in the affections 
of his countrymen. 




136 mSTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

A. D. 17 96 TO 1799. 

Assembly of 17&6— The Tennessee Line-General Washington's FareH 
well Address— John Adams— N'orth Carolina Congressmen— As- 
sembly of 1797— General Washington Resumes the Command of 
the Army— The Alien and Sedition Laws— Assembly of 1799— 
Secretary Glasgow and Martin Armstrong— John Haywood— Al- 
fred Moore and John Lonis Taylor, Judges— General Davie Gov- 
ernor— Elections in 1800- Land Frauds— Social Status— Assembly 
of 1800— Judge Williams Dies— So do George Washington and 
Judge Iredell— Judge Alfred Moore— Governor Williams— North 
Carolina Bar. 

^ENJAMiN Smith, of Brunswick, and Mussendine Ma- 
\ thews, of Iredell, were Speakers of the Assembly of 
796. The Fall elections had been bitterly contested. 
Willie Jones, Governor Spaight, and other prominent Re- 
publicans, were defeated. General John Gray Blount of 
Beaufort, George Outlaw of Bertie, Waightstill Avery of 
Burke, General Person of Granville, Colonel Davie of 
Halifax, William White of Lenoir, General Graham of 
Mecklenburg, J. G. Wright of Wilmington, Colonel Ashe 
of New Hanover, and General Wynns of Hertford, were 
the most prominent members. 

2. Colonel Joseph McDowell of Burke, David Vance of 
Buncombe, and Mathews of Iredell, were made commis- 
sioners to run the line between North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee. 

3. With the 4th of j\Iarch, 1797, closed the last admin- 
istration of General Wasliington. In his Farewell Ad- 
dress to the nation, the same wisdom and patriotism that 




GOVERNOR ASHE. 137 

had marked all his public acts were manifest. John Adams, 
of Massachusetts, became his successor in office, and was 
to present a marked contrast to the great A^irginian. 
President Adams was able, eloquent and patriotic, but 
lacking in moderation and patience under opposition. 

4. The Congressmen elected that year, were Thomas 
Blount, Nathan Bryan, Dempsey Burgess, W. B. Grove, 
Mathew Locke, Nathaniel Macon, Joseph McDowell Rich- 
ard Stanford and Robert Williams. 

5. In the Assembly of 1797, there were no changes in 
the presiding officers. An act was passed for investiga- 
tion into the offices of James Glasgow, who had been Sec- 
retary of State since 1776, and of Major John Armstrong, 
Commissioner of Land Patents. John Craven, of Halifax, 
was put in charge of the papers in the latter office until a 
committee could investigate and report as to alleged 
frauds practiced by the officials mentioned. 

6. The conduct of the French Directory had been such 
that war seemed unavoidable in 1798. Under act of Con- 
gress, General Washington again became Commander-in- 
Chief of the American Army. William Richardson Davie 
was created Major General and commander of North Car- 
olina's portion of the national force. A few battles at sea 
between American and French ships of war were the only 
outgrowth of the formidable preparations. 

7. The conduct of French apologists and certain news- 
papers in the nation, greatly excited President Adams 
and the men of the party known as Federalists. Two 

Questions.— What is said of the elections in 179G? 2. Who suc- 
ceeded General Washington jis President? 5. Whose frauds were in- 
vest i^iated in 1707 ? G. Who was made General of the North Carolina 



138 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

laws, called the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed by 
Congress. The first of these enabled the public authori- 
ties to summarily expel obnoxious foreigners, and the 
second, in effect, destroyed the freedom of the press. 

8. Thomas Jefferson, then Vice-President of the United 
States and leader of the Republican party, was not slow 
to take advantage of the excitement produced by this 
harsh legislation. Virginia and Kentucky, through their 
Assemblies, hastened to condemn the acts in question and 
to threaten resistance. In North Carolina, a similar™ 
movement in the General Assem])ly was so sternly resist- 
ed by General Eiddick, Senator from Gates, that the reso- 
lutions were laid upon the table. 

9. In the Assembly of that year there was no change 
as to the Speakers of the last Legislature. John Stanly, 
of New Bern, made his first appearance in the House of 
Commons, and at once became the leader of the North 
Carolina Federalists. He was possessed of brilliant talents 
but great infirmity of temper. 

10. Under act of Assembly, a Court was held in Raleigh 
to try the land frauds of Glasgow and Armstrong. Judge 
Haywood, on his way to preside, was induced, by a great 
fee, to resign as Judge and undertake the defence of the 
off'enders. Glasgow was found guilty and lost his office 
and the fair name he had won. The county called in his 
honor was named for General Greene ; and Glasgow was 
added to the list of those wlio have forfeited a great name 
for dishonest gain. 

11. Alfred Moore and John Louis Taylor were made 

forces ill 1798? 7. Wh:it were tlie Alien and Sc'ditioii laws? 8 What 
followed their enactment? 0, Who was John Stanly ? 10. What is 



GOVERNOR DAVIE, 139 

Judges in place of John Haywood and Pavid Stone, who 
had also resigned from the Superior Courts, They had 
been great advocates, and were to be renowned Judges, 
Learning, genius p.nd integrity were combined in all their 
exalted lives, and they became the pride and ornaments 
of the State, 

12, General Pavie succeeded Governor Ashe as Chief 
Magistrate of North Carolina, in 1798, The new Gover^ 
nor was the greatest orator in the commonwealth. He 
was more splendidly endowed than almost any man in 
America, and v/as as formidable in debate as he had been 
in the field, 

X3, The elections in North Carolina, as elsewhere in 
the nation, resulted in the irretrievable overthrow of th^ 
Federalists. Willis Alston, Sr., of Halifax, Joseph Dick- 
son of Puplin, Archibald Henderson of Howan, W. B, 
Grove of Cumberland, Judge Stone of Bertie, General 
Williams of Surry, William H.. Hill of New Hanover, 
Nathaniel Macon of Warren, Governor Spaight of Craven, 
and Richard Stanford, were chosen as members of Con- 
gress by the people, and Jesse Franklin, of Surry, was 
made United States Senator in place of Timothy Blood- 
worth. ]\Ir. Franklin was not a shining orator, nor re^- 
nowned for learningj but in the simplicity and directness 
pf his character typified the noble and devoted people 
who loved to do him honor. 

14. The land frauds at home, and the French uproar 
fibroad, were the staples of thought and discussion to the 
men and women of North Carolina in 1799. Napoleon 

said of James Glaso^ovv ? 11. Who were made Judges ? 12. Wlio was 
Governor Piter Samuel Ashe? 13. What party w^s oYerthroVin Ju 



140 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

had become First Cousul when Goyernor Davie, as one of 
the American Envoys, went over to arrange the vexed 
questions between the two repi\blics, 

15. Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee, h^d all become 
States, and a great flood of imniigration was pouring into 
the imperial lap of the Northwest. This last year of the 
XVIII, century was perhaps the golden age of social 
enjoyment in North Carolina. The Quakers were the 
only abolitionists, and nothing had given ^ hope of free- 
dom to the slaves or jealousy to the masters. The colored 
yace, except in the houi's of worfc, were, in a large meas-. 
ure, untrammelled as to social enjoyments. They parties 
ipated largely in the festivities of the wealthiest whites, 
^nd were free to conduct their religious ceremonies ac^ 
cording to their own wishes. Some colored preachers 
were extensive travellers, and one, known ^s Blind SarUj 
traversed a large portion of the State on his inissions. 

16. The Legislature met November 19th, and continued 
the presiding officers of the previous session. As Gove;*^ 
nor Davie had accepted the Frt^nch Mission, Benjamin 
Williams, of Moore, was chosen by the Assembly as his 
successoi\ The new Governor was a plain man of small 
pretensions, He was simple ancl modest, and irrepi'oach" 
able. 

17. Judge Williams, afte?; long service in the Courtsi, 
had come to his death in October. He was a most worthy 
and amiable man, and was succeeded by one of f^r greater 
powers in the 23ei\son of ev^Governor Samuel Johnston. 
This was to be the last public employment of this venere 

the elections ? 14. Who went as envoy to France? 15. AVliat is said 
Qf t,\\e colored people ? IG, Who becanie Croveviior a^ter Gen, D^vle? 



GOVERNOR WILLIAMS. 141 

able and illustrious patriot, who had been conspicuous in 
North Carolina evev since the time of Governor Dobb^. 
Both Willie Jones and General Person were dead, and 
Judge Iredell was soon to follow. 

IS. The greatest and saddest loss of America occurred 
with the closing in of the ceutury, at Mount Vernon, 
With the supreme decorum which had characterized his 
whole life, General Washington lay down to his last sleep, 
to be remembered forever as the noblest and best of the 
Iniman race. No man in all history had so realized the 
dreams of philosophy or so completely vindicated the 
possibility of excellence. Brave without ostentation, a 
patriot without selfishness, he was yet without a peer iTX 
all the records of the past, 

19, President Adams made Judge Alfred Moore th^ 
successor of Judge Iredell on the Supreme Court Bench, 
Judge Iredell had won the admiration of the American 
Bar, by the amount of his legal learning and the clears 
uess of his apprehensions. Judge Moore was not of such 
laborious habits, but was still enough of a studeut to com-, 
mand the respect of the greatest lawyers, 

20. Great learning and eloquence were to be found in 
the Bar of North Carolina, Judge Haywood had gone to 
Tennessee; but William Gaston, Archibald Henderson^ 
and Archibald D. Murphy, were already in full practice, 
and William Cherry, of Bertie, was the next year to leave 
Chapel Hill and blaze like a meteor on the public gaze, 
John Stanly, Joshua G. Wright, and Peter Browne, were, 
also profound and accredited jurists, 

17. Who succeefled Judge Williams? 18. Who died at Mt. Vernon? 
19. What office was conferred ou AU'red Moore? 18. Wh?,t great lf\\v^ 



J42 JEJISTOET OF ^OXiTB. CAEOLiNi^, 

21. An injportai)t statute was passed in 3799 as to the 
Courts, Four ridiijgs \yerG estj^blished, s^nd the Judges, 
After circuit, required to meet in Ealeigh twice ^ year for 
consult-atjoji oyer ^ppe^ls a-nd adversaris, hs^vgo changes 
were also made ^s to duties of sheriffs and door-keepers. 
The silk gowns of the lawyers, ^wd the drawn swords ija 
front of tl^e judges were to be no longar required, 

yers were fcheu in l^ovth Ca,FoIiua.? 2h Wlmt^cbafli^es wayc nj^djj Ul 
thQ Cou>t£, 




GOVERNOR WILLIAMS. 143 

CHAPTER XX. 

A. D. 1800 TO 180 5. 

PR^sklojit Jcftci-son and tlio Alien and Sedition liaws— Assemblj^ of 
1800— VViJliam Gaston— Jiid.i>-e Stone— Cono^ressmen—Le<?islature 
of ISOl— Judij^es Sit(?reaves and Potter— Assembly of 1802— Death 
of Governor Spaioht— Whitney and the Cotton Gins— The Bertie 
Tuscaroras— Sedition among the Slaves— Members of Con«rress— 
Governor Johnston— Judge Locke— William Cherry and Freder- 
ick Xash— Re-election of Jeft'erson— Congressmen— Louisiana 

Governor Alexander— General Wellborn— French Intklelity and 
the Great Revival of 1802. 

{^§HE great Presidential struggle of the year 1800 re- 
^HH, suited in the election of Thomas Jefferson. The 
Alien and Sedition Laws were repealed, and the Federal- 
ists went out of power for all time. lh\ Jefferson was by 
no means so strict in his views as to the duty of adhering 
to the letter of the Constitution, when in the office of 
President, as he had been while leading the opposition, 
and was to acquire territory and transact other high state 
measures, for which tliere was no direct warrant in the or- 
ganic law. 

2. The Legislature of North Carolina met on Novem- 
ber 17tli, 1800, and selected General Riddick, of Gates, as 
Speaker of the Senate, and Stephen Cabarrus, of Chowan, 
Speaker of the House. William Gaston, of New Bern, 
then twenty-two years of age, was first serving in a public 
capacity. His Roman Catholic ftiith was not shared by 
any considerable portion of the people; but the i)nrity 
and rectitude of his life, added to cousunimate ability. 



144 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLIXA. 

soon won and retained the affection and trust of all parties 
in the State. 

3. This Assembly elected Judge Stone to the United 
States Senate, in place of Alexander Martin, who had 
voted for the Alien and Sedition Acts. Governor Martin 
had been long unerring in his perception of what should 
redound to his own popularity, but fatally blundered on 
this occasion. He was to linger in the State Legislature, 
but no more received the great political honors he had 
previously so often enjoyed. 

4. The Congressional elections resulted in the choice of 
Willis Alston, W. B. Grove, W. H. Hill, Archibald Hen- 
derson, James Holland, Nathaniel Macon, Richard Stan- 
ford, John Stanly, Robert Williams, and Charles Johnson 
as members of the House of Representatives. 

5. The General Assembly of 1801 convened November 
16th, with no change as to presiding officers. Among 
the young members were Lemuel Saw^^er of Camden, 
Henry Seawell of Wake, and James Turner of Warren. 
These were to become prominent and lasting in their in- 
fluence. 

6. John Sitgreaves had succeeded John Stokes as Judge 
of the United States District Court for North Carolina, 
and upon his death this 3^ear, was succeeded by Henry 
Potter, of Granville. Judge Potter, in blameless medi- 
ocrity, was to linger for more than a half century in this 
important office. 

Questions.— What was the result of the election in 1800 ? 2. What 
great men tir.<t appeared that j-ear in public life? 3. WHio was made 
United States Senator in plaee of Govei-nor Martin? (. Who were 
Coiigressuien in 1800? 5. Who appeared in the Assembly of 1801? 



GOVERNOR TURNER. 145 

7. The Assembly of 1S02 convened on the second Mon- 
day in November, and chose the same presiding officers. 
Benjamin Williams, of Moore, was succeeded as Governor 
by James Turner, of Warren. Among Governor Wil- 
liams' last official acts was the pardon of John Stanly for 
the killing, in a duel, of ex-Governor Richard Dobbs 
Spaight. This deplorable affair occurred on Sunday, 
September 5th, 1802. It grew out of a disagreement con- 
cerning the bitter personal differences arising between 
these two distinguished men in the course of a political 
canvass. 

8. The Assembly, among its enactments, passed an act 
for the benefit of Phineas Miller and Eli Whitney, the 
patentees of the then recently invented cotton gin. Whit- 
ney was a New England man, who had gone south to 
teach school and had contrived a machine which was to 
affect the commerce of the world, and to add greatly to 
the value of slave labor. 

9. Another act of this session, in its preamble, recites 
that the Indian Chief Sacarusa, and others of the Bertie 
Tuscaroras, requested the concurrence of the Assembly in 
the leases they had made preparatory to their migration. 
General Davie, for the United States;, also made a treaty 
with them, and, just ninety-eight years after the creation 
of their reservation, the descendants and people of old 
King Blunt left their ancient hunting grounds and joined 
their kinsmen, the Iroquois or Six Nations of New York. 
The small remnant of the Tuscaroras yet survive under 
their chief, i^Iount Pleasant, and live upon their reserva- 

G. Who succoeded Judge Sitgreaves? 7. Who became Governor hi 
1802? 8. What is said of cotton gins ? 9. Wiiat of the Bertie Tusca- 

" 7 



146 HISTORY OF NOKTH CAEOLINA. 

tion near Niagara Falls. The present King of the Sand- 
wich Islands is the grandson of Sacarusaj under whose 
lead the exodus of 1802 was accomplished. 

10. Serious disturbances among the Negi-oes in Hert- 
ford and Washington counties occurred in 1802. There 
was no insurrection among the slaves^ but a conspiracy 
was discovered and suppressed by the militia. An act of 
Assembly provided that such offences in the future should 
be punished capitally in the leaders, and, in case of nu- 
merous convictions it should be lawful for the court in 
which they were prosecuted to commute such punishment 
into sale beyond the limits of the State. 

11. The elections for Congress resulted in the success 
of Willis Alston, Jr.^ Nathaniel Alexander, James Gilles- 
pie, James Holland, Nathaniel Macon, Samuel D. Pur- 
viance, Richard Stanford, William S. Blackledge, Joseph 
Winston, Marmaduke Williams and Thomas Wynns. 

12. There w^ere no changes in the presiding officers of 
the Assembly of 1803. Governor Turner was also re- 
elected. The venerable Samuel Johnston, having resign- 
ed his place as Judge of the Superior Courts, was replaced 
by Francis Locke, of Rowan, who was the son of the brave 
leader of the Whigs at Ramseur's Mill. Governor John- 
ston sorrowfully surveyed the overthrow of the Federal 
party, and in deep retirement at his place known as the 
Hermitage, in Martin county, passed the short remnant 
of his days. 

13. In 1804, Geneml Riddick and Mr. Cabarrus were 
still in the chairs of their respective Houses. In this As- 

roras? 10. What of the slave troubles in Hertford? 11. Who were 
Congrressmeu in 1S02? 12. Who succeeded Judo:e Joli listen? IX. 



GOVERNOR TURNER. 147 

fiembly were first seen William Cherry of Bertie, and 
Frederick Nash of New Bern. The former had been grad- 
uated at Chapel Hill in 1800, and though he died at the- 
early age of twenty-seven, is yet remembered as a great 
lawyer. Mr. Nash was the son of Governor Abner Nash. 
He inherited his father's talents, and was to be one of the 
most irreproacliable public men of the nation- 

14. The re-election of Mr. Jefferson, in 1804, was the 
natural result of his consummate policy as a party leader. 
So conciliatory Imd been his course that his rival, ex- 
President xidams, as one of the electors of Massachusetts, 
-cast his vote for his return to the Presidency. He was to 
leave the Republican faith supreme in the nation, but 
shrank from an}^ solution of the many serious and alarm- 
ing foreign issues. 

15. The North Carolina Congressional delegation, in 
1805, consisted, in the House of Representatives, of Evan 
Alexander, Willis Alston, Jr., W. S. Blackledge, Thomas 
Blount, Ricliard Stanford, James Holland, Thomas Ke- 
nan, Duncan McFarland, Marmaduke Williams, and 
Thomas Wynns. Nathaniel Macon was of course re-elect- 
ed, and had been Speaker since 1801. No man ever 
wielded a greater or more lasting influence in the Con- 
gress of the United States, He was considered the em- 
bodiment of wisdom and rectitude ; and for almost a half 
century he was to remain in unbroken attendance upon 
the great Council of the nation. 

Kx The Louisiana purchase liad more tlian doubled 
the national area. A might}^ belt of the most fertile lands 

Who were debutants in the Assembly of 1804? 15. Who was then 
S;)ea.ker in Covgre&s? IG- How was tlie territory of the.United States 



V 



148 HISTORY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

of the world was become the heritage of the American 
people. From ocean to ocean stretched the vast territory 
consecrated to the general benefit of the oppressed of all 
nations. It was a house of refuge to all those who, in 
fruitless efforts for liberty in Europe, could yet balk the 
rage of kings in the forests of America. 

17. The Assembly of 1805 chose ex-Governor Alexan- 
der Martin as Si^eaker of the Senate, and continued Mr. 
Cabarrus in the chair of the House. Gutlieb Shober of 
Stokes, General Riddick of Gates, and John Hay of Fay^ 
etteville, were among the leading members. Dr. Nathan- 
iel Alexander, of Mecklenburg, was elected Governor. He 
wa:s thus far brilliantly successful in political life, and 
was a worthy member of a family 3^et fruitful in talent 
and patriotism. 

18. The most remarkable feature of this session was 
General James Wellborn's proposition of the State's con- 
structing a great road from Beaufort, on the sea-coast, to 
the Western Mountains. The Senator from Wilkes was 
prophetic in his forecaste and is entitled to be considered 
the first proposer of the great railway inaugurated in 18'48. 

19. If America had suggested new truths in political 
philosophy, France in that day had travestied the noble 
lesson. The atheism of the "Mountain" flowed in pois- 
oned currents over the world. Washington and his com- 
peers had denied the divine rights of Kings, With the 
conquering eagles of the other republic went doubt and 
denial of all men had held sacred. Philosophers like 
Edmund Burke shrank from the advocacy of a cause bear- 
ing such fruits, and human advancement w^as to be stayed 
increased in 1803 ? 17. Who became Governor in 1805? IS, What 



I 



GOVERNOR ALEXANDER, 149 

by the crimes of men who pretended to be the supporters 
of liberty, 

20. It was the fashion of too many public men in that 
day to avow sentiments dangerous to morality. Debating 
societies were formed in many localities which became 
propagandas of unbelief. But the chiirches were stren- 
uous in upholding their faith ; and in J802 a mighty re- 
vival of religion pervaded a great portion of the new 
American nation. Bishop Pettigrew, Lemuel Burkitt and 
Edward Drumgoole, in the east, and Prs. David Caldwell? 
James Hall and Humphrey Hunter, in the west, did long 
and valiant service in behalf of a pure faith. 

did General Wellborn propose ? 20. What is said of French infidelity? 
and the North Carolina preachers? 




J 50 jnSTORV OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

CHAPTER XXI, 

A. D. 1806 TO 1813. 

The Political Situation — Assembly of 1806— General Barrinc^er, Judge 
Martin and others— General Davie leaves North Carolina- — The 
Courts— Archibald Henderson and Joseph J. Daniel — N'orth Car- 
olina Congressmen — Mr. Madison President— Assembly of 1808-^ 
David Stone Governor — New Judges— Republican Leaders De- 
mand War — Federal Tactics — Congressmen— Assembly of 1807—^ 
Sectional Feelings in North Carol ina--Judge Martin goes to Mis- 
sissipi— Assembly of 1810— Benjamin Williams Governor— " Free 
Trade and Sailors' Eights"— Assembly of 1811— Generals Riddick 
and Steele— Death of Jjidge Wright— .-William Hawkins Governor 
— War at last— Assembly of 1812— Judge Murphy— W. H. Murfree 
— John Branch— rThe Embargo^-Congressmen. 

HE people of North Carolina, in 1806, were over^^ 
'-^ whelmingly committed to the Bepublican princi- 
pies. Alexander Hamilton was no longer alive to inspirit 
the Federals by his great genius and address. Two years 
before, he had been slain in a duel by Aaron Burr, 
who was also come to grief and was in jail at Bichmond, 
Virginia, for alleged treason against the United States, 
Mr. Jefferson was completely triumphant in all his party 
policy and was rapidly approaching the end of his last 
administration. 

2. In the Legislature, General Biddick, of Gates, re. 
turned to the chair of the Senate, and the distinguished 
advocate, Joshua G, Wright, of Wilmington, became Speak- 
er of the House. After long and honored service Stephen 
Cabarrus had retired to the privacy of his farm, near 
Edenton^ and was jio more in public ]ife, 




GOVERNOR ALEXANDER. 151 

3. Among the new members of this session were Gene- 
ral Paul Barringer of Cabarrus, Francais Xavier Martin 
of New Bern, William Duffy of Fayetteville, and Edmund 
Deberry of Montgomery. General Davie was to be no 
more in public life, having gone to South Carolina, where 
he spent the remainder of his days. 

4. The legislation as to the Courts was highly impor- 
tant at this session. Since ISOl the Judges had been rid- 
ing the circuits and then assembling twice a year in a 
Court of Conference. In 1804, this was made a court of 
record, and the Judges required to reduce their opinions 
to writing. In 1805, the style was again changed, and 
the assembled Judges became the Supreme Court of North 
Carolina. Judge Stone was again elected to the Superior 
Court Bench, and with him Samuel Lowrie, of Mecklen- 
burg. In addition to these were Judges McKay, Taylor, 
Hall and Locke. They were required, in 1806, to hold 
two Superior Courts a year in each of the counties of the 
State, where a single Judge was to preside instead of sev- 
eral. 

5. There were several new members of the Legislature 
in the session of 1807. Most conspicuous of these was 
Archibald Henderson, of Salisbury. He had been twice 
a member of Congress, but had been defeated through the 
revulsion against the Federal party. He was one of the 
greatest lawyers yet seen in North Carolina, and was the 
ablest man of all his distinguislied family. Joseph J. 
Daniel, of Halifax, was also serving his first session. He 

Questions —Who killed Alexander Hami.ton? 2. Who presided 
in tlie Assembly of ISOfi? 3. What new men are mentioned? 
4. What changes were cllectcd in the Courts? 5. What is said of 



152 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

was very learned and pure in his life and became a jurist 
of the first respectability. 

6. The North Carolina delegation in the House of Rep- 
resentatives was composed, in 1807, of Evan Alexander of 
Roiran, Willis Alston, Jr., of Halifax, W. S. Blackledge of 
Craven, Thomas Blount of Edgecombe, John Culpepper of 
Montgomery, Meshack Franklin of Surry, James Holland 
of Sampson, Richard Stanford, and Marmaduke Williams 
of Caswell. Mr. Stanford alone was left of the Federal 
party in Congress. 

7. As the administration drew to its close there was no 
disposition of tlie vexed questions at issue with both Eng- 
land and France. Mr. Jefferson did not follow the popu- 
lar desire for war on the occasion of the Leopard's attack 
upon the unsuspecting Chesapeak ; and to Mr. Madison 
a legacy of war and trouble was to be left by the retiring 
sage of Monticello. 

8. General Riddick and William Gaston presided in 
the two Houses of the Assembly of 1808. Governor Ben- 
jamin Williams had been a second time elected to the 
Chief Magistracy of the State, a year before, and was re- 
placed at this time by David Stone, of Bertie. Blake 
Baker and Joshua G. Wright were elected Judges, as was 
also Leonard Henderson, a younger brother of the mem- 
ber for Salisbury. Few men in North Carolina's history 
have been more venerated and beloved than Judge Hen- 
derson. His learning, rectitude and suavity, were an 
extraordinary combination of excellences. 

9. The new President, James Madison, though of differ- 

Archibald Henderson? 6. WIio were electerl to Conj^ress? 7. Did 
Jefleraoii settle the foreign troubles ? 8. Who was Leonard Ilender- 



I 



GOVERNOR STONE. 153 

ent mental qualities was still scarcely inferior to even 
Mr. Jefferson in the splendor of his endowments. He 
alone, of the Republicans could meet Hamilton in debate 
or written discussion. He was timid and irresolute in 
action, and was only to be driven to bold measures by the 
demands of the Republican leaders. 

10. The prospect of war revived the hopes of the Fede- 
ralists, and secured, in the New Bern District, the election 
to Congress of the able and elocjuent John Stanly, and 
also of Archibald McBryde and Richard Stanford. Their 
Republican colleagues in Congress, from North Corolina^ 
were Willis Alston, James Cochrane, Meshack Franklin, 
James Holland, Thomas Kenan, William Kennedy, Jo- 
seph Pearson, Nathaniel Macon and Lemuel Sawyer. 

11. General Riddick in the Senate, and General Thos. 
Davis, of Fayetteville, presided in the two Houses of the 
Assembly, in 1809. This Legislature was strong, in the 
wisdom and experience of its members. Mr. Gaston, 
Governor Williams, General Wynns, Benjamin Smith, 
Archibald Henderson and Duncan McFarland, were all 
men of weight and prominence ; and among the new 
members were seen Israel Pickens and Isaac T. Avery of 
Burke, James Owen of Bladen, William Drew of Halifax, 
and William R. King of Sampson. 

12. The old habit of contention, as to the next place of 
meeting for the Legislature, had produced sectional feel- 
ings between the east and west of North Carolina. Fay- 
etteville or Hillsboro were always voted for in old days by 
western members, while those nearer the sea generally in- 

son? 9. What is said of John Stanly? 10. What first produced feel- 
iiio: between Eastern and Western North Carolina ? 13. What is said 



154 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

sisted upon New Bern. New counties were not only de- 
sired in the west to lessen the hardship of court attend- 
ance in the large counties, but also for the increase of po- 
litical strength. The small counties resisted to retain 
their ancient supremacy. 

13. Internal improvements were also greatly desired 
by western counties. The men of the east, content with 
their water courses, were averse to taxation for the benefit 
of those not thus blessed with natural highways. Because 
extreme Republicans denied the power of the General 
Government, under the constitution, to enter upon a sys- 
tem of internal improvement of the different States, it was 
concluded that North Carolina should not do so. 

14. Francois Xavier Martin had come to the State, years 
before, a mere lad from^ his home in the southern part of 
France. By industry and native ability he had won res- 
pect as a lawyer, and had compiled the laws of North Car- 
olina by appointment of the Legislature. He was, this 
year, appointed Judge of the new territory of Mississippi, 
and was no more a citizen of North Carolina. He became 
Chief Justice of Louisiana, and, in his old age, wrote the 
history of this State. 

15. With General Riddick still presiding in the Senate, 
William Hawkins, of Granville became Speaker of the 
House of Commons, in the Assembly of 1810. Governor 
Stone was succeeded by Benjamin Smith, of Brunswick, 
as Chief Magistrate. 

16. With the advent of 1811 it was seen that war with 
Great Britain, or France, and possibly both was inevitable. 

of internal improvements? 14. Who was Francois Xavier Martin? 
15. Who succeeded Governor Stone? 16. W^hy was war inevitable ? 



GOVERNOR SMITH. 155 

Rntliloss interference with the American merchant ships 
was constantly practiced. Not even armed ships were se- 
cure from the English claim of the right of search. In 
their mighty struggle with France for the mastery of the 
world, the claims of the United States were despised and 
trodden under foot. The claim of " free trade and sailors* 
rights" was scouted in derision, and American ships, 
crews and cargoes were seized, with scorn as to the conse- 
quences, 

17. President Madison would have temporized and 
avoided the dreadful issue of bloodshed, but his party 
would listen to no further pacific expedients. North Car- 
olina that year sent as membei^ of the lower House in 
Congress, Willis Alston, W. S. Blackledge, Thomas Blount, 
Meshack Franklin, William Kennedy, William R. King, 
Nathaniel Macon, Archibald McBryde, Richard Stanford, 
Joseph Pearson, Israel Pickens and Lemuel Sawyer. 

18. General Riddick presided for the last time in the 
Senate of 1811. His colleague in the chair of the House 
was General John Steele, of Salisbury. He was ever 
strongly a Federalist, but such was the confidence in his 
patriotism and ability he was selected by the House large- 
ly predominating in Republican members, as their chief. 
He was an able and impulsive man, who held not popu- 
lar political views and yet was highly acceptable himself. 

19. This was a a strong Legislature. Governor Stone 
and George Outlaw from Bertie, General Owen from Bla- 
den, William Hawkins of Granville, John Branch of Hal- 
ifax, Edward B. Dudley of Onslow, General Wynns of 

17. What was Mr. Maclisoi.'s disposition? 18. What is said of Gene- 



156 HISTORY OF NOKTH CAROLINA. 

Hertford, and John Long of Randolph, with others, con- 
stituted a brilliant array of orators and statesmen. 

20. Judge Wright, of Wilmington, had died, and his 
place was supplied in the person of Henry Seawell, of 
Wake. Edward Harris, of Craven, was likewise made a 
Judge of the Superior Courts. William Hawkins, of 
Granville, became Governor at the same time, and Hutcli- 
ings G. Burton, of Halifax, Attorney General. 

21. To the supreme dislike of President Madison, war 
was at last declared against Great Britain. In the mili- 
tary levies and preparations of the year North Carolina 
was neither backward or indifferent. The forts upon the 
sea-coast were garrisoned, and the enrolled militia held 
ready for the call of the Federal authorities. The thrill 
of shame which pervaded the nation upon hearing of Gen- 
eral Hull's tame surrender at Detroit, was atoned for in 
the glory of another Hull who so bravely fought his ship 
at sea. 

22. In the State Assembly of 1812, George Outlaw, of 
Bertie, presided in the Senate, and William Miller, late 
the Attorney General, in the House of Commons. Mr. Out- 
law w^as noted for the blandness of his manner, and was 
as popular in the Baptist Church as he was as a politician. 
He was the first Moderator of the Chowan Association 
which had been established in 1806. 

23. In this Legislature was seen for the first time Arch- 
ibald D. Murphy, of Orange. He, W. H. Murfree of Hert- 
ford, and John Branch of Halifax, were all recent gradu- 
ates of the University at Chapel Hill and conferred great 

ral John Steele? 20. Who became Governor and Attorney General? 
21. What was clone in North Carohna upon declaration of war? 22, 



GOVERNOR SMITH. 157 

honor upon that infant institution. William Gaston of 
Craven, and Gabriel Holmes of Sampson, were likewise 
members. 

24. Congress had laid an embargo upon the foreign 
commerce which stopped all intercourse with English 
marts. This measure was violently denounced in New" 
England and by the members of the Federal party gene- 
rally. 

25. In the Congressional elections only William Gaston 
and Richard Stanford were elected from North Carolina, 
upon the opposition to this policy. Willis Alston of Hal- 
ifax, John Culpepper of Montgomery, Peter Forney of 
Lincoln, William Kennedy, William R. King of Sampson, 
Nathaniel I\Iacon of Warren, William H. Murfree of Hert- 
ford, Israel Pickens of Burke, and Bartlett Yancey of Cas- 
well, were all elected as Republicans, and supporters of 
the war measures of Mr. Madison's administration. 

Who presided in the Assembly of 1812 ? 24. What was the Embargo? 
25. What of the Conofressional Deleo-ation. 




158 



HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 




«l 



JUDGE ARCHIBALD D. MURPHY. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

A. D. 1814 TO 1815. 

Progress of the War— Governor Stone, United States Senator— Mem- 
bers of Con«?ress— Messrs. Gaston and Yancey— New England in 
the War— Assembly of 1814— Thomas Ruffin— General Andrew 
Jackson— General Joseph Graham— Captains Gibbs and McRee, 
United States Army— Captain Johnson Bhikeley— George Outlaw 
and Frederick Nash, Speakers— Governor Miller— Judge Cameron 
—Governor Stone Censured— General Dickinson— General Robert 
Williams— Peace and the Battle of New Orleans— Congressmen — 
Futility of the late Struggle— ^Production of Tobacco and Naval 
Stores— Condition of the State— City of Raleigh— Moravian School 
at Salem— Chapel Hill and some of its Graduates— Tlie Bingham 
Sehool— Schools at Murfreesboro and Elsewhere. 



iLiTARY disasters thickened on the Northern fron- 
tiers, With the exception of Generals Scott and 




GOVEKNOR HAWKINS. 159 

Harrison, the American commanders had won no laurels. 
In 1813, the whole Atlantic coasts of the United States 
were declared under blockade. No enemy was seen or 
feared in North Carolina, for nature in shutting the great 
estuaries with eternal barriers of sand, made it impossible 
for the enemy's ships of the line to enter the shallow in- 
lets. 

2. Governor Stone, in his restless exchange of offices, 
had secured a place in the United States Senate, in 1813. 
He was elected as a declared Republican, but soon joined 
Mr. Gaston in opposition to the war. This was com- 
plained of bitterly by the men who elected him, and in 
consequence of the censure and instructions of the Legis- 
lature, he resigned and was no more in public life. He 
was a man of decided ability, and was a graduate of 
Princeton College, in New Jersey. 

3. The Congressional canvass of this year was bitter to 
an extraordinary degree. Willis Alston, Jr., John Cul- 
pepper, Peter Forney, William Gaston, William Kennedy, 
William R. King, Nathaniel Macon, William H. Murfree, 
Israel Pickens, Richard Stanford and Bartlett Yancey 
were elected. 

4. Messrs. Gaston and Yance}' took opposite sides, and 
were among the foremost men of the nation. Henry 
Clay was then Speaker, and frequently called the latter 
to the chair of the House of Representatives, where not 
even the splendid qualifications of the great Kentuckian, 
as a presiding officer, eclipsed those of the bland and elo- 
quent Carolinian. 

Questions.— What preserved Xorth Carolina from invasion? 2. 
Who was made United States Senator in 1813? 4. What two distin- 



160 



IIISTOHY OF NOHTH CAROLINA. 




BAETLETT YANCEY. 



5. Such was the feeling against the war in Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut, that those States, having refused to 
send their militia to the Northern frontiers, finally met 
in convention at Hartford and took steps which John 
Quincy Adams denounced as leading to secession from 
the Union. When Commodore Stephen Decatur made 
ready to go out of New London harbor with his frigates, 
his purpose was l3etrayed to the English fleet in the ofl"- 
ing, and his escape thus frustrated. The signal lights 
used on this occasion were the origin of the term " Blue 
Light Federalists." 

6. In the Assembly of this year there was no change in 
the old presiding officers. John Phifer of Cabarrus, Col- 

giiislied men were among; the North Carolina CongTessmen ? 5. 
What was tlie war feeling in New England? 6. What great lawyer 



GOVERNOR HAWKINS. 161 

onel James W. Clark of Edgecombe, John Owen of Bla- 
den, John Branch of IlalifVix and General Wynns of 
Hertford were all leaders and earnest supporters of the 
war measures. Thomas Ruffin was serving for the first 
time as member for Hillsboro. He Avas fast achieving 
prominence in the courts, and was to become the greatest 
judge that ever sat on a bench in North Carolina. 

7. In the South, British influence had produced a 
bloody rising of the Creek Indians. General Andrew Jack- 
son, who had been born in Mecklenburg county and emi- 
grated to Tennessee, had been assigned to the command 
against them. Like an avenging spirit, he had broken 
the spirit of the Red Men at Talladega. General Joseph 
Graham, of Lincoln, who had been so highly distin- 
guished in the Revolution, led a brigade of North Caro- 
linians to Jackson's aid, and contributed ably in bringing 
Weathersford and his conquered people to subjection. 

8. Captains William Gibbs McNeil of Bladen, and 
William McRee of New Hanover, both, as engineers in 
the United States Army, had by this time established 
high reputations for courage and capacity ; but in the 
valor and success of Captain Johnson Blakeley, of Wil- 
mington, were the noblest laurels won. He had been 
promoted for good conduct at Tripoli, and early in 1814 
put to sea in the command of the United States sloop of 
war. Wasp. With the same daring as had been seen in 
John Paul Jones, with his single ship he steered for the 
narrow seas surrounding Great Britain. After repeated 
victories in waters swarming with the British fleets, he 

api)eared in the Assembly of 1814? 7. Who was sent to aid General 
Jackson a«rainst the Creeks? 8. What North Carolinians became 



162 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

perished in some unknown manner with his ship and all 
her heroic crew. 

9. George Outlaw and Frederic Nash, then of Orange, 
presided in the two Houses of the Assembly of 1814. Mr. 
Nash had inherited his father's ability and elegant man- 
ners. Serene, gentle and pure, he was learned as unself- 
ish, and in all his days a pattern of the noblest consist- 
ency. 

10. William Miller, of Warren, was elected at this ses- 
sion the successor of William Hawkins as Governor of the 
State. He had been Attorney General and Speaker of 
the House of Commons, but did not possess qualities to 
give him place in the bead roll of fame. 

11. Duncan Cameron, of Orange, had made much rep- 
utation and wealth as a lawyer. He was made a Judge, 
in place of Edward Harris, of Xew Bern, who had shortly 
before come to his death. 

12. This was the Legislature which resolved that Gov- 
ernor Stone's conduct in the United States Senate " had 
been in opposition to his profession and jeopardizing to 
the safety and interest of the country, and incurred the 
disapprobation of the General Assembly." 

13. British movements in Chesapeake Bay led to the 
collection of a large body of North Carolina troops at 
Norfolk, Virginia. Brigadier General Joseph F. Dickin- 
son, of Hertford, was in command of them. The British 
were beaten at Craney Island before landing ; and thus 
they had their only dangerous experience until the 
making of peace. 

distinonished intliewu-? 9. What is said of Frederick Nasli ? 10. 
Of William Miller? 11. Of Judge Cameron ? 12. What did the Leg- 
islature resolve as to Governor Stone? 13. Who commanded the 



GOVERNOR MILtER. 163 

14. General Robert Williams, of Surry, was Adjutant 
General of North Carolina during the war. He was one 
of a distinguished family who gave several able men to 
public uses. The conduct of military affairs in the State 
was largely committed to his keeping, and was well ad- 
ministered, 

15. Peace had been agreed on in Europe ; but in those 
days of slow communication, was unknown in America, 
when, in January, 1815, Sir Edward Packenham, with 
his army of British regulars, landed and marched against 
New Orleans. On the 8th of that month. General An- 
drew Jackson, with his men of the West, retrieved the 
militai'y disasters of the whole war, and inflicted the most 
crushing defeat upon his adversaries which has befallen, 
ft British army since the battle of Hastings. 

16. The North Carolina delegation in Congress in 1815 
consisted of Governor Turner and Mr. Macon, in the Sen- 
ate, and Messrs, Joseph H. Bryan, James W. Clark, John 
Culpepper, Samuel Dickens, Wei don N. Edwards, Daniel 
M, Forney, William Gaston, Charles Hooks, William C, 
Love, William H. Murfree^ Israel Pickens, Lewis Wil* 
liams and Bartlett Yancey. 

17. The treaty of peace with Great Britain was unani- 
mously ratified by the United States Senate on February 
7th, 1815. Two kindred nations had wasted their blood 
and resources to no purpose, so far as arranging their real 
causes of quarrel. England was too proud to yield her 
claims to the right of search, but very prudently discon- 

North Carolina troops at Norfolk? 14. Who was General Robert 
Williams? 15. What battle was fouo-ht after peace had been made ? 
TG, W^i)o were Congressmen in IS 15? 17, Were the causes of war 



164 



HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



tinued that habit for all future time, In the direst agony 
of her great struggle with Napoleon, she had incurrea 
the hostility of those who should have sympathized with 
her efforts for the common liberties of the world, 

18. North Carolina, in common with the other States, 
had great need of peace when it came. The war had 
ghut up the ports, so that neither tobacco nor naval stores 
could be sent to their usual markets ; and thus the two 
leading industries of that day were almost completely 
palsied. 

^ 19. Tobacco is one of the presents made by North Caro. 
Una to the luxuries of the world. Sir Walter Raleigh 
collected some, through his agents at Roanoke Island, 
^nd introduced the habit of sinoking in Europe. In the 
earlier days of the State's history, tobacco was even more 
largely cultivated than Indian corn; with the lapse of 
time, the counties iiorth of the southern boundary of 
j:dgecombe became the locality of its production. 

20. The production of turpentine and tar was also a 
great industry in tliat portion of the State which is the 
habitat of the longdeafed pine, the Plnus Australis of the 
Botanists. An incision on the side of the tree near to the 
ground catches the crude turpentine as it e.-cudesfrom the 
scraped surface above the box. From these receptacles 
the substance is dipped, and conveyed away in barrels. 

21. The above process in time destroys the tree, and 
leaves the trunk and limbs still saturated with turpentine, 
which ceases to flow with the death of the tree. The pine 
is then known as lightwood, and utilized by extracting 

settled by peace? IS. What was the state of Js^orth Carolina trade 
diinns: hostilities? 19, Wluvt is said of tobacco? 20, Of nwl stores'^ 



GOVERNOR MILLER. 165 

in a kiln, by means of heat, the turpentine transformed 
into tar. 

22. At the close of the war North Carolina contained 
sixty-two counties. Each of these sent annually to the 
Assembly one Senator and two members of the House of 
Commons. Edenton, New Bern, Wilmington, Fayette- 
ville, Halifax, Hillsboro and Salisbury were called borough 
towns, and by virtue of this superior dignity each sent, 
in addition to their county members, also a representa- 
tive to the lower house of Assembly. 

23. Baleigh at this period contained about eight huur 
dred people, Fayetteville was more than twice as large, 
while both Wilmington and New Bern were still larger 
than that town. Edenton had lost its ancient impor- 
tance as a port of entry, and growing villages were seen in 
Washington, Beaufort, Charlotte, Elizabeth City and 
Murfreesboro. Halifax was fast becoming a "rotten 
borough," shorn of its old splendors, 

24. The Moravians had established themselves at Salem, 
and their female school was becoming famous in the en- 
tire South. Dr. Joseph Caldwell, at Chapel Hill, was 
making himself and the University immortal names, 
The public neglect could not crush his energies or damp 
the ardor of his soul. A. D. Murphy, John Phifer, Wil- 
liam Cherry, John Branch, John P. Hawkins, William 
H. Murfree, John B. Donnell, Gavin Hogg, Lewis Wil- 
liams, William Hooper, James F. Taylor, Charles Manly, 
John H. Bryan, Francis L. Hawks, Willie P. Mangum 
and Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr., had with others gradu- 

22. Which were borough towns? 2H. What is sai(] o| other towns ? 
24, What of schools and the University? 



X66 



mSTOP^y OF NORTH CAROLINA, 



Med there, and fox'eyer established the £ame of the col- 
lege. 

25. Rev, William Bhigham liad removed from New 
Bern to HillsborOj and had become famous as a teacher. 
This school, established in 1793, yet survives in undi- 
minished usefulness ; and though all along a private enter- 
prise, is, after almost a century, still the pride and orna- 
ment of the State, 

26. A flourishing academy had been established under 
act of Assembly at Murfreesboro. Rev, Dr, Jonathan 
Otis Freeman wm in charge of this seminary. Schools 
were also in successful operation at New Bern^ Edenton, 
Baleigh and elsewhere. 




GOVERNOR MILLER. 167 

CHAPTER XXIIL 

A. D. 1716 TO 17 21. 

North Carolina Always Devoted to Religions Liberty — Bishop Ravens- 
croft — Rev. John Kerr— The Methodists— Rev. Drs. David and 

Joseph Caldwell — Assembly of 181(i .John Branch and John 

Craic^, Speakers ^R. M. Saunders and Bedford Brown George 

E. Bad.o^erand David F. Caldwell— Governor Stokes United States 
Senator— President Monroe ""s Policy — Bartlett Yancey — The sec- 
ond James Iredell — Supreme Court — Cliief Justice Taylor and 
the Puisne Judges — Internal Improvements— Assembly of 1819 — 

Messrs. Yancey and Saundeiv;, Speakei's Willie P. Mangum 

James Iredell and John R. Donnell, Judges— The Slavery Issue 
of 1820 — The Missouri Compromise— The Colonization Society — 
Congressmen — Assembly of 1820 — Florida— The Monroe Doctrine 
— Death of Waightstill Avery — Yancey and Mebane, Speakers — 

F. L. Hawks, R. D. Spaight, and others. 

ij^^OLONEL William Byrd, of Westover, and his chap- 
^^ lain, Rev. Peter Fountaine, before the Revolution 
said there was but small religious observance in North 
Carolina. The colony had sturdily resisted the efforts of 
Governor Daniel and others to establish the supremacy of 
the English Church ; but they were neither infidels nor 
scoffers. They preferred retaining the right to worship 
God in their own way to forced compliance with the 
creed and ritual of any church. 

2. The churches of North Carolina had made great 
progress by the time of the advent of the year 1816. 
Right Reverend John Stark Ravenscroft was the Bishop 
of the Episcopal diocese. He was a man of singular 
piety and of much power as a preacher. Rev. John Kerr, 
of Caswellj was the great leader of the Baptists. His 



168 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

wonderful eloquence was to become the admiration of 
both Virginia and North Carolina. The Metliodists were 
planting clmrches in every section, and surpassing all 
others in the speed of their propagation. The Presbyte- 
rians have not been so aggressive or diffusive in this State, 
but Drs. David and Joseph Caldwell were reverenced in 
every quarter of the Commonwealth for conjoined patriot- 
ism and religious devotion. These able and godly men 
fought a prolonged battle with the leaven of French in- 
fidelity, and by slow degrees u2)rooted the curse from the 
land. 

3. John Branch, of Halifax, and John Craig, of Orange, 
presided in the Assembly of 1816. Romulus Mitchell 
Saunders and Bedford Brown of Caswell, George E. 
Badger of New Bern, and David F. Caldwell of Iredell, 
were among the debutants of the session. It has been 
rarely the case that four such able men have appeared 
simultaneously on the political stage in the state. 

4. Montford Stokes, of Wilkes, was elected to the United 
States Senate, in place of Judge Locke. It is a remarka- 
ble fact that he, when clerk of the Senate, had been once 
before elected to this high office and declined. He was 
the brother of Judge John Stokes, Avho had died in 1801. 
Few men were so popular as he, and his wit and humor 
were unceasing in their flow. 

5. Mr. Monroe did not adhere to the strictness of old 
Republican doctrines as to internal improvements by the 

Questions. — What is said of North Carolina in regard to religion ? 
2. What was the condition of tho cliurches in 181G? 3. What mem- 
bers of tlie Assembly of that year are meiitioned? 4. Who became 
Governor ? 5. Wliat produced the era of good feeling under 3Ir. 



GOVERNOR MILLER. 169 

General Government. This and his willingness for the 
re-charter of the United States Bank produced what was 
called the era of good feeling. Federalism had appa- 
rently disappeared. 

6. Bartlett Yancey soon tired of service at Washington, 
and declined re-election to Congress. He was made 
Speaker of the Senate in the Assembly of 1818, while 
James Iredell, of Chowan, presided in the other House. 
This latter was also a man of marked ability. He w^as 
the only son of the great lawyer, who was made a Judge 
of the Supreme Court of the United States by General 
Washington. 

7. This session of the Legislature was remarkable for 
the establishment of the Supreme Court of North Carolina 
on its present basis. It was largely the work of Bartlett 
Yancey. John Louis Taylor, of Cumberland, was made 
Chief Justice ; and Leonard Henderson, of Granville, and 
John Hall, of Warren, Associate Justices. The Judges of 
the Superior Courts, at this time, were Henry Seawell, 
Joseph J. Daniel, John Paxton, Frederick Nash, John D. 
Toomer, and Archibald D. Murphy. 

8. The Erie Canal, in New York, and the great govern- 
ment road from Baltimore to Wheeling, on the Ohio 
river, produced a great desire in portions of North Caro- 
lina for internal improvements. Mr. Yancey and Dr. 
Joseph Caldwell were unremitting in their efforts to inau- 
gurate a system which sliould ena])le the western people 

j\Ionroe's administration ? 6. Who were Speakers in ISIS? 7. When 
was the Supreme Court of North Carolina established on its present 
basis? 8. Wliat worlvs of improvement created a desire for similar 



170 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

to reach the eastern mai^ets. Eastern men in the Legis- 
lature were opposed to incurring debt for such a purpose. 

9. Both presiding officers of the Legislature of 1819 
were from Caswell county. Bartlett Yancey, in the Sen- 
ate, and Romulus M. Saunders in the House, were these. 
Many able men were in this body. James Iredell, W. P. 
Mangum, D. F. Caldwell, Duncan Cameron, John OweUy 
Alfred Moore, Jr., John Stanh% and William Gaston, were 
an extraordinary array for one State Legislature. 

10. Messrs. Willie P. Mangum, James Iredell, and John 
R. Donnell, w^ere elected Judges of the Superior Courts. 
Judges Mangum and Iredell were brilliant advocates, and 
were more addicted to political pursuits than judicial. 
On the hustings, before deliberative bodies',, and in crowd- 
ed courts, they were equally admirable and miexcelled. 
Judge Iredell's motlier was sister to Governor Samuel 
Johnston. 

11. The year 1820 y»^itnessed a crisis in national affairs. 
After several premonitory agitations, the subject of slavery 

in the new States and Territories first became of para- ■ 
mount importance at that time. As early as 1790 Dr. 
Franklin, as President of the Abolition Society, petitioned 
Congress to "devise means for removing this inconsistency 
from the character of tlie American people." Congress 
disclaimed its powers in the premises, and asserted that,, 
under the Constitution of the United States, the whole 
matter belonged to the several States in tJieir individual 
capacit}^ 

12. This question again presented itself on tlie accept- 

things ill North Carolina? 9. What is said of tlie Assembly of 1S19 ? 
10. Who were made Judsces? 11. What is said of the Mbsouri Com- 



GOVERNOR MILLER. 171 

lance of the WesteLrn Territory, south of th^ Ohio, ceded 
by North Carolina to the General Government. On other 
occasions exciting debates had occurred as to the duty of 
the government in the premises. In 1819 Missouri ap- 
plied for admission, as a ^tate, into the Union. Northern 
members refused admission solely upon the ground tha.t 
the new State's constitution provided for the establishr 
ment of slavery. They said that slavery Imd been for- 
bidden in the Northwestern Territory, ceded by Virginia. 
Missouri was no part of this domain, but it was insisted 
that the same rule should extend to the State in question. 

13. A great and prolonged struggle then ensued. John 
'W. Taylor, then Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
proposed to exclude slavery from all territory north of 36 
degrees and 30 minutes north latitude, which would have 
made Missouri a free State. Thomas W. Cobb, of Georgia, 
.asserted that "a fire had been kindled which only seas of 
blood could extinguish, and that if northern men persist- 
.ed, the Union would be dissolved." Mr. Talmadge, of 
New York, retorted : " If a dissolution of the Union must 
take place let it be so ! If civil war must come, I can only 
;say let it come." A great portion of the session was con- 
sumed in angry discussion on this subject, and it was, 
.only a year later, when Maine was ready for admission, that 
Missouri was permitted to become a State. Mr. Thomas, 
of Illinois, renewed the suggestion of Speaker Taylor to 
exclude slavery from all points north of a certain lati- 
tude, and thus grew into la^y what was called the Mis- 
^30uri Compromise. 

14. It was not laid down in the bill that new States 
^^outh of the Mason and Dixon's line should be in virtue 



172 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

of that fact, slaveholding, but that inference was left, and 
as matters then stood, only Texas, Arkansas, and the In- 
dian Territory, would have been liable to the peculiar 
southern institutions. 

15. By efforts of southern men, in 1816, the Coloniza- 
tion Society had been established for the purpose of aid- 
ing the colored people of the United States, who so desired, 
to establish a republic of their own on the western coast 
of Africa. This measure was bitterly oi)i)osed by the 
party who favored emancipation. 

16. At the time now under consideration North Caro- 
lina was represented in the United States Senate by Messrs. 
Macon and Stokes, and in the House by Messrs. Lemuel 
Sawyer, Hutchings G. Burton, Weldon N. Edwards, Thos, 
H. Hall, John Culpepper, Cluu^les Fisher, Charles Hooks, 
Lewis Williams, Felix Walker and Thomas Settle. 

17. The Assembly of 1820 was presided over by the 
same distinguished members for Caswell, Jesse Franklin, 
of Surry, was elected Governor ; and George E. Badger 
of Craven, and William Norwood of Orange, were elected 
Judges of the Superior Courts, in place of James Iredell 
and A. D. Murphy, resigned. 

18. In 1821, Texas was exchanged by Mr. ^Monroe for 
Florida. Colonel Benton, of Missouri, who had gone from 
North Carolina, and was then in the United States Senate, 
bitterly opposed this arrangement from the fact that Spain 
was on the eve of losing all her possessions on the Amer- 
ican continent, and the acquisition of Florida was inevit- 
able. 

promlsG ? 15. What of the Colonization Socict.v? 17. Wlio was Gov- 
ernor in 1820? IS. Wliat was clone in reoard to Texas in 1821 ? 



GOVERNOR FRANKLIN. 173 

19. In the elections for the 17th Congix^ss, in 1821, 
"North Carolina selected Messrs. W. B, Blackledge of Cra^ 
yen, H. G. Burton of Halifax, Henry W. Connor of Lin- 
coln, Josiah Crudnp of Granville, Weldon N. Edwards of 
Warren, T, H. Hall of Edgecombe, Charles Hooks of Du-. 
plin, John Long of Eandolph, Archibald McNeill of Moore, 
B- M. Saunders of Caswell, Lemuel Sawyer of Camden, 
Felix Walker of Rutherford, and Lewis Williams of Surry. 

20. Mr. Monroe's administration was a continuous ef-. 
fort at conciliation and compromise of conflicting creeds 
and issues. Under his dexterous management the great 
differences which had separated parties in 1800 had ap-. 
parently sunk out of sight. The only bold assertion of 
policy in his time was involved in the celebrated Monroe 
Doctrine, which v^as the declaration that the United States 
would no longer suffer European interference with the* 
affairs belonging to American communities. 

21. In 1821 Waightstill Avery died at his ])\ace in 
purke county, He was the last survivor of the men who 
had been prominent in the provincial affairs of North 
Carolina, Governor Johnston had died in 1814 ; General 
Person in the last year of the XYIII century. Like the 
last leaf in Autumn, Avery had clung to life when all 
else had departed. He was an able and patriotic man, 
and had received many marks of j^ublic confidence in his 
long and eventful life, 

22. Bartlett Yancey presided in the Senate, and James 
Mebane, of Orange, in the House, during the session be-, 
ginning in the Fall of 1821. Mr. Mebane belonged to the 
distinguished family which had so abundantly attestecl 
their devotion in the war of the Hevoliition. He was aft 



174 HISTOKY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

unfailing friend of popular education and of the Univer- 
sity at Chapel Hill, 

23, Among the debutants of this session appeared 
Francis L. Hawks and Richard Dobbs Spaight, both of 
Craven. Mr. Hawks was then at the bar, but was soon 
to assume holy orders and become one of the fix^st pulpit 
orators of the nation. Like Rev. Drs, Thomas H, Skinner 
of Chowan, R. B. C. Howell of Wayne, A. M. Poindexter, 
and others, he was to thrill the hearts of distant States 
with the magic of his oratory. 

p3. Who was James Metjane ? 23. ^Flio was Dr. F. L. Jla^vks, 




GOVERNOR BURTON. 175 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

A. D. IS 22 TO 1825. 

Revolutions in Spanish America— Deaths of Archibahl Henderson and 
Judf^e Locke — H. G. Burton becomes Governor — John Branch 
Succeeds ex-Governor Stokes in the United States Senate— As- 
sembly of 1822 — Cross purposes in State Leoislation— East and 
West— Congressmen — Assembly of 1822 — David Lowry Swain, 
L. D. Henry, Robert Strange and Joseph A. Hill— Peter Browne 
—Gavin Hogg— Tlie North Carolina Press— Assembly of 1824 — 
Visit of tlie Marquis de Lafayette — John Quincy Adams becomes 
President of the United States — The Era of Good Feeling ended. 

(^^HE success of the American people in their war for 
^^^ independence had influenced France to a similar 
struggle for freedom. The contagion did not stop there. 
In 1822, the jNIexican and South American republics were 
recognized, and Spanish dominion on the mainland of 
America was forever overthrown. With the exception of 
foreign possessions in Guiana, the West Indies and British 
America, the whole collossal results of European conquest 
and colonization were lost to the descendants of the Kings, 
who had so cruelly built up the many vice-royalties. 

2. Political movements were of slight moment in North 
Carolina. With the exception of a few men, who still ad- 
hered to the faith of the Federalists, every one had become 
avowed Democratic-Repul)licans. The great lav^yer, 
Archibald Henderson, of Salisbury, died in 1822, and was 
soon followed to the grave by Judge Francis Locke, of the 
same county. 

Questions.— What befell Spanish dominion in America in 1S22 ? 
2. Wiiat eminent Carolinians died in that year? 3. Who became 



176 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

3. Hutchings G. Burton, of Halifax, became Governor 
the same year. He had been Attorney General for six 
years succeeding 1810, and then, for an equal time, a con- 
spicuous member of the national House of Representatives. 
He ^married the daughter of Willie Jones, who inherited 
the shining virtues of her parent. 

4. Jolm Branch, of the same county, succeeded ^lont- 
ford Stokes in the United States Senate. There were more 
eloquent men in the State, but none who were more pa- 
triotic and wise. Governor Branch, through long and 
varied service, was without reproach ; and in the course 
of his life presided over the fortunes of both North Caro- 
lina and Florida. 

5. The Legislature of 1S22 was crowded with distin- 
guished men. Wake sent a new member in the person 
of James F. Taylor, the eloquent lawyer. Able and im- 
pulsive Charles Fisher of Rowan, Judge Cameron of Or- 
ange, and James Mebane of tlie same constituency, Willis 
Alston of Halifax, late chairman of the committee on ways 
and means in Congress, were also in attendance. So, too, 
were John Stanly and John H. Bryan of Craven, Jesse A. 
Bynum of Halifax, Jesse Speight of Greene, Judge Iredell 
of Chowan, Robert Strange of Fayetteville, Louis D. 
Henry of Cumberland, Bedford Brown of Caswell, and 
Augustin H. Shepherd of Stokes. 

6. With so much ability in the public councils. North 
Carolina should have been a shining example of peace 
and prosperity, but tliis was far from being the case. A 

Governor of North Carolina? 4. Who snceeedcd ]Montfor(l Stokes in 
the United States StMiate? 5. Mention pomc of the leading men in 
the Assembly. G. What was the seope of legislation at that period ? 



GOVERNOR BURTON. 177 

short-sighted and hateful sectionalism disgraced her states- 
manship, and palsied the efforts of some who were wiser 
in their action. The only policy of western counties was 
to elBPect a change in the basis of representation, so that 
their majorities could be felt in legislation. The small 
revenue then exacted generally failed to meet the public 
expense, and there was often a deficit of about ten thou- 
sand dollars each year. After the creation of the school 
fund, the easy remedy was to borrow therefrom enough 
to meet the exigency. The State held that fund as a sa- 
cred trust ; and yet her rulers could resort to such more 
than doubtful shifts, sooner than surrender their subjects 
of discord. 

7. Stubbornly, and too often with undue arrogance, the 
East resisted every appeal to its patriotism and magna- 
nimity. Such men as Jesse Spaight, of Greene, held that 
their duty was satisfied in opposing State aid to internal 
improvements, and especially it behooved them to prevent 
any change in the Halifax Constitution of 1776. The 
Western Convention met in Raleigh in 1823. Bartlett 
Yancey presided over its deliberations, and many wise 
and needed clianges in the organic law were suggested. 
A calmly vehement spirit was aroused among those who 
constituted a large majority of the citizens of the State, 
and threats were made to proceed . to such extremities as 
were witnessed in the Dorr troubles of Rhode Island in 
1842. 

8. The popular vote of Hertford county did not at that 
date reach six hundred, and yet Orange, with twenty-five 
hundred votes, had no more weight in the legislation. 
7. What was the policy of certain eastern men ? S. How were coun- 



178 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The injustice of tliis system could not be explained to 
men who had imbibed sectional feeling against the West. 
Such animosities are the bane of free governments. Un- 
like other hatreds, they are too apt to become immortal. 

9. The Congressional delegation, in 1823, consisted of 
Messrs. H. W. Connor of Lincoln, John Culpepper of 
Montgomery, Weldon N. Edwards of Warren, Alfred M. 
Gatling of Camden, Thomas H. Hall of Edgecombe, 
Charles Hooks of Duplin, AVillie P. Mangum of Orange, 
George Outlaw of Bertie, R. M. Saunders of Caswell, R. 
D. Spaight of Craven, Robert R. ^^ance of Burke, and 
Lewis Williams of Surry. 

10. Bartlett Yancey again presided in the Senate of 
1823, but John D. Jones, who had been Speaker of the 
House in 1822, was succeeded by the second Alfred Moore 
of Brunswick. Mr. Moore was son of the eminent judge, 
of the same name, and had largely inherited the genius 
and virtues of his race. Since 1703, the name of this 
Cape Fear family, like that of their Ashe kinsmen, had 
been constantly foremost in North Carolina annals. 

11. In this Assembly a young debutant was seen in 
David L. Swain, of Buncombe. He was the precursor of 
a long list of able and distinguished men from that fa- 
mous locality. Early disadvantages had already yielded 
to his persistent and manly efforts for personal advance- 
ment and the State was soon to give her richest rewards 
to the young mountaineer, wbo loved with such passion- 
ate devotion the commonwealth of his birth. 

12. Louis D. Henry, Robert Strange and Joseph Alston 



ties attected by relative population ? 9. Who were Coni^ressmeii in 
1823? 10. What is said of tlie Western Convention? 11. Who ap- 



I 



GOVERNOR BURTON. 179 

Hill, were likewise members of this Assembly. They 
were young men of marked ability and were possessed of 
brilliant eloquence. The extraordinary promise of Mr. 
Hill was blighted in his untimely death. 

13. At this time Peter Browne, who had been the leader 
of the North Carolina Bar, having accumulated a great 
estate, retired from the practice, and was chiefly employed 
in eating the good dinners of his friends. So marked 
was he in this respect that Governor Stokes said of him 
that he ''was like a raccoon, who has a place in which to 
sleep, but no particular dining room." It is needless to add 
that Mr. Browne was a childless and snuffy old bachelor. 

14. He was succeeded, as chief among the lawyers, by 
Gavin Hogg. This able and adroit advocate was born in 
Orange, began the practice in Bertie but removed to Ral- 
eigh. Willian Gaston and Thomas Ruffin were yet at the 
bar, as also were John Stanly, Moses Mordecai, Joseph 
Wilson, and Samuel R. Joceylin. So also were Judges 
Iredell and Robert Strange. 

15. The newspapers of the State were headed in age 
and influence by the " Raleigh Register," which had been 
established in 1799 by Joseph Gales, Sr. The able son, of 
the same name, of this venerable man, had gone with W. 
W. Seaton to Washington, to establish the " National In- 
telligencer." The elder Gales was assisted by his son, 
AYeston R. Gales. Raleigh possessed rivals in other presses. 
Colonel Thomas Henderson presided over the "Star," and 
William Boylan the " jNIinerva." These sheets appeared 

peared for the first time as member for Buncombe ? 12. "What trio of 
able men are mentioned ? 13. Who succeeded Peter Browne as leader 
of the Xorth Carolina Bar? 15. Who established the "Raleigh Ke- 



180 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

once a week, and were neither larger or better edited than 
the daily papers of this day. 

16. There were no changes in the presiding officers of 
the Legislature of 1824. William Gaston, D. L. Swain, 
James Iredell, Bedford Brown, John H. Bryan, Jesse A. I| 
Bynum, Jesse Spaight, Willis Alston, D. M. Forney, Jo- 
seph A. Hill, and James Mebane had won prominence in 
previous sessions ; but James Graham, oldest son of G^en- 
eral Joseph Graham, Emanuel Shober, and John L. Bai- 
ley, were fresh in the arena in which they were to grow 
distinguished. 

17. In 1825 occurred the notable visit of General La- 
fayette. His arrival in America was on August loth, of 
the previous year. He was no ordinary visitor, and was 
the nation's guest. A half century before, he had left his 
young wife, and all the pleasures and splendors of a court 
life, in Paris, to shed his blood in defence of America. 
He had been a great and blameless actor in the French 
Revolution ; he had uncovered his whitened locks at the 
tomb of his dead friend at Mount Vernon ; he had been 
with Mr. Jefferson in the retirement of Monticello ; and 
was visiting all of the States, so largely indebted to him 
for the fortunate result of the Revolution. 

18. His first public reception was at the village of Mur- 
freesboro, in Hertford county. This was then on the 
great stage route leading north and south. Thomas 
Manney, afterwards a judge in Tennessee, received him 
with an address of welcome, to which the great French- 
man most graciously replied. Two days afterwards he 

gister?" 16. Who were in the Assembly of 1824? 17. What notable 
visitor came in ]82o? IS. What villa^i^e first tendered him an ovation | 



GOVERNOR BURTON. 181 

passed on to Jackson, in Northampton, where he was met 
by Chief Justice Taylor and Colonel William Polk, and 
by them escorted to Raleigh. Thus, in a continuous 
round of reverent greetings, he passed from State to State. 
On September 7th, 1825, after Congress had voted him 
two hundred thousand dollars and twenty-three thousand 
acres of public land, he sailed back to his French home in 
the new frigate, Brandywine. This ship, with rare cour- 
tesy, had been called after the first battle-field on which he 
had served, and in Avhich he was dangerously wounded. 
The world has seen no purer or more magnanimous man 
than this venerable Marquis de Lafayette. 

19. A great sensation followed the election, by the 
House of Representatives, of John Quincey Adams as 
President of the United States. General Jackson had re- 
ceived a plurality of votes, but was defeated in the House 
of Representatives by a combination of the friends of 
Messrs. Clay and Adams. John Randolph denounced 
this election as the result of a corrupt coalition between "a 
black-leg and a puritan ;" and a duel between himself and 
the great Kentuckian was the consequence. This election 
resulted in the estrangement of Mr. Clay from the Demo- 
cratic-Republican party, of which he had been so distin- 
guished a leader, and in the ultimate disappointment of 
his high ambition to be the chief magistrate of the people 
he so nobly served. 

20. The Era of Good Feeling was at an end, and all who 
had been the opponents of Mr. Madison's policy were soon 
arrayed in support of the new administration. John 

in North Carolina? 19. What produced a sensation in the Presiden- 
tial struggle? 20. Wliat was the result? 



182 



HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



Quincy Adptins had claimed to be a Republican, but that 
party turned from him, and crushed almost every man 
who, in the House of Representatives, had contributed to 
his success in the Presidential struggle. 




GOVEllNOil BURTON. 183 

CHAPTER XXV. 

A. D. 1825 TO 1829. 

Congressmen in 1825— Death of Dr. Vance — Assembly of 1825 — J, Mv 
Moreliead and Alfred Dockery— Judges Badger and Rnffin— John 
Stanly paralyzed in Debate— Judges Strange and Martin— Presi* 
dent Adams and the Republican Party — Death of Bartlett Yan- 
cey — Death of Treasurer Haywood— Speaker Settle and Robert 
Potter— Hamilton C. Jones— Messrs. Wheeler, Alexander, Mont- 
gomery and Robards — Congressmen of 1827 — Edw^^rd Jones and 
John Scott — General Jackson becomes President — John Branch, 
Secretary of the Treasury— Retirement of Mr. Macon — Hardy B. 
Croom — John Owen becomes Governor — Jackson as a Statesman 
—Politics in North Carolina. 

fsliLLis Alston was agai]i elected to Congress in 
1825. Henry W. Connor, John H. Bryan, Sam- 
uel T. Carson, Welclon N. Edwards, Richard Hines, John 
Long, Archibald McNeil, Willie P. Manguni, George Out- 
law, R. M. Saunders and Lewis Williams were his col- 
leagues. In the mountains, during the canvass, an 
unfortunate difficulty arose between Mr. Carson and Dr» 
Vance, that led to a duel in which the latter was slain. 

2. C4eneral Saunders, Willis Alston, Judge Mangum, 
]\Ir. Edwards and Lewis Williams, all achieved national 
reputations, and made North Carolina a leading State in 
the conduct of the debates. Mr. Williams was to linger 
through a whole generation of men in his place as repre- 
sentative, and was to constantly increase in the love and 
trust of all who knew him. 

Questions.— What caused the death of Dr. Vance? 2. How long 
was Lewis Williams in Con«>-ross? 3. Who were J. M. Moorehead 




184 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

3. Bartlett Yancey again presided in the Senate in the 
year 1825. John Stanly was Speaker of the House. 
John Motley Morehead, of Guildford, and Alfred Dock- 
ery, of Kichmond, were members for the first time. They 
were both of large ability and influence upon the for- 
tunes of the State. Through many years they were to be 
exponents of public opinion. Mr. ^forehead was leader 
in the Presbyterian churches, and General Dockery was 
Moderator of the ancient Sandy Creek Baptist Associa- 
tion and often President of the State Convention of that 
large denomination. 

4. At this session, George E. Badger having resigned 
as a Judge of the Superior Courts, was replaced by 
Thomas Puffin, of Orange. Thus was the largest intelli- 
gence in judicial matters lost and won. If Badger was 
the greatest lawyer North Carolina ever produced. Puffin 
was incontestably the profoundest of all her judges. His 
vast learning, personal purity and luminous statement 
made him supreme in judicial annals. 

5. The distinguished Senator from Caswell was again 
Speaker of the Senate in 1826. Judge Iredell presided in 
the House after the disability of John Stanly. This ex- 
traordinary man had been elected again to preside. 
While in Committee of the Whole and warmly engaged 
in debate, Mr. Stanly was sticken with paralysis, and fell 
back in the arms of Pobert Potter, of Granville. The 
imperious soul which had so long dominated assemblies 
and crowded court houses had crushed its mortal tene- 
ment. He survived a few impotent years, but fiery and 

and Alfred Dockerj' ? 4. Who succeeded Judge Bad<^er on the Supe- 
rior Court bench? o. How was John Stanly's political career ended? 



GOVERNOR BURTON. 185 

brilliant John Stanly had, in effect, perished with the 
advent of his deplorable malady. 

6. Robert Strange, of Cumberland, and James Martin, 
of Rowan, were made Judges of the Superior Courts at 
this session. Judge Strange was a Virginian by birth, 
and Judge ^lartin was a son of the veteran Colonel of 
the same name, who did so much good service in the 
Revolution. These new Judges took the places of Pax- 
ton, dead, and Nash, resigned. 

7. President Adams claimed to be a Republican, but 
the bulk of that party had arrayed itself against his ad- 
ministration. The opposing factions of the nation be- 
came known simply as Adams and Jackson men. The 
political hobby of the day was internal improvement by 
the General Government. Six millions of dollars were 
expended upon the Cumberland road. In 1827, under 
the usual appropriation bill for surveys, many insignifi- 
cant jobs were reported, which so disgusted Congress that 
the system was abandoned. Since that day the improve- 
ment of rivers and harbors and aid to great railway lines 
of national importance have displaced these petty schemes 
for local advantage. 

8. Bartlett Yancey presided for the last time in the 
Senate during the session of 1827. His death occurred 
during the next year, after his re-election but before the 
meeting of the Assembly. His influence for twenty 
years had been in North Carolina almost ec^ual to that of 
Colonel Harvey, Edward Moseley or Samuel Swann. 
He was the leader and support of all those who labored 

G. Wliat two Ju(lo-es were elected in 1820? 7. How were political 
parties then designated ? 8. What is said of Bartlett Yancey? 9. 



186 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

for the development of the State's resources. He it was 
that remodeled the Supreme Court, and brought order 
out of confusion by salutary regulation of the Treasurer's 
and Comptroller's offices. 

9. A mysterious confusion was discovered in the Treas- 
urer's accounts upon the death of John Haywood, who 
had been in office since 1789. This venerable man had 
been a pattern and exemplar of all that is noble and true 
in manly character, and no one attributed wrong to him, 
but to some trusted subordinate, who availed himself of 
the infirmities of the Treasurer's old age to abuse his con- 
fidence. No man had lived in the State who had received 
a larger measure of A^eneration and confidence than John 
Haywood. His cousin, Judge Haywood, who bore the 
same name, had years before left for Tennessee, where he 
attained high civil and literar}^ honor. 

10. Tliomas Settle, of Rockingham, late a member of 
Congress, was chosen Speaker of the House in this same 
session of 1827. Eobert Potter, of Granville, in the reck- 
less craving for notoriety wdiich characterized his life, in- 
troduced two bills which excited a profound sensation. 
The first suggested fraud and irregularities in the man- 
agement of the banks, and was only defeated in the 
House by the casting vote of Mr. Speaker Settle. The 
second was a proposition to reduce the salaries of all the 
Judges. 

11. These dignitaries were at that time paid eighteen 
hundred dollars apiece. After deducting the expense of 
travel, the profits were but small to tlic learned and la- 
borious jurists wlio at tliat day dispensed justice in tlie 
What of Treasurer Ilaywootl r* 10. VVliat did Robert Potter attempt ? 



GOVKTIXOK r.rRTON. 187 

State. Hamilton C. Jones, of Kowan, made a brilliant de^ 
fence of tlie Bench and discomfited the brutal agrarian, 
who was to bring a still more lasting disgrace upon his 
n,anio. 

12. Among the debutants of this Assembly were John 
H. AVlieeler of Hertford, W. J. Alexander of Meckleur 
burg and William Montgomery of Orange. Governor 
Burton was succeeded in ofhce by Judge Iredell. Wih 
liam Robards, of Granville^ became Treasurer in place of 
John Haywood, deceased, 

13. The Congressional delegation of 1827 consisted of 
Willis Alston of Halifax, David L. Barringer of Wake, 
Jolm H. Bryan of Craven, Samuel P. Carson of Burke, 
Henry W. Connor of Lincoln, John Culpepper of Mont- 
gomer}^, Thomas H. Hall of Edgecombe, Gabriel Holmes 
of Sampson, John Long of Randolph, Lemuel Sawyer of 
Camden, Augustin H. Shepherd of Stokes, Daniel Turner 
of Warren, and Lewis Williams of Surry, 

14. Colonel Edward Jones was this year succeeded in 
office as Solicitor General b}^ John Scott, of Hillsboro, 
Mr. Jones had been the foster-father of the gallant John- 
son Blakely. He was an able advocate, and greatl}^ dis- 
tiuguished himself in his conflicts with Judge Haywood, 
when the latter resigned and undertook the defence of 
Colonel Glasgow and the land ring. 

15. AVith the advent of 1828. there came a renewal of 
the contest between Jackson and Adams for the Presir 
dency of the nation. The former was elected by almost 
.an hundred majority of the electoral votes. The Adams 

1-2. Who were new members of 1827 ? 13. Wlio were Congressmen 
(4 tluU year;? 1-1. Wliat is said of Colonel Jones and Captali^ 



188 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

moil at that time called themselves National Hepu])licaiiSj 
and advocated high protective tariffs, internal improve^ 
ments by the General Government and a latitudinous 
construction of the Constitution. General Jackson and 
his supporters opposed these doctrines. He had gained 
the most brilliant military victory in war annals, and 
was soon to become as greatly distinguished for his con^ 
summate ability as a statesman and party leader. 

16. General Jackson, upon his inauguration, appointed 
John Branch, of Halifax, as Secretary of the Navy ; but 
he did not retain that position long, as domestic troubles 
in the Cabinet resulted in his and others retiring, 

17. Jesse Speight, of Green, was Speaker of the Senate 
in 1828, and Thomas Settle filled a similar relation to 
the House of Commons. To this Assembly, Nathaniel 
Macon tendered his resignation of the places he held, as 
United States Senator, Trustee of the Universit}^ and Jus-^ 
tice of the Peace for Warren county, Mr. Macon had 
been in public life for a half century, and upon reaching 
the age of sevent}^ executed a long-formed purpose of re» 
tiring to privacy and rest, 

18. He was one of the truest and best of men, and, if 
John Randolph spoke truly, the wisest of his age. Though 
deeply Democratic in his views, he was no mere partisan, 
and opposed his party on all occasions when he differed 
from their conclusions. Pie said, in 1835, that he was '% 
Baptist in his religious views, but did not subscribe to all 
that they taught." Simple in his habits and direct in all 

Blakely? lo. Who was electotl in 1828 to the Presidency ? IG. Who 
was ijiade Secretary of the y.avy? 17, AVhilt is s:;i<-l of Mr, M^eoirs 



GOVEIINOR OWEN. 180 

liis speech and actions, he became the embodiment of an- 
tique heroism and resolution. 

19. In the session of 1828 was seen Hardy B. Croom, of 
Lenoir. He was graduated at Chapel Hill in 1816. He 
had made large attainments in law and letters, when his 
unfortunate death occured off Cape Hatteras, in the ship 
Home. This was one of the earliest sea-going steamers, 
Mr. Croom, his wife and two daughters perished together 
on that filial coast, which has been so fearful to mariners 
ever since its discovery, 

20. John Owen, of Bladen, became Governor this year, 
in place of James Iredell. He was the son of Colonel 
Thomas Ovren, of the Revolution, and brother of General 
James Owen, of Wilmington. To a fine understanding^ 
he added the Cape Fear virtues of generosity, kindness 
and most gracious hospitality. 

21. General Jackson became President March 4th, 1829, 
and was at once recognized as one of the greatest rulers 
America had known. He was firmly fixed in the doc^ 
trines which assure popular government, and opposed all 
monopolies and the aggressive tendencies which capital 
and privilege are ever manifesting. The greatest men in 
both Houses of Congress were soon to be arrayed against 
him ; but he was to triumph over Messrs. Clay, Calhouia 
and Webster conjoined and establish ever}^ point of his 
great and varied policy. 

22. No other North Carolinian ever so impressed him^ 
self on his age and countrymen. Mr. Macon was larger 
in the public councils and was more universally admired, 

resiiJ-nation ? 19. Who was drownod on the steamship Home. 20. 
Who was Governor after James Ireddl'? 21, V/Jieii dKl Gen,era\ 



100 HISTORY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

Lut Lis was the wisdom of a Newton, Andrew Jackson 
stood as Agamemnon, a born ruler and leader of men. 

23. North Carolina frojxi the first ^as one of those 
States which hesitated as to the great issues then dividing 
the two wings of the Kepublican party. General Jackson 
was always supported personally, and did not fail to rcr 
ceive the electoral votes of the >5tate; but many of the 
leading minds of the Commonwealth soon dissented from 
much of his bold policy. 

Jackson become Piesideal; of the United States? 22. What is said of 
liiin as a statesman ? 23. What were the relations ot K'orth Carolin?. 
^0 hUn? 




GOVERNOIl o\vii:N". 101 

CHAPTER XXA^I. 

A. D. 18 2 9 TO 1833. 

Assembly of 1829— The Eastern Fisheries -Increase in the Cultun^ of 
Cotton— CongTessmen in lS29—Genen)! Jackson and the Uiiitec] 
States Bank— OpHMiin^-of the Dismal Swamp Canal— North Caro- 
lina Baptist State Convention— Assembly of 1830— D. F. (^ihl- 
well and Charles Fisher, Speakers— Governor Owen and Judge 
Mangum— Montford Stokes becomes Governor— Assembly of 
1831- Louts D. Henry and Thomas J. Stanly— Burning of the 
State Hon.^e in 1832 — Judge Swain — North Carolinians in other 
States — Jackson and the Opposition — Co'igressmen— The Great 
Issues in 1&32— William D. Moseley— Hugii McQueen— Death 
of Chief-Justice Taylor— The first North Carolina Riulroads— 
William A. Graham. 

^^EDFORD Brown, in the Senate, and AVilliam -j. Alex- 
^^R ancler, in the House, were the presiding officers of 
1829. Dr. Alexander, of Mecklenburg, belonged to the 
large family so conspicuous in the Revolution. Daniel 
M. Barringer of Cabarrus, Samuel T. Sawyer of Chowan, 
John D. Eccles of Favetteyille, William D. Moseley of 
Lenoir and Richmond M. Pearson of Rowan were all 
brilliant debutants.. ' 

2. The fisheries in the eastern sounds and rivers had 
been productive ever since the earliest discoveries under 
Amadas and Barlow ; but the means of capturing the 
fish had been slightly improved over ihe rude nets and 
weirs of the Indians. About 1815, long seines, drawn in 
by horses and windlasses, were introduced. This added 
immensely to the number taken. Herring, shad, striped 
bass and sturi^eon were, and have continued since to be 



192 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

more abundant than any^vhere else on the coast of the 
United States. 

3. Cotton and its culture had received a might}^ im- 
pulse in Witney's invention of the saw-gin. Soon tobacco 
had ceased to be the staple in large regions, and the 
greatest of textile products had taken its place. The 
profits realized in cotton culture in tlie Southern States 
led to a large removal of slaves and their masters, and 
made the latter more intolerant of any discussion as to 
the justice or profit of that species of labor. 

4. In 1829, Willis Alston of Halifax, D. M. Barringer 
of Wake, S. P. Carson of Burke, H. W. Connor of Lincoln, 
T. H. Hall of Edgecombe, Lewis Williams of Surry, Ed- 
mund Deberry of Montgomery, Edward B. Dudley of New 
Hanover, Robert Potter, of Granville, Abraham Rencher 
of Chatham, Jesse Speight of Greene, William B. Shep- 
herd of Pasquotank, and Augustin H. Shepherd of Stokes, 
were chosen as members of Congress. 

5. General Jackson, in his first message, denied both 
the constitutionality and expedienc}^ of the United States 
Bank. This was the beginning of a great and protracted 
political struggle. Members of North Carolina had been 
strangely divided in all the votes for re-charter, at 
different times since 1791. Republicans had voted for 
and against the renewal without regard to party. The 
President had at last rallied a party to oppose its contin- 
uance as dangerous to the public weal. 

Questions.-- Wlio prosided in the Assembly of 1829? 2. What is 
said of the fisheries in the East? 3. What of tobacco and cotton? 
4. Who were members of Con^jress in 1839? 5. What is said of Gen- 
eral Jackson anil tiie United. States Banl^s? G. What of tlie Dismal 



GOVERNOR STOKES. 193 

f). The Dismal Swamp Canal at last had been opened 
for traffic. It had been commenced in 1790. A great 
change was soon effected in the eastern counties. The 
large brigs which had so long been plying to the West 
Indies and encountering the storms of Hatteras, fell into 
disuse ; for all tropical supplies were soon brought with 
infinitely more safety by the canal boats from Norfolk. 

7. In 1830, the North Carolina Baptist State Conven- 
tion was established, and its first session held in the vil- 
lage of Greenville, in Pitt county. Rev. P. W. Dowd, of 
Wake, w^as made President. Revs. Thomas Meredith, 
Samuel Wait, John Armstrong, W. P. Biddle, and Peter 
P. Lawrence and Charles W. Skinner, laymen, w^ere the 
most prominent members and promoters of the new 
movement Though a feeble body then, the independent 
churches were soon enlisted in its furtherance, and great 
good has been effected under its ministrations. 

8. David F, Caldwell in the Senate and Charles Fisher 
in the House, both being from Rowan county, presided 
in the Assembly of 1830. Montford Stokes, of Wilkes, 
became Governor, in place of John Owen, of Bladen. In 
the contest for United States Senator, there was a serious 
misunderstanding between Governor Owen and Judge 
W. P. Mangum, the successful candidate. It w^as happily 
arranged, and the hostile meeting, so imminent, averted. 

9. Governor Owen was no more in public life, except 
his presidency of the Harrisburg Whig Convention of 
1840, when he declined the nomination of his party for 
the Vice-Presidenc}^, and thereby failed to become Presi- 

Swanip Canal ? 7. What of tlie Nortli Carolina Baptist State Conven- 
tion ? 8. Wliat of the Assembly of 1S30? 9. How did Governor 

9 



194 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

dent of the United States, which would have occurred 
had he been less delicate and scrupulous. Judge Man- 
gum became one of the leading Senators in the august ■ 
body to which he was accredited. In eloquence and par- 
liamentary skill he had no suj^eriors, and his views on 
points of order became almost as authoritative as Jeffer- 
son's Manual. 

10. In the Assembly of 1831, there was no change as 
to presiding officers. Among the debutants were John 
Bragg of Warren, Godwin C. Moore of Hertford, John R. 
J. Daniel of Halifax and John M. Dick of Guilford. 

11. Among the ablest of the older members was elo- 
quent and polished Louis D. Henry of Cumberland. 
Years before, in some trivial way, he became involved in 
a duel, in which he slew Thomas J. Stanly, a younger 
brother of him who, in a similar w^ay, had taken the life 
of the first Governor, R. D. Spaight. 

12. A serious misfortune occurred in the accidental 
burning of the State House, in the month of June. The 
loss of the building was not so much deplored as the de- 
struction of Canova's statue of Washington, recently pur- 
chased in Italy. This was a noble figure, seated and in 
Roman costume. It was said to have been one of the 
famous sculptor's masterpieces. 

13. David L. Swain, then a Judge of the Superior 
Courts was elected Governor the same year. His fine 
natural endowments and unwearied assiduity had already 
lifted him to fame and fortune. His heart overflowed 

Owen miss being President of the United States? 10. What of tlie 
Assembly of 1831 ? 11. What is said of Louis D. Henry ? 12. Wliat 
house was burned in 1831 ? 13. Who became Governor that year ? 



GOVERNOR SWAIN. 195 

with love for North Carolina, and no man lias done more 
for her historic vindication. 

14. Emigration to the South and West had long been 
an exhausting drain upon the best interests of the State- 
Genius, wealth and enterprise were continually withdraw- 
ing from North Carolina and ennobling other Common- 
wealths. Colonel Benton had gone to Missouri, and was 
United States Senator from that State ; Judges Hugh L. 
White and Spencer Jarnagin were in the same body from 
Tennessee ; William R. King, late of Sampson, was also 
a Senator from Alabama. 

15. Death had also been busy with the best. Dr. David 
Caldwell, of Guilford, had died in 1824; Judge A. D. 
Murphy in 1829, and in 1828 also James F. Taylor, At- 
torne}^ General of the State. 

16. North Carolina, with embarrassed finances and a 
bitter sectional struggle, silently awaited the development 
of affairs about AVashington. An excitement even sur- 
passing that consequent upon the passage of the Alien 
and Sedition laws was close at hand. Henry Clay was 
building up a formidable opposition, but their policy was 
yet chaotic and undefined. Colonel Nicholas Biddle and 
the Bank were recognized as the agents of General Jack- 
son's enemies, and he was not the man to forgive or re- 
lent. A warfare as of the Titans was clearly discernable, 
and the ''Hero of the Hermitage" girded up his loins and 
made ready for the conflict. 

17. Judge Mangum and Bedford Brown were at this 
time United States Senators from North Carolina. In 



14. What distinguished emigrants from the State are mentioned? 

15. Who died about the time in question? 16. Who was leading the 



196 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

the House the delegation consisted of D. M. Barringer, 
Lauchlin Bethune, John Branch, S. P. Carson, H. W. 
Connor, T. H. Hall, M. T. Hawkins, J. J. McKay, Abra- 
ham Kencher, William B. Shepherd, A. H. Sheoherd, 
Jesse Speight and Lewis Williams. 

18. The excitement of another Presidential canvass was 
upon North Carolina in 1832. The electoral vote was 
given to General Jackson. He had vetoed the bank 
charter in July. South Carolina was threatening Nulli- 
fication unless the American system should be repealed. 
The Whig party attained its full proportions upon the 
removal of the public deposits from the keeping of the 
United States Bank. 

19. William D. Moseley, a descendant of Edward Mose- 
ley of colonial times, presided in the Senate of 1832. He 
was a Chapel Hill man of the Class of 1818, and had in- 
herited some of his ancestor's great ability. His coadju- 
tor in the chair of the House was Louis D. Henry. David 
Outlaw and Lewis Thompson, of Bertie, first appeared in 
this Assembly. Thomas Dews of Rutherford, William 
A. Graham of Orange and others had been their class- 
mates at Chapel Hill. They were both able and patri- 
otic and destined to large usefulness. 

20. Hugh McQueen, of Chatham, was also a debutant 
in this Assembly. He was eloquent as erratic, and was 
fast achieving eminence as a lawyer. 

21. Chief-Justice Taylor had died in 1829, and was 
succeeded by Judge Henderson. Judge Toomer had 

opposition? 17. Who were in Congress? IS. Wlio was elected Presi- 
dent of tlie United States in 1832 ? 19. What is said of the Assembly 
of that year? 20. What of Hugh McQueen? 21. Who succeedea 



I 



GOVERNOR S^VAIN, 197 

been appointed to the same tribunal, and upon his speedy 
resignation, Judge Ruffin, of the Superior Court, was pro^ 
moted. Henry Seawell and Thomas Settle were made 
Judges of the Superior Courts during the same session. 

22. In 1830, -an act passed chartering the Petersburg 
."Railway. Two years later the Portsmouth and Roanoke 
Railroad was likewise granted corporate privileges in 
North Carolina, A single line in South Carolina, and a 
few in the North, were all that had preceded them in the 
United States, A great advancement was fast coming to 
the traffic and travel of the n^ition, The vast reaches 
of the American Republic presented to wise outside ob« 
servers a bar to any unity of thought and interest, but 
steam and electricity have triumphed over the difficulties 
of space, and the country is, in 1879, far more compact; 
and accessible in reality th^i^ were the Atlantic States iu 
1787, 

23, In 1833, W. D. Moseley, in the Senate, and W. J, 
Alexander, .in the Commons, were presiding officers, 
Among the new members was William A- Grraham, of 
Orange, He was the son of General Joseph Graham, and, 
having been graduated at Chapel Hill in 1824, had al- 
ready woix prominence at the Hillsboro bar. This, up to 
a year past, had iricluded Thomas Ruffin, A. P. Murphy, 
Willie P, Mangum, Frederick Nash, George E, Badger, 
Francis L. Hawks, W. H. Haywood and Bartlett Yancey, 
In such an array, the elaborate preparation, fine elocu^ 
tion and majestic presence of Mr. Graham had already 
established his prestige and assured his success, At onc§ 

Chief Justice Taylor? 22. When were the first railroads charterecl \[\ 
North Carolina? 28. What is saic] of Wm. A. Grtvlnim? 



198 



PISTORV OF NORTH CAEOLINA, 



« 



he seemed full panoplied in an .arena where successful 
contest is generally the result of close and laborious years 
of training. No man was ever more be3^ond reproach 
and the imputation of any failing than Wijliain Alexan^ 
d^T Graham? 




GOVEKNOR SWAIN. 199 

- CHAPTER XXVII. 

A. D. 1834 TO 1838. 

Railroad Convention — Congressmen — The Wilmington and Raleigh 
Railroad— Assembly of 1834 — The Second Governor Spaight — The 
Convention Bill — Convention of 1835 meets in Raleigh — The 
Changes eflected — Edward B. Dudley becomes Governor — Gene- 
ral Jackson retires from office— His Measures — Hugh Waddell and 
W. H. Haywood, Jr., Congressmen — The Siiprerae Court of North 
Carolina — The Circuit Judges — Death of Gavin Hogg— The North 
Carolina Bar — Congressmen — Martin Van Buren — The United 
States Bank — Lewis Williams and others on the Admission of Ar- 
kansas — Assembly of 1838. 

^|M]^|HEN the year 1834 had come, the interest in the 
^^^^^ building of railroads was but increased in inten- 
sity. In the previous year a convention had been held 
in which W. A. Graham and Joseph A. Hill were the 
chief spokesmen. Mr. Graham advocated the establish- 
ment of a system of lines traversing the State north and 
south, while Mr. Hill, with great zeal, pressed the expe- 
diency of adopting the opposite directions of the compass. 

2. In the Summer elections, the following members of 
the 23d Congress were chosen : D. M. Barringer, Jesse A. 
Bynum, H. W. Connor, Edmund Deberry, James Graham, 
Thos. H. Hall, M. T. Hawkins, J. J. McKay, Abraham 
Rencher, A¥. B. Shepherd, A. H. Shepherd, Jesse S^Deight 
and Lewis Williams. 

3. The citizens of Wilmington, in 1833, had inaugu- 
rated a route which was to connect Weldon with their 

Questions.— What is said of the Railroad Convention of 1833 ? 3. 
\MiaL of the Wilmington and Weldou route? 4. Who became Gover- 



200 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

town. This was for some time the longest railway in 
the world, and reflected the greatest credit on the en- 
terprise of the Cape Fear people. Subscriptions, equaling 
the value of the city real estate, started the enterprise at 
the head of which were Messrs. E. B. Dudley, W. H. Cowan, 
P. K. Dickinson, James Owen, W. B. Meares, W. P. Hort 
and Alexander McRae. 

4. In 1834, the Assembly continued the previous Speak- 
ers, and elected another Pichard Dobbs Spaight as Gov- 
ernor. He was an elegant gentleman but lacked much 
of equalling his father in ability as a statesman. 

5. The long struggle for changes in the Constitution of 
1776 was this year concluded. On a close vote, by aid of 
eastern borough meinbers, the Legislature called a Con- 
vention, provided a popular majority should endorse the 
proposition. The bill contained a clause providing that 
in case a majority should ratify the call, then each mem- 
ber of the Convention, before taking his seat, should take 
an oath that he would not be a party to any further al- 
terations in the Constitution than those specified in the 
enabling act. 

6. The majorities in the west of course controlled in 
the matter, although eastern members voted almost unan- 
imously against any change. It was urged that the Leg- 
islature had exceeded its powers in attempting to limit 
the capacity of a body representing the sovereignty of the 
people. 

7. The Convention met in Palcigh on June 4th, 1835, 
and made Nathaniel Macon, of Warren, its President. 
There were many of the ablest men of the State elected 
nor that year? 5. What contest ended in 1834? 7. When did tlie 



I 



GOVERNOR SPAIGIIT. 201 

members. Messrs. Gaston, Swain, Owen, Outlaw, Gaitlier, 
Rayner, McQueen, Bryan, Daniel, Toomer, Meares, More- 
head, Gilliam, Seawell, Edwards, Bailey, Smith, Dockery, 
Biggs, Skinner, Spaight, Speight, Fisher and Wilson, were 
the most prominent, and possessed abilities to confer honor 
upon any deliberative body. 

8. Borough representation was abolished, and the coun- 
ties were to send members of the House of Commons ac- 
cording to population. The fifty Senators were to be 
based upon the relative tax-paying capacity of the coun- 
ties. This gave the west control of the House, while the 
east, by its superior wealth, still retained command in the 
Senate. Free persons of color had been voting by suffer- 
ance but not under any specific legal right ; this was for- 
bidden. The Governor's election was transferred from 
the Legislature to the people. Sessions of the Assembly 
were made biennial instead of annual. 

9. These organic changes were ratified by a majority of 
more than five thousand voters. The east, to the last 
contending against the changes, was outvoted by the peo- 
ple, who, for the first time saw the large western popula- 
tion in a condition to make themselves felt in legislation. 

10. General Jackson's removal of the deposits had re- 
sulted in the formation of the Whig party in every State 
of the Union. They nominated Edward B. Dudley, of 
Wilmington, as their candidate for Governor of North 
Carolina, in opposition to the re-election of Governor 
Spaight who was the choice of the Democrats. Mr. Dud- 
second Constitutional Convention meet ? 8. Wiiat changes were made? 
9. What majority ratified the amended Constitution? 10. What act of 



202 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ley triumphed by a handsome majority, and the Whigs 
assumed control of the State. 

11. General Jackson ceased to be President of the Uni- 
ted States in 1837. He had created violent political an- 
imosities, and, by his policy, some times endangered the 
public peace ; but he was, for all that, a great and patri- 
otic ruler, and had accomplished much for the good and 
glory of the nation. He was unquestionably the greatest 
man to whom North Carolina has yet given birth, and 
will be famous for all time. 

12. Under his rule the Sub-Treasury had been estab- 
lished and the funds so accumulated that thirty-seven 
and a half million of dollars, arising from the sale of pub- 
lic lands, were distributed among the several States for 
the establishment of Common Schools. About fifteen 
hundred thousand dollars were thus bestowed upon North 
Carolina for the benefit of children, so many of whom 
had hitherto been unable to go to school at all. 

13. Hugh Waddell, of Orange, a descendant of the col- 
onial general of the same name, presided in the Senate, 
and W. H. Haywood, of Wake, was Speaker of the House, 
in the Assembly of 1836. These were very elegant and 
eloquent gentlemen, and were both graduates of Chapel 
Hill. 

14. Dr. T. H. Hall of Edgecombe, long a prominent 
member of Congress, Robert B. Gilliam of Granville, 
James T. Morehead of Guilford, Kenneth Rayner of Hert- 
ford, Andrew Joyner of Halifax, INIichael Hoke of Lin- 
coln, Alfred M. Dockery of Richmond, W. A. Graham of 

General Jackson preceded the formation of the Whi^^partj^? 11. 
What is said of Jackson as a ruler ? 13. Who were Speakers in 1836 ? 



GOVERNOR DUDLEY. 203 

Orange, David S. Reid of Rockingham, Josiali T. Gran- 
berry of Perquimans, Weston R. Gales of Wake, and W. 
N. Edwards of Warren, were leading members of this able 
body. 

15. Chief Justice Leonard Henderson had died in 1833, 
and was succeeded by Judge Ruffin. The great lawyer 
and statesman, William Gaston, of Craven, was elected to 
the Supreme Court to supply the vacancy. Judges Ruf- 
fin, Daniel and Gaston constituted a tribunal which has 
never been surpassed for learning, purity and exposition 
of the law. 

16. Judge Seawell died in 1835, others resigned, and 
their places were filled with new Judges. In 1836, the Su- 
perior Court Bench was composed of Judges Settle, Saun- 
ders, Dick, Bailey, Nash, Pearson and Toomer, and their 
respective salaries were, at this period, nineteen hundred 
and fifty dollars a year. 

17. Gavin Hogg died this year and left the lead of the 
lawyers in the able keeping of Judge Badger, who had 
resigned from the Superior Courts and gone back to the 
bar. Thomas Bragg, Spier Whitaker, B. F. Moore, Au- 
gustus ^loore, W. N. H. Smith, and David Outlaw, were 
all establishing their fame in the east, while Haywood, 
Graham, the Moreheads, and Hoke, were of equal distinc- 
tion in the central and western counties. 

18. The North Carolina delegation to the House of Rep- 
resentatives of the 28th Congress consisted of Messrs. By- 
num, Edward Stanly, C. B. Shepherd, Hawkins, McKay, 
Deberry, Renclier, William Montgomery, A. H. Shepherd, 

14. Who Congressmen in 1837? 15. Who were Judges of Supreme 
Court? 16. Of the Superior Courts? 17. What able lawyer died la 



204 HISTORY OF NOETH CAROLINA. 

James Graham, Connor and Lewis Williams. Jndge 
Strange had been elected to the United States Senate the 
year before. This new Senator was a Democrat and dis- 
tinguished for his graces as a scholar and orator 

19. Martin VanBuren, of New York, succeeded General 
Jackson m the Presidency of the nation. He was polish- 
ed and adroit as a politician, but did not rise to the level ll 
of true statesmanship. Individual and party success ■' 
bounded the horizon of his hopes, and he was thus a time- W 
server and the man of mere expedients. He was a north- 
ern man with southern principles in 1836, and the candi- 
date of the Buffalo Convention in 1848. 

20. North Carolina, in common with other States felt 
the monetary crisis produced in the expiring agonies of 
the United States Bank. The Sub-Treasury was bv this 
time fairly established and the financial disorders soon 
corrected themselves. 

21. Mr. Jefferson and Virginia had established the pre- 
cedent of excluding slavery from the territory of the Uni- 
ted States. Upon Arkansas' applying for admission, in ' 
1839, many men of the North, like Lewis Williams and 
other Southerners, voted against the admission of the new 
State on the same principle. This was in the face of the 
Missouri Compromise and awoke gloomy anticipations 

22. Colonel Andrew Joyner, of Halifax, presided in the 
Senate, and William A. Graham in the House, during the 
session of 1838. The Whigs were in control of both 
branches of the Legisl ature. W. W. Cherry of Bertie, 

1836? 18. Who from North Carolina attended as mombe;s of "^ 
28thCongress? 19. What is said of President VanBuren? 20 What 
of the crisis? 31. What about the admission of Arkansas? 22' What J 



GOVERNOR DUDLEY. 205 

■Willicam Eaton, Jr., of Warren, G. W. Caldwell of Meck- 
lenburg, and C. H. Brogden of Wayne, were among the 
debutants. 

23. The second term of Governor Dudley was opposed 
by John Branch, but the latter w^as defeated and was no 
more in public life in North Carolina. He became Gov- 
ernor of the Territory of Florida, in 1843^ by appointment 
of President Tyler. 

24. Bishop Ravenscroft had died, and was succeeded 
by Rev. Dr. Lilliman Ives. The latter had been educated 
at the West Point Militar}^ Academy, and was a pulpit 
orator of great power. 

is said of the Assembly of 1838 ? 23. What of John Brancli? 24. 
What of Bisliop Ravenscroft and Dr. Ives ? 




20G HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

A. D. 1839 TO 1844. 

North Carolina Congressmen in 1839— Colonel James A. McKay- 
Kenneth Rayner— 21st Rule— Davidson College — Wake Forest 
College— Common Schools — Judge Murphy and Dr. Joseph Cald- 
well— Campaign of 1840— J. M. Morehead, Governor— Messrs. 
Mangum and Graham, United States Senators — Death of Presi- 
dent Harrison — Judge Badger — John Tyler and the Whigs — 
Assembly of 1842 — Bedford Brown and R. M. Saunders — United j 
States Bank and Colonel Biddle — Death of Lewis Williams — 
Congressmen — Governor Graham and Colonel tloke — Assembly ' 
of 1844— Death" of Judge Gaston— James K. Polk— The Whigs 
Ruined. J 

f|N 1839, the North Carolina Congressional delegation 
I consisted of Bedford Brown and Robert Strange in 
the Senate, and Jesse A. Bynum of Halifax, H. W. Con- 
nor of Lincoln, Edmund Deberry of Montgomery, Charles 
Fisher of Rowan, James Graham of Rutherford, Micajah 
T. Hawkins of Warren, John Hill of Stokes, J. J. McKay 
of Bladen, William Montgomer}^ of Orange, Kenneth 
Rayner of Hertford, Charles B. Shepherd of Craven, Ed- 
ward Stanly of Beaufort and Lewis Williams of Surry, in 
the House. 

2. Colonel McKay had greatly distinguished himself, 
and w^as chairman of the House committee on Ways and 
Means. In heading off William Slade, of Vermont, in a 
famous speech of the latter which threatened to precipi- 
tate a collision on the floor of the Capitol, he exhibited a 
coolness and depth of resources that were admirable. Mr. 
Rayner also took a prominent stand pn the Whig side of 
the House, and was a speaker of gretit reputation, 



GOVERNOR DUDLEY. 207 

8. An unhappy spirit of resentment was taking posses- 
sion of the nation, on both sides, as to the subject of abo- 
lition petitions. The North resented Mr. Patton's famous 
21st rule as an abridgement of Constitutional rights, 
while the South lost all philosophic inquiry into the jus- 
tice and expediency of their peculiar system, in what 
they regarded as a rude intrusion upon their affairs. 

4. Thus, in a frantic struggle, freedom of speech on a 
great subject of natural right was destroyed in the South. 
Slavery entailed injuries both on master and servant, and 
the excited emancipationists for the time but increased 
the hardships of the bondsmen. 

5. Education was receiving unwonted attention in 
North Carolina. The Presbyterian Synod had established 
in 1838 the college wdiich was called in honor of General 
Davidson, of the Revolution. The Baptists had converted 
their high school at Wake Forest at the same time into a 
college. These noble denominational seminaries, together 
with the University at Chapel Hill, afforded large oppor- 
tunities for culture. 

6. In 1840 was the first effective legislation for the es- 
tablishment of a system of common schools. By act of 
the Assembly of 1836, the Governor and three others to 
be appointed by him were constituted the Literary Board. 
A fund arising from the sum received from distribution, 
the sale of swamp lands and shares in the banks owned 
by the State was invested and held for the benefit of pop- 
ular education. 

Questions. — Mention some of the Congressmen of 1839. 2. Who 
was Chah-man of the Committee of Ways and Means'? 3. What was 
the feeling about abolition petitions? 4. What is said of freedom of 
speech? 5. What of Davidson and Wake Forest Colleges? G. What 



208 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

7. Judge Murphy and Dr. Joseph Caldwell had labored 
persistently to bring about the proper legislation in this 
matter. In 1839, an act to divide the counties into dis- 
tricts was passed. It left to each county the option of 
schools or no schools. Nearly all the counties decided to 
be taxed for the buildings necessary in the w^ork. The 
school districts were six miles square. 

8. The Presidential canvass of 1840 resulted in a great 
defeat to the Democrats. General Harrison had taken 
his enemies by storm, and Martin Van Buren was found 
to be a load too great for success on that occasion. The 
coon-skins, hard cider and log cabins were very ridiculous 
adjuncts in debating the bank, tariff and sub-treasury, 
but were none the less effective. 

^ 9. Governor Dudley's term, by Constitutional limita- 
tion, had nearly expired, when the Whigs nominated 
John Motley Morehead, of Guilford, as his successor. 
Both he and his competitor, Judge R. M. Saunders, were 
Chapel Hill men, and of consummate force as popular 
speakers. It was, perhaps, as ably conducted as any can- 
vass ever seen in North Carolina, and resulted in a Whig 
victory. 

10. Messrs. Graham and Mangum,both of Orange, were 
in 1841 in the United States Senate. In the House were 
Kenneth Rayner, J. R. J. Daniel, Edward Stanly, W. H. 
Washington, J. J. McKay, A. H. Arrington, Edmund De- 
berry, R. M. Saunders, A. H. Shepherd, Abraham Rench- 
er, G. W. Caldwell , James Graham and Lewis Williams. 

was done in 1840 as to Common Schools? 7. Who are mentioned as 
having labored for popular edncation ? 8. Who became President in 
1840? 9. Who Governor? 10. Who Congressmen? 11. Who was 



GOVERNOR MOREHEAD. 209 

11. General Harrison had taken his place as President 
of the United States only a month, when his unfortunate 
death occurred. Judge Badger had been appointed Sec- 
retary of the Navy. The new President soon gave the 
party which had elected him grounds for uneasiness in 
the special session of Congress, which had been called by 
General Harrison previous to his death. Upon the pas- 
sage of the bill re-chartering the United States Bank, the 
Whigs found that a radical difference existed between 
them and the man they had made Chief Magistrate of the 
nation. Perhaps no great body of men in the world's 
history have ever been more cruelly deceived. 

12. The Democrats elected a majority of the Legisla- 
ture in 1842, and General Louis D. Wilson, of Edgecombe, 
was made President of the Senate. He was a man of 
singular devotion, and was to illustrate his sincerity with 
life itself. Calvin Graves, of Caswell, was made Speaker 
of the House. He was very quiet and firm, and rose to 
the level of the greatest responsibilities. 

13. Thomas S. Ashe of Anson, Thomas Bragg of North- 
ampton, W. W. Avery and T. E. Caldwell of Burke, D. 
M. Bar ringer of Cabarrus and D. K. McRae of Cumber- 
land were among the debutants. 

14. Though the Democrats had carried the Legislature, 
Governor Morehead was again elected over the able and 
eloquent Louis D. Henry, then of Wake. A contest arose 
in this Legislature between Bedford Brown and Judge 
Saunders for the United States Senate, which resulted in 
the choice of neither of them. William H. Haywood, of 

made Secretary of the Navy ? 13. Who were Speakers in 1842? 13. 
Who were debutants? 14. Wliat happened hi the Senatorial struggle? 



210 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Wake, was taken as a compromise candidate and elected 
without trouble. He was a lawyer of great respectability, 
and he fully sustained the reputation of his family for 
fine endowments. 

15. The failure of the United States Bank in 1843 pro- 
duced great losses. It had produced great excitement for 
years past, and with it soon passed away its president, 
Colonel Nicholas Biddle, of Philadelphia. He was the 
kinsman of the Shepherd family of New Bern. 

16. Lewis Williams, of Surry, died at his post, in 
Washington, in 1842. He was called the "Father of theA 
House of Representatives," from the fact of his long ser-' 
vice. He served continuously from 1815 to the day of 
his death. He was a blameless and faithful servitor of 
the people, and was one of a family greatly honored in 
North Carolina. Henry Clay, John Q. Adams and other 
great men delivered noble eulogies upon his life and ser- 



vices. 



17. In 1842, Eev. Aldert Smedes established at Raleigh 
the now famous St. Mary's School for young ladies. His 
singular grace and accomplishments and the real excel- 
lence of the means used, soon created a seminary which 
is yet high in the favor of the Southern people. Sound 
learning and a peculiar elegance were soon communicated 
to hundreds of the fairest and best women of the nation, 
at this now celebrated seat of learriing. Dr. Sinedes' re- 
cent death was deplored as a public calamity, and espe- 
cially by the hundreds of his jiupils who are so widely 
the ornaments of society. 

15. What bank failed in 1843? IG. Wl.o died in Con.irressr 17. What 
is said of St. Mary's School and its Principal ? 18. Wliat of tlie Meth- 



GOVEENOH GRAHAM, 211 

18. A year later tlie Methodist Female College of 
Greensboro was established, which was put under the 
charge of the Eev. S. Lea. This soon became a favorite 
and flourishing institution, and was under the charge of 
Dr. C. F, Deems at one time. This able scholar and 
divine within himself was an assurance of the merits of 
the instruction. After many vicissitudes, this excellent 
seminary has arisen from destruction, and is again among 
the foremost in renown and usefulness. 

19. In 1843, the North Carolina delegation to Congress 
consisted of Messrs, Mangum and Haywood in the Senate, 
and Kenneth Rayner, A, H. Arrington, D. M. Barringer, 
T. L. Clingman, Edmund Deberry, R. M. Saunders, J. J, 
McKay, J. R. J. Daniel and D. S. Reid in the House of 
Representatives. ^ 

20. Great bitterness was to be seen in the intercourse 
of men siding with the Whig and Democratic parties. 
Estrangement and hostility v/ere constantly developing 
between the North and South. Colored men, free and 
bond, found curtailment of their privileges, from the fact 
that advocacy of justice to them was odious to a people 
who set down such things as covert abolitionism. Alas 
for the misery and folly of human contentions ! In the 
womb of the near future lay the germs of horrid and last' 
ing retribution. All parties to this great quarrel wei'e to 
pay penalties of blood and agony. 

21. In the August elections of 1844, William A. Gra^ 
ham, of Orange, as candidate of the Whigs, defeated Col" 
onel Michail Hoke, of Lincoln, the choice of the Demo- 

oflist Female College? 19. Who were new members in Congress ? 
20, What was the party feelhig of that day? 21. Who became Gover« 



1 



212 HISTORY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

erats for Governor. This canvass was very brilliant, 
Governor Graham, with his fine presence, majestic oratory 
and unsullied record, was formidably rivalled in the win- 
ning grace and genius of Colonel Hoke. It was a remark 
of antiquity that the favorites of heaven die young. 
Within a month the brilliant son of Lincoln was in his 
grave. A noble career had been arrested in the dawn 
its promise and glory, 

22. The Whigs also carried the Legislature, and Bur- 
gess S. Gaither, of Burke, was made President of the Sen- 
ate, and Edward Stanly, of Beaufort, Speaker of the House. 
Mr. Stanly was son of John Stanly, and imbibed much of 
his extraordinary gifts as well as his partisan bitterness. 

23. W. W. Cherry of Bertie, N. W. Woodfin of Bun. 
combe, John W. Ellis of Rowan aitd David A. Barnes of 
Northampton were all conspicuous as raernbers of this 
Assembly. 

24. The State sustained a great loss in the death of 
Judge Gaston, January 23d5 1844. This illustrious man 
had filled many high positions with equal* honor to the 
commonwealth and himself, and the Bar, Bench and Asc 
sembly united in paying the noblest tributes to his worth, 

25. The Presidential contest of 1844 rivalled its prede- 
cessor in interest Eind excitement. The names of Clay 
and Frelinghuysen thrilled the great AVhig hosts of the 
entire nation. Polk and Dallas, as the result proved, were 
no less effective. Jlenry Clay had long been the most 
splendid and enduring figure ever known as a party 

nor in 1844 ? 22. What is said of tlie Legislature ? 24. What Judge 
fVied in 1844 ? 2o, Who \ycre candidates for tlie Presidency thf\t year ? 



GOVERNOR GRAHAM. 213 

leader in America, but James K, Polk had also won fame 
and consideration, 

26. He was born in Mecklenburg county, North Caro- 
lina, November 2, 1795, and was graduated at Chapel 
Hill, in 1818, with the highest honors of his class. For 
fifteen years he had been in Congress, and had been 
Speaker and Democratic leader in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. His Congressional career terminated with 
his election as Governor of Tennessee. Some inconsider- 
able men have been Governors, but great abilities are es- 
sential to leadership in Congress. 

27. The result of this election was fatal to the Whig 
party. The great issues they had advocated henceforth 
sunk out of sight, and the United States Bank, Distribu- 
tion, and other distinctive matters of policy, were buried. 
It was a cruel disappointment to Mr, Clay and his friends^ 
and the great Kentuckian at last surrendered his high 
ambition to be the President of the United States. 

26. WliQ was James K. Polk ? 27. What effeot did the electiQU have 
on the Whig party? 




214 HISTORy OF NOETH CABOLINA, 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

A. D. 18 4 5 TO 1849. 

The Political Status in 1845— War— Death of W. W. Cherry?— C. R. 
Kinney— Colonel Paine and his North Carolina Regiment— Colo- 
nel Louis D. Wilson — Death of James Allen- — North Carolina 
Gold Mines — Governor Graham Defeats Shepherd— Contri-essmen 
—The year 1848 — -Captain Bragg and Buena Vista — Caroliniang 

in Mexieo— The Chowan Baptist Female Institute Governors 

Reid and Manlj'^- Calvin Graves and R. B. Gilliam— Assembly 
of 1848— W. S. Ashe and the North Carolina Railroad— Miss Dix 
and the Lunatic Asylum— Maiden Lands— Death of Judge Daniel 
—Judge Battle^Congressmen— General Taylor and the Slavery 
Trouble. 

^r^l|HEN the year 1845 liad come upon America, the 
W^!;f^ number of the people had reached about twenty 
millions. President Polk was inaugurated on the 4th of 
March, and in the succeeding July the annexation of 
Texas was accomplished. This was speedily to replace 
the contentions of political parties in the United States 
by a direr conflict with a foreign power. Mexico had 
been unable to enforce her authority over the unaided 
Texans, and now, witli characteristic folly, loudly pro- 
claimed its warlike intents against the American people. 
2. In the Albemarle country, great grief was felt at the 
untimely death of William Walton Cherry, of Bertie. He 
was nephew to the distinguished lawyer, William C-herry, 
who had died in 1810. As a public speaker this gentle- 
man had no superior, while his gracious demeanor and 
real goodness of heart made him universally popular. He 
bad been recently nominated for Congress, and died 



GOVERNOR GRAHAM. 215 

while attending Northampton court. Mr. Charles E. 
Kinney, then the leader of the bar in that section of the 
State, delivered a fine eulogy on Mr. Cherry and died also 
within a month thereafter. 

3. There was soon a conflict on the Texas frontier be- 
tween the United States troops, under General Taylor, 
and the Mexicans. Volunteers were called for by the 
President, and the North Carolina regiment was put un- 
der the command of Colonel Robert Treat Paine, of 
Chowan. John A. Fagg, of Buncombe, was made Lieu- 
tenont Colonel, and Montford F. Stokes, of Wilkes, Major 
in the same command. 

4. Louis D. Wilson, so long the Senator from Edge- 
combe, resigned his seat and went as a volunteer in the 
ranks. A touching scene was witnessed in his taking 
leave of the Legislature. He was made Colonel of a regi- 
ment, by the President, without his knowledge. 

5. Judge Saunders had been appointed in the mean- 
while United States Minister to Spain. He had presided 
at the Baltimore Convention and was largely influential 
in procuring the nominatiion of James K. Polk over Mar- 
tin VanBuren. 

6. James Allen, of Bertie, died at this time. He had 
recentl}^ applied for the command of the regiment given 
to Colonel Paine, and his disappointment contributed to 
his unhappy death. His was a romantic history. Born 
in poverty, by aid from Dr. William Turner he had re- 

QUESTiONS. — When was Texas annexed to the United States? 2. 
What two men of the Albemarle country died in 1845 ? 3. Who com- 
manded the North Carolma regiment sent to Mexico? 4. Who 
left the North Carolma Senate to enlist? 5. Who was made 



216 HISTORY OF XORTH CAROLINA. 

ceived a limited education. He had gone to AVashingtoii 
on foot and secured an appointment to West Point Acad- 
emy, and there graduated with high honors. He attained 
much credit as a lawyer, but fell a victim to disappoint- 
ment and intemperance. 

7. The gold mines of RoAvan were causing excitement 
at this time. As early as 1825, Professor Dennison 01m- 
stead of the University, had visited this region and pro- 
nounced it rich in minerals. In 1842, gold was discover- 
ed on the lands of Andrew Troutman. This spot became 
known as Gold Hill. It was worked by different compa- 
nies, and in eight years yielded more than eight hundred 
thousand dollars. This was before the great findings in 
California and elsewhere. 

8. Governor Graham was re-elected 1846 over James 
B, Shepherd of Wake. The latter did not receive the 
strength of the Democratic party, and was beaten by 
twenty thousand majority. Colonel Joyner, of Halifax, 
and Edward Stanly were again elected as the presiding 
officers of their respective Houses. 

9. North Carolina had supported Mr. Polk in his prop- 
osition to annex Texas, but recoiled from the bloodshed 
consequent upon its acquisition. Colonel Asa Biggs, of 
the Edenton Congressional District, had defeated Colonel 
Outlaw in 1845, but in the revulsion of feeling the latter 
was this time successful. His colleagues at 'Washington 
were Messrs. Thomas L. Clingman, Nathaniel Boyden, 
D. M. Barringer, A. H. Shepherd, A. W. Venable, J. J. 
McKay, J. R. J. Daniel and Richard S. Donnell. 

Minister to Spain y 0. Who w:is James Allen? 7. Where is Gold 
liill ? 8. Who was elected Governor in 184G ? 9. What was the feel- 




A^ .^ 



GOVEllNOR GRAHAM. 217 

10. The year 1S4S was an era of change and commo- 
tion in the civilized worhl. Upheaval and advancement 
were in Europe, while war was still continuing on the 
American continent. Tlie mongrel troops of Mexico had 
been beaten by inferior forces of Americans in every con- 
flict. On the 22d of February, 1847, General Taylor, with 
about five thousand men, was confronted at Buena Vista 
by General Santa Anna, with more than four times that 
force. A surrender of the Americans was demanded ; 
but though they were far from support and in the heart 
of the enemies country, the demand was resolutely re- 
fused. Repeated attacks were defeated, and the most 
brilliant victory wan that has ever been achieved by 
Americans over a foreign foe, with the single exception 
of that of New Orleans. 

11. It was in this battle, when the out-numbered Ameri- 
cans were being dreadfully pressed in front, that a large 
cavalry force succeeded in turning Taylor's left flank. 
Ruin seemed imminent and unavoidable. Almost the 
whole American force was already engaged, when the 
battery of Captain Braxton Bragg, of North Carolina, was 
sent to meet this tremendous danger. Under cover of 
the drifting smoke a position was obtained unseen by the 
cavalry directly in their front. At once the guns opened 
upon the dense columns of the ^lexicans, and great gaps 
were swept through and through. Astounded by this 
unexpected and murderous fire, they recoiled and fled in 
disorder from the field. It was when witnessing this feat, 
which saved the day, that General Taylor shouted, in joy : 
*' Give them a little more grape. Captain Bragg ! " 

iii^ in Xortli Carolina toiichiiii^ the war? 10. Wliat happened at 
10 



218 IIISTOIIY OF NUKTH VAVMLiSA. 

12. Lieutenant Francis T. Bryan, of Raleigh, distin- 
guished himself on this occasion, and was jn'omoted. 
Colonel Louis D. Wilson, commanding the 12th United 
States Infantry^ died on his march to the City of Mexico. 
Captain J. H. K. Burgwynn was killed at Taos. Lie be- 
longed to the 1st United States Dragoons, and by his gal- 
lantry and accomplishments reflected credit on his native 
State. He and Major Samuel McRee, Cieneral Scott's 
< '[)-i<^l Qnal•l>^(•-^h^sl>-r, \\>'i-(- (';»|»^ I'V^ii- dm n. 

b'.. h VV9S during ihis \>iii i!i;ti titp <"!jo\\;ni K<iii;i!<' 
Baptisi Institute was establisht?d by the Ohovvau Associa- 
tion. D]'. Godwin C. Moore, for so many years the ^lod- 
erator of that gre^it lx)dy, was a chief mover, and became 
President of the Trustees. Few institutions have been 
more useful or better appreciated than this excellent sem- 
inary. Througli many States are now scattered- the 
beautiful wives and mothers who received so many of 
their graces at Murfreesboro. 

14. V The contest for the Cbief ^higistracy in 1S18 lay 
between Charles ]\hinly, AVliig, and David S. Reid, Demo- 
crat. A new issue was introduced b}'' Mr. Reid and his 
supporters, whicli proposed tlie abrogation of tlie free- 
hold (jualification of senatorial voters. A man at tbat time, 
to vote for a State Senator, bad {o bold fifty acres of huid. 
Mr. Manly became Governor by a reducoil majority. ITo 
was one of three distinguished brothers. Judge i\Iathias 
E. and Rev. Dr. Basil Manly were, Hke h'uw, uicn of large 
ability, and were originally from Cliatliam County. 

ButMKi Vista? n. Wlwit did (>':ii)ra"m Brao^^ do";' 12. What North 
Carolinians are mentioned as b'^in^- in Mexico ? 13. What female seni, 
inary was founded in \S4S ":' 1 4. Who NYa.s elected (xovernor that year r 



GOVERNOR MANLY. 219 

15. CalvJu (iraves of Caswell, and Robert B. Gilliam 
c)1" (xranville, presided in the two Houses of the Assembly 
of 1.S4S. Mess]-s. Kenneth Rayner and W. N. H. Smith 
of llei'tford, A\'illiam 8. Ashe of New Hanover, James C. 
])ol)bi]i of C\iniberland, John A. Gilmer of Guilford, W. 
H. M^asliington of Craven and Waher L, Steele of Rich- 
mond were the most prominent members. 

10. The railways then in Xorth Carolina were in de- 
])lorable condition. It took more than twelve hours to 
p^o from Gaston to Raleigh. The route to Norfolk was 
])rostrate and unused. William S. Ashe, as chairman of 
the (V)mmittee on Internal Improvements, reported a bill 
for a line from Beaufort to Charlotte. The State gave 
two millions of dollars in its aid. This bill passed the 
House of Commons, and received the sanction of the Sen- 
ate only by t]»e casting vote of President Graves. 

17. This Legislature also established the Lunatic 
Asylum at Raleigh, and called the hill upon which it is 
located in honor of ^liss Dorothea Dix, who so nobly 
labored for its establishment. The dreadful jails were 
before this time tlie only places of confinement for the 
unfortunate persons who had lost their reason. 

18. Another law preserved to married women the lands 
they possessed in their own right. The wasteful or un- 
just luisl)ands could no longer sell their real property 
without tlieir consent, attested before proper lawful of- 
ticei's. 

li>. The Su})reme Coui't was again ])ereaved in 1848, in 
the death of Judge Daniel. He was as good as he was 

ir>. Who presided in the Assembly tliat year? IG. What is said of the 
rail roadie? 17. Of tlje Lunatic AsWmn? IS. Of carried women's 



220 HISTORY OF >'OBTH CAEOLINA. 

learned. Judge Nash had been some time upon thiM 
bench, and Judge William H. Battle was temporarily ap-^ 
pointed to the new vacancy. Judge Pearson was elected 
by the Legislature at the ensuing session. 

20. In 1849, Messrs. Badger and Mangum were the 
United States Senators from North Carolina, and Messrs. 
Outlaw, AV. S. Ashe,, D. M. Barringer, J. P. Caldwell, Ed- 
mund Deberry, Edward Stanly, T. L. Cliugman, A. H, 
Shepherd, J. R. J. Daniel and A. W. Yenal)le, were mem-- 
bers of the House of Representatives. 

21. General Taylor had been elected President in 1848,. 
and took his place the next March. The unhappy quar- 
rel arose again in regard to the territory acquired from, 
Mexico. California had disclosed such masses of gold 
that a new State was asking for admission on the strength 
of the thousands who flocked there for making of for- 
tunes. The Southern members of Congress claimed 
that the Missouri Compromise should be the rule, and 
that the portion of the new State south of 3.6 degrees 30 
minutes should be created into a slave State, but this 
was resisted by Northern men. General Taylor took such 
ground as created uneasiness in the mind of Mr. Clay^ 
but, in the midst of the excitement, the old hero died and 
left the wise and patriotic Millard Filmore to hold the 
balance of power between the contending sections. 

rights? 19. What Judge of the Supreme Court died? 20. Who were 
in Congress ? 21. Who becimie I^resident of the United States \n 1S40 ? 



GOVEIlNOf. MANLY, ^21 

CHAPTER XXX. 

A. D. 1850 TO 1853. 

Peatlis of General Taylor and Messrs. Calhoun and Fisher~Mr. Clay 
and the Compromise of 1851— Tlie Fn^itlve Slave Law— Convene 
tlon at Plymouth— Nag*s Head Inlet— Democrats elect Governor 
Reid — Assembly — The Political Status — Colonel Benton — The 
Wesleyan Female College— Ttje Colored People— Scott and Gra^ 
ham — -The Ruin and Discontent of the Whi^ — Death oi J. B, 
Shepherd and Mr. Meredith— Dr. Thompkins and the Plantations 
— Protracted Meetin^^s — President Pierce — ^Secretaries Graham 
and Dobbin— Death of ex-Governor Iredell— Beaufort and Nag's 
Head. 

/^^ENEjiAL Taylob was sooii followecl in death by Mi% 
^^ Calhoun, and, in North Carolina, there was addi-. 
tional sorrow over the loss of Charles Fisher ^nd AVeston 
R. Gales. Mr. Gales was the editor of the Whig organ, 
the '''Register," which had been established just a half 
century before by his father. William W. Holden was 
conducting at this time the "Standard." This paper ad^ 
vocated Democratic policy. 

2. Mr, Clay, as the last service of an illustrious life, at 
length, in 1850, secured the passage of what was called a 
compromise. California was admitted as a free State, 
The new Territories were organized without regulations 
as to slavery. The slave trade was forbidden In the Dis^ 
trict of Columbia, aud a law for the recovery of fugitive 
slaves enacted. 

3. A great outcry arose In the Northern States upon the 

Questions.— Wlien did Messrs. Fisher and Gales die? 2. Who se^ 
anr<^d the pompromJse fjf ISoO? ?*, What \yas said in the ^iTorth a.hQiiti 



222 HISTORY or north CAROLINA. 

passage of the act in regard to fugitive slaves. It was in 
vain that Messrs. Webster and FiUmore pointed to the U. 
S. Constitution and the Ordinance of 1787. . The Legisla- 
ture of Vermont set the example, which was soon follow- 
ed by every one of the free States, of passing what was 
called Person Liberty Laws, which, like South Carolina 
in 1832, plainly nullified and rendered of no effect the 
Federal Statute. 

4. Colonel Audrew Joyner i)resided at a large Conven- 
tion, during March, 1850, at Ph^nouth, which met to con- 
cert measures for improving tlie means of access fi"omthe 
Atlantic Ocean to the iidand waters of North Carolina. 
Wimble's chart of 1738 shows that at that time Xag's 
Head Inlet Avas open and four fathoms deep. As early as 
1815 Hamilton Fulton reported that it was feasible to 
deepen this ancient inlet so as to make it again subser- 
vient to commerce. Colonel W. S. McXeil, at a later date, 
endorsed this view, as did IMurphy and IMajor GAvinn. It 
is needless to add that Colonel David Outlaw, then repre- 
senting the Edenton District, was unable to secure enough 
appropriation to carry out the work, and the project failed. 

5. The sand ridges lying between the Sounds and Ocean 
liave ever been a fatal bar to foreign commerce. They 
render the approaches to the shallow inlets so dangerous 
that mariners hold the Xorth Carolina coast as perilous 
as Cape Horn, and in this way we have no great cities 
and mostly rdy up(^)n tliose of other States as maritime 
depots. 

6. The elections of 1S5() resulted in the defeat of (iov- 

the Fugitive Slave Ti.iw ? 4. What was the purpose of the PljMiioutli 
Convention y .">, Wliat is said of the North Carolina eoast ? G. ^Vho 



CiUVKJiNUR KEIl). ZZo 

eriior ]\Ianly, and David 8. Ried, of Kockingbam, became 
CTiief :\ [agist rate of Nortb Carolina. Weldon N. Edwards 
of Warren, in tbe Senate, and James C. Dobbin of Cum- 
berland, in the House, presided in the Legislature of this 
year. The Democrats thus, after fifteen years of defeat 
in the State, at last recovered the rule. 

7. Colonel Henry T. Clark of Edgecombe, Patrick 
Henry Winston of Bertie, and Atlas J. Dargan of Anson, 
v'.t'i'c ino.-l tti'Miiiiiwiit ;i!nong tlir Dfw; tnenilx^rs v»f tiii^ 
A.-stjiiibly. Tlii- '-••s-!«Mi wji- cbai'Mrrcri/od by givai iii- 
lerust in tht; matter ui internal improvement. Uovernur 
J. M. ^forehead, as President of the North Carolina Rail- 
road, was rapidly pushing that great Avork , to completion. 
Xttmerotts charters for plank roads were granted at this 
period, bttt this species of highway soon fell into disuse 
from the perishable materials tised. 

7. The year 1851 saw the American people still rent 
and excited as to the terms of the recent compromise. 
Xotes of discontent deepened at the North over the enact- 
ment of the Fugitive Slave Law. Extreme men of both 
sections labored to widen the breach between the contend- 
ing factions, and sloAvdy but surely approached the dread- 
ful crisis of blood and confusion. 

0. Colonel TJiomas Hart Benton, after tliirt}' years of 
service in the United States Senate, ceased to be a mem- 
ber of that attgust body. His great services cotild not 
atone for his ttnwise su})port of some friends, and the 
adoption of certain views unpopttlar in Missouri. 

10. This year was further signalized by the erection of 

wiis elected Governor in 1850? 7. Who were new members of the 
Assembly? S. What was the feeling- in 1851 ? 9. Who ceased to De 



224 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

a new female college in Murfreesboro. This institution 
was under Methodist patronage and was of high charac- 
ter and usefulness. It was recently destro^^ed by fire. 

11. The growth of sectionalism was manifested in the 
legislation of the recent Assembly of North Carolina. 
The unhappy free negroes felt the force of more than one 
odious statute. A vigilant patrol had long excluded them 
from social intercourse with the slaves. They were social 
Pariahs and huddled into little communities of their own. 
A great exodus to Ohio had followed upon their loss of 
suffrage in 1835. That State, by statute, forbade their 
further access, and North Carolina and Virginia imitated 
this harsh and disheartening legislation. Not only were 
free persons of color, not denizens of these commonwealths, 
forbidden residence, but if they presumed to leave their 
homes after a short period, it was made unlawful for them 
to return. Like English paupers tied to their own par- 
ishes, in a land of liberty they experienced the evils of 
despotism. !Many free Negroes were indicted for coming 
to North Carolina, for that was as much a misdemeanor 
as carrying a gun without license of a court, or trading 
with a slave. 

12. It was a custom of large slave-holders to own and 
stock farms in the Gulf States, while they continued to 
reside in North Carolina. Thus hundreds of miles inter- 
vened between master and servant. In this way the State 
was not only deprived of much labor, but the merciful 
supervision of the true owner was replaced too often b\^ 
cruel and uninterested overseers. Humanity and for- 

Seiuitor from Missouri? 10. What female colleoe was established? 
11. What laws were made regarding;- free persons of color? 12. What 



covEKxoR Kicin. 225 

bcaraiico were generally manifested by slave-owners, and 
where this was not the ease public indignation w^as often 
awarded the man who, in avarice or cruelty, forgot the 
duties of his station. 

13. Like King Arthur marching to meet his doom, the 
Whig party again in 1852 set the battle in array against 
the Democratic hosts. With General Scott as candidate 
for President, was associated Governor William A. Gra- 
ham, then Secretary of the Navy. His competitor was 
William R. King, also a native of North Carolina and an 
ex-student of the Chapel Hill Universit}^ 

14. Great discontent was felt in North Carolina anions: 
the Whigs because Mr. Fillmore was set aside for General 
Scott. Mr. Clingman, a leading man of that party in the 
House of Representatives, refused to support him, and car- 
ried out the threats of the seceders from the Whig caucus. 
It was felt that the President was being punished for his 
efforts to execute the laws of the land. 

15. In North Carolina, as in the nation, the Democratic 
success was complete, and from this Waterloo defeat there 
was no recovery. Messrs. Clay and Webster both died with 
the great party which their genius and patriotism had so 
highly adorned. In North Carolina, William B. Shep- 
herd also came to his death on the 20th of June. He had 
been some time preceded by Rev. Thomas ^leredith, who 
was one of the wisest and best men who have at anytime 
made North Carolina their home. He had founded the 
"Biblical Recorder," the Baptist organ, in 1835, and was 
a preacher of great power and usefulness. 

custom of slave-holders is mentioned? 13. Who were candidates for 
the Vice-Presidencv in 1852? 15. What was the result? IG. Who 



220 IIISTOKY OF XoKTir CAKOLIXA, 



16. The Legislature of 1852 created the oftice of Super- 
intendent of Common Schools. This place was filled by 
the appointment of Calvin PI. A\'ilev, of Guilford. He 
had achieved success as an author, and was to become of 
great benefit to the public education. His wisdom and 
devotion were soon so apparent that the whole svstem 
was submitted to his direction, ^^ery few officers in the 
State's history have given more universal satisfaction in 
their discharge of duty. 

17. Dr. J. F, Tompkins this year established an agri- 
cultural paper and travelled extensively in the formation 
of societies among the farmers. Peruvian Guano was be- 
ginning its miracles upon the worn-out fields, and the 
lethargy and ignorance of the past were giving way to 
improved modes of land culture. The habit had been 
to clear fields and cultivate them till exhausted, and then 
fresh spaces were opened in the forest. This was little 
better than the Indian custom of cutting down the tree to 
reach the fruit. 

18. Protracted meetings had in a great measure replaced 
the camp grounds of an earlier day. P'or a week or more 
the pastor of a church, aided by other ministers, collected 
crowds of people who were preached to and feasted until 
of+en great religious excitement was produced. Many 
godly persons prefer the Sunday Schools as a means of 
grace, but liabit has given the protracted meetings great 
popularity in the country churches. 

19. General Pierce took the oaths of office as President 
of the United States, on March 4th, 1853. As he stood on 

was made Superintendent of Common Schools? 17. Who was Dr. 

Tom])kinsy IS, What is said of protracted meetings? 11). What is 



, (lovKKXou nvMK 227 

llie Ea.st Portico of the Cajjitol, in the face of the great 
throng there assembled, he was saddened in the memory 
of a recent loss. His only son had just died and his boy 
was dearer to him than all the honors lie had recently 
won. Xo nobler or purer man has at any time filled the 
executive office of the nation. 

20. Mr. James C. Dobbin, of North Carolina, succeeded 
Governor Graham as Secretary of the Navy. General 
Daniel M. Barringer at the same time ceased to be Minis- 
ter to Spain. Mr. Dobbin w^as defeated for the United 
States Senate Ijy the friends of Judge Saunders, and Judge 
Mangum's term having ex})ire{L the State was for the next 
two years represented alone in that body by Judge 
Badger. He had won equal renown in that famous body 
and before the United States Supreme Court. 

21. Governor Iredell died at Edenton, on April 13th, 
1853. The English statesman and poet, Edmund Waller, 
in his old age, purchased a small property at his birth- 
place, saying, " he would be glad to die like the stag, Avhere 
he was roused." If such was not the wish it certainly 
was tlie fate of the distinguished Governor. He was born 
where he expired, and had left the place years before for 
a I'esidence at Raleigh. 

22. Governor Morehead and others were making great 
efforts at this time to build up a seaport at Beaufort. 
This tine harbor is tlie terminus of the new railway line 
which extends west almost to the mountains. Great 
marts are the slow results of time and trade, and a thou- 
sand inducements will have to be collected in Old Top- 
said of President Pierce? 20. Of Mr. Dobbin? 21. Of Governor 
Iredell? 22. Of Beaufort and Nao's ^ead? 



228 



HISTORY OF XORTH CAROLINA. 



sail Inlet before North Carolina can hope to have a mari- 
time city. The village there and at Nag's Head were places 
of delightful summer resort, where the wealth and cul- 
ture of eastern counties delighted to assemble. The glare 
and rivalries of greater watering places w^ere unknown^ 
and life in consequence was all the more pleasant for that 
fact. The home-life in the cottages of Nag's Head, the 
pleasant gatherings and the suggestions of the vast At- 
lantic still make Summer a charming season there. 




GOVEHNOK RKTI). 



•229 




THE STATE CAPITOL, AT RALEIGH. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 



A. D. 18 53 TO 18 56. 

Rev. W. M. Win^^ate— Bishop Ives and Rev. Dr. Thomas Atldnson — • 
National Representatives — Gubernatorial Candidates—Governor 
Thomas Brao^g — Kansas-Nebraska Bill — Wilmot Proviso — The 
Know-Nothings — Zebulon B. Vance — United States Senators — 
Rev. Mathew T. Yates — Northern and Southern Churches — Rep- 
resentation of 1855— Defeat of the "Know-Notliings"'— Re-Elec- 
tion of Governor Bragg— Assembly of 1856. 

l^plovERNOR David L. Swain had been, since 1836, in 
^^ the Presidency of the State University. The same 
qualities which had made him so conspicuous in the courts 
and other public stations gave him success in the delicate 
and difficult functions at Chapel Hill. Dr. Robert H. 
Morrison had retired from a similar position at Davidson 
College, as had Dr. William Hooper from that of Wake 



230 HisToiiY OF xoirrir cAimuNA. 

Forest. Uev. Williain M. Wingate had been >^u]xstituted 
at the latter seat of learning, and was destined to a long 
and successful service. 

2. The Episcopal Ghurcli of North Carolina was, in 
1853, just recovering from a gi^eat trouble in its history. 
Bishop Ives, who had succeeded the venerated Ravens- 
croft, had shocked his diocese by open apostacy to the 
Church of Rome. Judge Badger, by public disquisitions 
and his great influence as a la3mian, had for some time 
resisted the Puseyism of the recusant prelate, and at length 
convinced him of his inability to further propagate his 
peculiar views. Rev. Dr. Thomas Atkinson, of Grace 
Church, Baltimore, was elected to the vacant See, and 
atoned by his eloquence, piety and general acceptance for 
the defection of his predecessor. 

3. In the August election, Messrs. H. M. Shaw of Curri- 
tuck, Thomas Ruffin of Way^ie, Sion H. Rogers of Wake, 
John Kerr of Caswell, R. C. Puryear of Yadkin, Burton 
Craige of Rowan, William S. Ashe of New Hanover, and 
Thomas L. Clingman of Buncoml)e, were chosen members 
of the national Piouse of Re|,)resentatives. 

4. In 1854. the contest lay between Thomas Bragg, of 
Northampton, Democrat, and Alfred Docker}^ Whig, for 
the office of Governor. Mr. Bragg was one of six broth- 
ers. His father, though humble in early life, had, by 
earnest effort, educated three of his sons, all of whom be- 
came distinguished. As a jury lawyer Thomas Bragg 
has never been surpassed in the State. General Dockery 
was a foeman worthy of his steel. His early disadvan- 

QUESTJONS.— Wlmr. is salcrof the North Carolina Colleocc:? 2. 
What of Ufshop Ive.i? :). What is saicl of Governor Bra*^;*;' and Gene- 



I 



r.ovi:i^xon uKA(i<;. 231 

tages coukl not erij^ple a massive and original genius. 
Bragg became Governor by a handsome majority. 

5. The Democrats were overwhelmingly in the ascend- 
ant in every branch of the National Government in 1854, 
and in most of the States the same relation existed. Gen- 
eral Pierce had appointed Colonel John H. Wheeler Uni- 
ted States Minister to Nicaragua. Duncan K. jNIcRae was 
made Consul to Paris. Everything betokened success 
when Judge Douglas, of Illinois, reported his famous 
Kansas-Nebraska Bill. ,■ 

6. David Wilmot's no less celebrated proviso was to ex- 
clude slavery from all the Territories by act of Congress. 
The Nebraska Bill proposed to take the subject from 
Washington and remit it to the people of the Territories. 
A fearful outcry arose in the North. The men who had 
refused to extend the Missouri Compromise line to Cali- 
fornia ]iow appealed to the South to adhere to that sacred 
compact, and no less than three thousand preachers join- 
ed in a remonstrance to Congress. 

7. Perhaps in the history of the world no feat of jug- 
glery ever succeeded so admirably in defying all human 
calculations as to the effects to follow from a given cause. 
It was adopted mainly to escape the disgrace, that South- 
ern men said would be implied in the Wilmot Proviso, 
and secured the ultimate success of a new party. 

8. In Massachusetts, about this time, the Whig candi- 
dates were everywhere beaten by a new organization call- 
ed the Know- Nothings. This name grew out of the se- 
rai Dockery? 5. What party was in power? 6. What did the Wil- 
inot Proviso and the Nebraska Bill provide? 7. Did the latter fulfill 
its author's promise? 8. Where did the Know-Nothing party origi- 



232 HISTORY OF XORTIT CAKOLTXA. 



m 



crecy and mystery attending the movements of men, who 
bound themselves by oath, to oppose the election of all 
foreigners and Catholics, and to so amend the laws that 
men, not born citizens of the United State.s, should re- 
main for twenty-one years after reaching this country be- 
fore they should be permitted to vote. 

9. This was a short-lived and pernicious movement at 
best. It contravened the noblest precedents of American 
history, and threatened to reverse the peculiar glory of 
the very people who had first established religious liberty. 
Free immigration is a matter of mere expediency. The 
United States may well pause before permitting an inun- 
dation of Chinese, ])ut to proscribe any religion was to 
strike at the root of all the xVmerican system. 

10. The Legislature of 1854 elected Warren Winslow, 
of Cumberland, as President of the Senate, and Samuel 
P. Hill, of Caswell, Speaker of the House. These were 
Chapel Hill men, and both Democrats of acknowledged 
ability. Among the debutants of this session was Zebu- 
Ion B. Vance, of Buncombe. He was the nephew of Dr. 
Vance who had fallen in a duel with S. P. Carson. He 
was to acquire great popularity and became perhaps un- 
equaled as a popular orator by any man yet known in 
North Carolina. 

11. At this session, Asa Biggs, of Martin, and Governor 
David S. Reid, of Rockingham, were elected to the United 
States Senate. Judge Mangum had been in retirement 
for two years and was followed by Judge Badger. The 

nate? 9. "Were its principles accordant with American precedents? 
10. When did Zebulon B. V ance enter public life? 11. Who were 
in Cono-ress in 1855 ? 12. Who was Matthew T. Yates? 13. How 



1 



GOVEllNOR BRAGG. 233 

new Senators by no means equaled their illustrious pred- 
ecessors, but were wise and patriotic men. 

12. The humanity and advancement of the people of 
Nortli Carolina were manifested at this time in many 
wa3^s. The churches, beside founding great and costly 
institutions of learning, also sent abroad much to sustain 
Christian missions in heathen lands. Rev. Mathew T. 
Yates had been sent by the North Carolina Bajitists to 
the work he is still upholding in China. 

13. The other denominations were also struggling to 
advance the same great interest. The slavery issue had 
divided the Methodist, Baptist and Presbyterian churches 
into fragments coinciding with IMason and Dixon's Line. 
It had brought hatred and division to statesmen, and now 
divided the pathway of men who professed to be in search 
of the blessings of eternity. Alas for the infirmity and 
weakness of men in their best estate ! Charity and for- 
bearance were lacking on both sides, and so, in blind dis- 
regard, the contending sections slowly drifted to revolu- 
tion and bloodshed. 

14. The great struggle in the Crimea between the east- 
ern nations in no wise affected America beyond the en- 
hancement of the prices of breadstuffs and naval stores. 
The tide of Know-Nothing success rolled on until checked 
in Virginia, and then, like an exhalation, it passed into 
oblivion with an ominous suggestion of how easy Ameri- 
cans could forget their own first principles of government. 

15. The Congressional elections of 1855 resulted in the 

success of Messrs. R. T. Paine, Thomas Rufhn, W. S. Ashe, 

■ — — • 

(11(1 iSTorthei-n and Southern clinrches agree? 14. Where were the 
Know-Nothino-.s checked? 15. Who were elected to the House of 



234 lusTUKY OF xoirrn cakulina. 

L. O'B. Branch, Edwin G. Reade, Burton Craige, R., 0. 
Puryear and Thomas L. Clingnian. Mr. Ashe was the 
grandson of Governor Samuel Ashe, and had inherite(^ 
the virtues and ability of his distinguished race. ^Ir. 
Clingman was exceedingly prominent, and was in the habit 
of making speeches in Washingto]i that excited the com- 
ments of two continents. Xorth Carolina has produced 
no statesman more learned and devoted than General 
< lingmaii. 

!*■). The li^w ypjir nt 1 S."(H (InwiKMi wilh ;i <:\i\ t<'\ (>rs;ij 
of Judge Douglas" predictions ot the eliects ui his Nebras- 
ka Bill. The new Territory of Kansas, Avhich was to be 
an Arcadia wliere men were to philosopliically work out 
the problems of their own wishes as to slavery, was at 
once found to be a scene of bloodshed and confusion. In- 
stead of a peaceful discussioii a civil war arose tliat taxed 
the energies of the Federal Government to keep in bounds. 

17. The American or Know-Nothing party had perish- 
ed, but in its short day it had massed the contending and 
iiitlierto abortive elements of Xortliern opposition into a 
compact body known as the lve})ublican party. This or- 
ganization was simply 2)ledged to resist the further exten- 
sion of slavery, and, at that date, had no other article of 
faith. 

18. Governor Bragg, as candidate for a second terin, 
was opposed by the able and astute John A. Gilmer. The 
great popularity of the incumbent left ]Mr. ( iilmei' but 
little to hope and lie was l)eaten by twenty thousand ma- 
jority. 

. * . . — . . 

Representatives? 16. Wliat was the State of affairs in Kansas? 17. 
How were Norlliern isms fused? IS. Who was elected Governor in 



GOVERNOR ]',RAOO. ZoO 

19. The rresideiitial contest of this year was full of 
moiii'Dful auguries. James Biicliaiiau was a statesmai] of 
great experience, and was illustrious by service in both 
Houses of Congress, in the Cabinet and in foreign courts. 
He really understood and regarded the restraints of the 
Federal Constitution. Though a childless bachelor, he 
took into his heart the people of the whole nation. If, in 
the storm which arose at the end of his administration, 
he stood, like blinded King Lear, not knowing where to 
turn, the fault was not his. Neither Madison or Hamil- 
ton had forseen the terrible contingency that arose, bul- 
lions of hearts throbbed with relief at the news of his elec- 
tion, for, with the defeat of Colonel Fremont, tlie evil day 
was deferred for four years, 

20. There were many men in the South who thought 
with Thomas Jefferson that slavery was abstractly wrong, 
but when the question was asked as to the future status 
of four millions of emancipated bondmen turned loose in 
their midst, there was no solution of the problem. Christ- 
ians deplored the fact that lawful marriages were not 
countenanced among the slaves, and the further fact of 
their constrained ignorance. Any S3\stem upholding such 
contraventions of human rights was of course wrong. But- 
the heat of contention, and the promptings of passion, 
prejudice and interest, all blinded the eyes of men who 
were, under other circumstances, both just and magnani- 
mous. 

21 William AVaightstill Avery, of Burke, grandson of 
the old Attorney General, and Jesse U. kShepherd, of Cum- 

1850? 11). Wliat is said of Mr. Biiehanair? 20. What was Southern 
pei)tinKM!t touehiiio- slavery? 21. Wiio were legishitors in 1850? 



2^6 HISTOKY OP NORTH CAROLINA, 

berlancl, were the presiding officers in the Assembly of 
1856. They were both Chapel Hill men and of decided 
ability. Thomas Settle, Jr., of Rockingham, William A. 
Jenkins of Warren, and John Pool of Pasquotank, were 
among the debutants of the session, 



1 




JNSTITyTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB AND THE ^LIND, IIAJ.EIGH, 



GOVERNOR BRAGG. 237 

CHAPTER XXXII, 

A. D. 18 5 7 TO 18G1. 

Cold Weather — Congressmen— Deaths of ^Ir. Dobbin and Jud^jo 
Settle— Dr. Mitchell— Judge Ellis and John Tool— W. W. Avery 
and the second Judge Settle— The Common Schools and Calvin 
H. Wiley-D, II. Hill and C. C. Tew— The Bingham School, Dr. 
Wilson's School and others— Judge Biggs— Governor Bi-agg an^ 
T. L. Clingman— AV. N. H. Smith— Harper's Ferry— Judge Ruffin 
retires — Judge Xash — Judge Manly — Judges Howard, Osborne 
and Heath— Political Status— Presidential Election — The Candi- 
dates—Secession — Visiting Statesmen — Beauregard and Fort 
Sumter. 

(^SfHE new year opened in 1857 with weather of unusual 
^^^ severity. On January 18th occurred the heaviest 
fall of snow ever known in the eastern counties. The 
thermometer sank to four degrees below zero. The mails 
were arrested for a week, and Albemarle Sound was so 
frozen that people walked upon the ice from Edenton to 
Plymouth. 

2. Messrs. H. M, Shaw of Currituck, L. O'B. Branch of 
Wake, Thomas Ruffin of Wayne, W. S. Ashe of New Han- 
over, A. M, Scales of Rockingham, John A. Gilmer of 
Guilfordj Burton Craige of Rowan, and T. L. Clingman 
of Buncombe, were elected to Congress, 

3. There was great sorrow for the deaths of the late 
Secretary of the Nav}^ James C. Dobbin, and Judge Settle, 
Mr. Dobbin, though comparatively young, had won na^ 
tional reputation and was stricken down in the midst of 
a high career. Judge Settle was rich in years and honors, 
He had r^eached the usual limit of human existence ; o^wX 



238 ITISTORY OF NORTH C.\ROLINA. 

North C'cirolina was more moved at another demise, deeply 
tragic in its particulars. On June 27th, Rev. Dr. Elisha 
Mitchell, the aged Professor of Natural Science at Chapel 
Hill, came to liis death amid the vast solitudes of the 
Black ^Mountains. lie was alone, surveving- the great 
heights, when he accidentall}^ fell from a precipice and 
was found several days afterwards in a pool of water. 
This hrave, good man, thus dying to advance science, was 
buried on the summit of the everlasting hills, wliich are 
now become his monuments. 

4. In bSoS, the contest for (rovernor was between Judge 
John W. Ellis, of IvOAvan, and John Pool, of Pasquotank. 
There was great excitement over the proposition of the 
Whigs to institute a system of ad valorem taxation, which 
it was feared would be burdensome upon slave-owners. 
Mr. Pool's great ingenuitv in the defence of the new idea 
did not avail, for he was defeated. 

5. The Assembly was largely ])emocratic and selected 
W. W. Avery of Burke, and Thomas Settle of Pocking- 
ham, as tlie presiding officers. Matt. ^V. Pansom and 
Joseph B. Batchelor of Warren, late Attorney Generals of 
North Carolina, and Jonathan Worth of PandoliJi, Avere 
among the. most prominent members, though only debu- 
tants on this occasion. Mr. Ransom Avas already distin- 
guished for scholarship and fervid oratory. 

(). The Common Scliools, since 1853, had been undcn* 
the able su})erintendence of Calvin H. Wiley, of Guilford. 
Th<3 educational facilities of the State were further aug' 

Questions. — How was the weather at tlie beo-innhig of 1857? 2. 
Who were el( cted Conji^ressmen ? ."5. Whose deaths are mentioned as 
oeeiiiTiniT^ that yenv? 4. AVho l)eeanie Governor? ^). Whicli party 



jnented by tlic cluirtering and erection of two excellent 
niilitarv acadc^mies. One of these, under charge of Major 
D. IL Kill, Avas located at Charlotte, and the other at 
Hillsboro, with C. C. Tew as 8u])erintendeiit. The out- 
look was so portentous tliat ndlitaiy training was thought 
needful. 

7. The Bingham Hcliool was still su})reme in reputation. 
Dr. Wilson in Alamance, Mr. Horner at Oxford, Mr. 
Lm\(>Jov h\ !i;iliug}i. aii'l v;iii<»ns o'Iht >inni;i!' scliools fr>r 
Im.vs. v\«^rp l;i]"gel\' suf<-<'sstnl. 

8. An extraordinary zeal in behalf of female uduciition 
was manifested. The fine seminaries at Salem, Kaleigh, 
Greensboro and Mnrfreesboro had hosts of competitors. 

9. L'pon the death of Judge Potter, the aged incumbent 
of the United States District Court for North Carolina, 
Colonel Asa Biggs, then in the United States Senate, was 
appointed his successor, and was himself replaced by 
Thomas L. Clingman. Governor Bragg also was elected 
in place of Governor D. S. Reid in the same august body, 
A\^arren Winslow, as President of the Senate^ thereupon 
became, by virtue of his office, the Governor of North 
Carolina for the small remnant of Bragg's unexpired 
term. 

10. In 1859, :\lessrs. A\\ X. H. Smith of Hertford, 
Tiiomas Puffin of Wayne, W. S. Ashe of New Hanover, 
L. O'B. Branch of W^ike, John A. Gilmer of Guilford, Al- 
fred Scales of Pockingham, Burton Craige of Powan and 
Zc4)ulon B. Vance of Buncombe vrere elected to Congress. 
In tfie louii' contest of tliis Consiress for the choice of 



carried the Legislature? 0. Who was K(»v. Calvin TL Wiley? 7. 
What Schools are mentioned":' 0. Who snccoeded .Tndiie Potter? 10. 



240 HISTORY OF XOKTII CAEOLINA. 

Speaker, Mr. Smith, at present Chief Justice of the State, 
was really elected to that high position, but lost it through 
the bad faith of some of his supporters. 

11 . In the Fall occurred the startling seizure of the Arse- 
nal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, b}^ John Brown and a com- 
pany of fanatics, who tlius attempted to arm the slaves of 
that region in an intended insurrection. It added to the 
unhappy resentments between the Northern and Southern 
people, and was a most wicked and deplorable outrage. 
Colonel Robert E. Lee, of the United States Army, com- 
manded the troops that captured the incendiaries and 
murderers. Some of these were hanged; but it may be 
well doubted as to the propriety of this punishment in 
the case of Captain Brown. He was probably a lunatic, 
and therefore not responsible for his acts. 

12. Chief Justice Ruffin, after long and illustrious ser- 
vice, resigned his place in" the Supreme Court and retired 
to the Hawfields. He had been on the bench since 1816, 
and is yet remembered as the greatest Judge who has 
presided in North Carolina. His learning, integrity and 
dignity made him a model of judicial propriety. His 
opinions, as delivered, were no more remarkable for legal 
precision than for literary grace and elegance. 

13. Judge Nash became Chief Justice, and in dignity 
and propriety most worthily emulated his greater prede- 
cessor. Judge M. E. Manly, of the Superior Courts, was 
promoted to the vacancy. Like Judge Pearson, he was a 
Chapel Hill man, and deep in his learning and skill as a 

Who was t'h'cted Spoaker of the House of Kopresentativos at Wa?h- 
iiiii'fon ami deprived of it hytliebad faith of his supporters? 11. Wiiat 
occurred at Harper's Ferry? 12. Who resi::^iied from the North Car- 



GOVEllNOll ELLIS. 241 

jurist. Like Judges Taylor, Gaston, Martin, Donnell and 
Heath, he is a member of the Roman Catholic Church. 
This branch of Christians have never been numerous in 
North CaroHna, but to the unspeakable honor of the 
State, they have ever been treated with the broadest and 
most beautiful Christian charity. 

14. George Howard of Edgecombe, James G. Osborne 
of Mecklenburg, and Robert R. Heath of Chowan, were 
elected at this time to fill the vacancies of the Superior 
Court Bench occasioned by the death of Judge Settle and 
the resignations of Judges Ellis and Manly. 

15. The year 1860 came upon America still in apparent 
peace, but the condition of tha unhappy people was as 
that of a peasant living upon the vine-clad slopes of 
]\Iount Vesuvius. Deep hidden beneath the surface were 
the slumbering energies of horrid convulsion, which only 
bided their time for ruin and death. A prodigious ma- 
terial prosperity seemed to have been sent as if in mock- 
ery of the political dangers, so frightful and imminent 
The wave of population had been steadily approaching 
the setting sun and continually adding to the strength 
and area of the cultivated districts. The original thirteen 
had grown into thirty-four States, and the census showed 
that in 1860 the three millions of people of 1775 had been 
more than ten times multiplied. Of this number five 
millions of Avhite and almost as many black people dwelt 
in the South. It was felt b}^ everybody that a crisis had 
come, and that only in God's providence could the evil 
day be longer deferred. 

olina Supreme Court? 14. Who supplied the vacancy made? 15. 
What was the condition of th<! country in 18G0? IG. Wliat is said of 
11 



242 HISTOKY OF NORTH CAROLIXA, 

- 16. The Presidential contest of 1860 was one of the sad- 
dest spectacles in the world's liistory. A peo^de blessed 
beyond all precedent in all that contributes to individuaMl 
happiness and material prosperity of the white race, in 
the madness of a great dispute, grew oblivious of all the 
past and reckle^ of the future. The men of extreme 
views of either section were resolved^ at all hazards, upon 
the carrying out of their opposing views. ^ 

17. The Republicans, with Al)raham Lincoln as their 
candidate, said there should be no more slave Territories. 
Tlie Democrats divided into two fragments : The North- 
ern wing, under Judge Douglas, claimed what was called 
" squatter sovereignty," — that is, that so soon as a Terri- 
tory was authorized by enabling act of Congress, the peo- 
ple could introduce or exclude slavery as they preferred ; 
the Southern Democrats, with Vice President John C. 
Breckenridge as their candidate, insisted that the decision 
could be only made when the State Constitution was 
formed, and that prior to that time the Constitution and 
laws of the United States protected Southern immigrants 
in the title to their property. The Whigs, under Bell 
and Everett, were silent on these weighty issues to be tried 
before the American people. 

18. North Carolina gave lier ten electoral votes to 
Breckenridge and Joseph Lane, of Oregon, but formerly of 
Buncombe county. Mr. Lincoln, though a great majority 
of the people had cast their suffrages against him, still, 
by the divisions of his political opponents, secured a ma- 
jority of the votes cast in the Electoral Colleges of the dif- 

the Presidential stnigorle that year? 17. Who were candidate?, and 
what were the issues ? 18. IIow did North Carolia i vote in tlie election '? 



GOVERNOR ELLIS. 



243 



ferent States, and was elected the X^'I President of the 
United States. It was at once agreed in the South, that 
without some modification of the Chicago platform of 
principles tliere could be no hope of peace to the nation. 

19. The Gulf Statues at once resolved tliat they would no 
longer continue members of the Union, and before the 
coming in of the new year Soulli Carolina had seceded. 
Nortli Carolina appreciated the danger to her institutions 
but insisted that secossion was premature, and tliat, as 
Mr. Lincoln and his party were pledged not to interfere 
in the internal policy of the States, it was better to try 
liis rule than break up the Union it had cost so much 
blood to form. Upon the meeting of Congress, Mr. Crit- 
tenden, of Kentuck}^ introduced measures which, it was 
hoped, would compromise the disputes. 

20. State after State followed the example of South Car- 
olina, until, upon the retiring of Mr. Buchanan, seven had 
declared themselves out of the Union. Messrs. L W. Gar- 
ratt and Robert M. Smith of Alabama, and Jacob Thomp- 
son of ^lississipi, came as secession agents, but failed to se- 
cure North Carolina's co-operation. Governor Ellis and 
the Legislatin^e waited and watched the progress of events. 
At length Mr. Lincoln began sending troops and supplies 
to Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, and General Beau- 
regard opened his batteries upon and captured that work. 
Mr. Lincohi called upon Governor Ellis for troops to serve 
against South Carolina. The hope of peac6 was gone, and 
twenty thousand men were at once ordered — not for the 

19. What was the course of the Gii)f States? 20. AVben did Xorth 
Carolina seeede? 



244 



HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



Union, but for whatever side North Carolina should take 
in the war. A Convention met, and, on the 20th of May, 
1861, the State seceded and joined tlie Southern Confeder- 
acy. 




GOVEKNOU KLLTS, 



245 




BRIG. GEN. L. o'B. BRANCH. 



CHAPTER XXXIII, 



A . D . 18 61 T Ci 1 8 G 2 . 

Welflon X. Edwards—Prominent men of 1861— Confederate Congress^ 
men— Military Board-Seizure of United States Forts, &c.,— First 

and Second North Carolina Kegiment* — Battle of Big Bethel 

Death of Governor Ellis Governor Henry T. Clarke — General 

Joseph G. Martin— Bull Run— ^Death of Colonel Fisher— Enlist- 
ment of State Troops — Fall of Fort Hatteras — Roanoke Island 
Being Fortified— Generals Catling and Branch— .Deaths of Judge 
Mangum and Judge Dick. 

'HE Convention of 18()1 was presided over by the ven- 
erable Weldon N. Edwards, of ^Yarren. His long 
and varied public services, liis lofty repute and undoubt^ 
ed patriotism, combined to make him a flt successor Qf 



24G HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



1 



• 

Richard Caswell and Nathaniel Macon in the delicate 
and difficult functions incident to such a body. 

2. Many men of great experience and capacity were 
seen among the delegates. Judge Ruffin aiid Giles Me» 
bane, E. J. Warren, Bedford Brown, Governor Winslow, 
Dr. Henry M. Shaw, A. W. Venable, John A. Gilmer, 
Kenneth Rayner, Judge Osborne, A. H. Arrington, Judge 
Biggs, D, A. Barnes, W. S. Ashe, Governor Graham, Gov- 
ernor Reid, Burton Craige, H. C. Jones, Judge Badger, 
Kemp P. Battle, W. W. Plolden and George Y. Strong 
constituted an array of which any State might have been 
proud. 

. 3. The Convention, upon North Carolina's joining the 
Government of the Confederate States, selected a Congres- 
sional delegation consisting of George Davis and AVilliam 
T. Dortch, in the Confederate States Senate, and W. N, 
H. Smith, Thomas Ruffin, T. D. McDowell, A. W. ^^ena. 
ble, J. M. Morehead, R, C. Puryear, Burton Craige and 
A. T. Davidson, in the House of Representatives. 

4. Governor Ellis bent every enex'gy of his failing life 
to meet the great public danger. Like John Harvey in 
the first Revolution, his spirit sustained him in the hur- 
ried sunset of his days. He appointed Colonel John F, 
Hoke, of Lincoln, as Adjutant General, and created an Ad^ 
visary Military Board consisting of Governor Warren 
Winslow, Colonel H. W. Guion and Colonel J. A. J. Brad^ 
ford. 

5. Under their auspices, the first troops collected seized 
Forts Macon and Caswell, and the well-^lled Arsenal at 

Questions.— Who was President of the Convontion of ISGl? 2, 
Mention some of the distinoiiishecl niembers, 3. Who were Con^ress= 



GOVEKNOK ELLIS. 



247 



Fayetteville. The first regiment assembled Avas sent, un- 
der Colonel Daniel H. Hill, to Yorktown, Virginia, to 
help defend Richmond, then just become the Confederate 
Capital, against approaches from Fort Monroe. The Sec- 
ond Regiment, under Colonel C. C. Tew, garrisoned the 
captured forts. 

6. On June 9th, 1S61, General B. F. Butler, command- 
ing at Old Point Comfort, ordered an advance to be made 
against General J. B. Magruder's outposts at Little and 
Big Bethel, near Yorktown, Virginia. This advance was 
made in two columns : Duryea's Zouaves and the Third 
New York Regiment on the right, and Benedix's Regi- 
ment and a Vermont Battalion on the left by way of New- 
port News. Just before day in the morning of the 10th, 
these two bodies of Federal troops approached each other, 
and opened a fusilade. This was the beginning of their 
disasters. They found Colonel D. H. Hill posted at Big 
Bethel with the First North Carolina Regiment and one 
company of the Richmond Howitzers, under Captain G. 
W. Randolph. General Pierce in command of the Union 
forces ordered an assault which was bravely led by Major 
Winthrop, but he was slain and the attack completely 
failed. There was inconsiderable loss in this affair. Pri- 
vate Wyatt, of Edgecombe county, was the only man 
slain on the Confederate side, and w^as the proto-martyr of 
the South in the battles of the war. 

7. On the 7th of July, Governor Ellis came to his death at 
the Red Sulphur Springs in Virginia, where he had gone 
in the vain hope of restoring his failing health. He was 

men? 4. Who was Adjutant General at that time? 5. What were 
tlie first military movements in North Carolina? 6. What happened 



248 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINxV. 

succeeded in executive functions by Colonel Henry T. 
Clarke, of Edgecombe, who was Speaker of the Senate. 

8. Governor Clarke appointed ^lajor James G. Martin, 
late of the United States Army, Adjutant General in place 
Colonel Hoke, who was to assume command of the Twenty- 
third North Carolina Regiment. General IMartin had much 
experience in such Avork and was to be of large use in the 
great struggle then begun. 

9. In the middle of July thousands of the men of the 
State had volunteered their services, and the whole com- 
monwealth was fast assuming the appearance of a great 
military camp. At this time the Seventeenth Regiment, 
Colonel W. F. Martin, and part of the Tenth Regiment, 
Colonel Bradford, were on the sea-coast near Hatteras ; 
the Third, Colonel Gaston Meares, Fourth, Colonel. G. B. 
Anderson, and others, were at Garysburg ; the Fifth, Col- 
onel D. K. McRae, was at Halifax ; the First North Caro- 
lina State Troops, Colonel M. F. Stokes, was at Warrenton. 

10. When, on July 18th, General McDowell advanced 
from Washington to attack General Beauregard at Ma- 
nassas, no North Carolina troops had yet joined that army. 
On the 21st of July, in the midst of battle on Bull Run, 
Colonel Charles F. Fisher arrived in time with the Sixth 
North Carolina Troops, and bravely helped in accomplish- 
ing the glorious victory on that day won. But it is sad 
to add that he was like that Grecian chief who was the 
first of all to land on the Trojan coast, and first to die. 

11. The Convention of 1861 remained in session for some 

at Big- Betlit'lV 7. Who dird on July 7tli ? 8 Wlio brcame the 
new Adjutuiit General? 1). Wliert^ were troops posted in Norrh (Car- 
olina during July? 10. Vv'luU iiappened at Manasas? 11. How were 



nOVERNOR CLARK i:. 249 

time and transacted much public business, besides passing 
the Secession Ordinance on the first day of the session. The 
troops that first tendered their services were enlisted for 
six months, but it was at once determined to raise a large 
body for the war. Ten regiments were ordered on this 
basis, and were called at first North Carolina State Troops. 
In this way they took precedence of those already in the 
field, and while Colonel Stokes' command was known as 
First Regiment North Carolina State Troops, the Bethel 
Regiment became the Eleventh North Carolina A'olun- 
teers. 

12. North Carolina had been slow^ to leave the Union. 
She would not sunder the ties with which she had delib- 
erately bound herself in 1789, while there was hope of ar- 
ranging the great issues at stake, but in the fact of war 
between the Government and- the Southern States, there 
was no hesitancy as to the course to be pursued. No peo- 
ple ever rose in arms more universally or with more de- 
termination. From every quarter of the State troops were 
tendered far faster than arms and equipments could be 
provided. The great bulk of these were hurried forward, 
as fast as they were assembled, to the armies at Manassas, 
Yorktown, and around Norfolk, in Virginia. 

12. The preparations for defense were extremely meagre 
in North Carolina, and General B. F. Butler, after his ri- 
diculous failure at Bethel, was put in charge of the army 
which was carried by the fleet under command of Commo- 
dore Stringham. This powerful naval armament, carry- 
ing many of the heaviest and longest range cannons then 
made, appeared before Fort Hatteras on August 27th, 

troops enlisted at this time? 12. How did the people of North Caro- 




250 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



1861. This was a small open work, built of sand upon 
the low beach, and defended by less than a dozen smooth- 
bore thirty-two-pounders. It was manned by portions of 
the Seventeenth and Tenth North Carolina Regiments. 
The gallant and devoted Colonel William F. Martin of the 
Seventeenth Regiment was in command. 

13. The fleet lay out of the reach of the guns in the 
fort, and for two days bombarded the work, while the 
harmless response from the Confederate guns grew con- 
tinually more feeble as piece after piece was dismounted 
by the enemy's fire. After enduring this for so many 
hopeless hours, Colonel Martin, at the suggestion of Com- 
modore Barron, of the Confederate Navy, capitulated, 
and the garrison became prisoners of war. They were 
carried to Fort Columbus in New York, then to Fort 
Warren, and exchanged in -the succeeding February. 

14. Thus, in the outset, the enemy had established 
themselves in a position from wdiich great evils must have 
inevitably been foreseen. Much uneasiness pervaded the 
whole eastern counties, through so many of which the 
navigable streams flow. Upon tlieir urgent demands, 
Brigadier General D. H. Hill was sent from Virginia, and 
the Autumn and early Winter was spent in ]a])orious ef- 
forts to render Roanoke Island impassable to the fleets of 
the Union. 

15. The Department of North Carolina was then under 
the command of Brigadier General Gatling, who had been 
in the United States army and had seen service. He was 
old and infirm, and contented himself at his headquarters 

lina act in relation to the war ? 13. What happened at Fort Hatteras 
in Angnst? 13. What became of the captured Confederates ? 14-15. 



vK)V iriiN oil < 1. A iiK ]v. 251 

111 (Toklsboro. Colonel 8baw at Roanoke Island, and 
Brigadier General K O'R Branch at New Bern, were in 
command of the points threatened by tlie fall of Fort Hat- 
teras. Small bodies of troops were stationed at these two 
points, and. in great dread^ the people awaited the slow- 
coming of tlie blow which all foresaw was inevitable. 

16. Governor Clarke and General Martin were untiring 
in mustering in new regiments and forwarding them 
wherever the authorities at Richmond indicated. With 
+liat singular magnanimity which has ever been observa* 
ble in the course of North Carolina, she subordinated her 
own danger to the general good and hurried off thousands 
to Virginia when the wolf was at her own door* There 
were many men who had sternly disapprobated the pre- 
cipitancy of the Gulf vStates in secession, but the almost 
universal sentiment in North Carolina was for a vigorous 
defence against all invaders. Mothers, whose sons had 
fallen at Manassas, while others were captives at Hat- 
teras, sent out those who were left tq uphold what they 
considered the cause of the State and the South. There 
were but few Union men, and these were silent in the over- 
whelming sentiment of resistance. 

17. As the year 1801 drew to its close, amid the anxie: 
ties of the great conflict two more distinguished citizens 
found in death a release from the frightful turmoil by 
which they were surrounded. On September 7th, Judge 
Willie P. Mangum died at his home in Orange. He had 
been in retirement since 1853, but from 1818 until that 
time he had been continually the occupant of great posi- 

What points were fortified after the fall of Fort Hatteras ? IG. Where 
were the North Carolina troops being sent at this time? 17. What 



252 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

tions. In liis prime lie was unmatched for eloquence, 
parliamentary skill and loftiness of character. He suc- 
ceeded Mr. Fillmore as President of the United States 
Senate, and in that body his views were long of the high- 
est authority. Judge Dick opened his last Court at Win- 
ton in Hertford county. Though ailing, the faithful and 
upright old man cleared off his docket, and went as a vis- 
itor with Abraham Riddick to his seat upon the ChoAvan 
River. There, on October 16th, his long and conscien- 
tious discharge of public duties found a conclusion, and 
he sank to his everlasting rest. There have been greater 
but few more irreproachable public men in all our his- 
tory^ 

two distinguished men died in the latter part of tlie year 1861 '? 




GOVERNOK CLAlJKi:. ^Oo 

CHAPTER XXXIV. ^ 

A. D. 18G2. 

Pah-iotism of North Carolina— E:ittlo of Roanoke Islana-Confoderate 
Loss— Bnrnino; of Winton — Battle of New Bern — Bombardment 
oiFort Macon— Battles of Willlamsbnr?:, Winchester, Seven Pines 
and Hanover Junction — Deaths of Colonel Stokes and Major 
Skimmer — Gaines' Mills and Malvern Hill — North Carolina's 
Losses. 

^^||R. Lincoln had begun the war with the idea that 
^^^ Southern opposition would not last longer than 
three months. The men who fought under the Union 
colors at the battle of Manassas had been enlisted for that 
term. With the advent of 18G2 the leaders on both sides 
discovered that only a gigantic and exhausting struggle 
could settle the great issues submitted to the stern arbitra- 
ment of arms. The men hovering within sight of 
Washington had already exhibited that they possessed 
qualities which would render their subjection a difficult 
and prolonged task. The majestic capacity of Robert E. 
Lee had not then been demonstrated, but in the strategy 
of Joseph E. Johnston the intelligence of McClellan had 
recognized an antagonist formidable in all the changing 
aspects of war. 

2. In North Carolina the rush to arms was still una- 
bated. Regiments, generally numbering a full thousand 
men, w^ere still organizing and passing to the front. All 
classes and conditions of men, at all suited to military re- 
quirements, were tendering their service until a white 
population of six hundred and twenty-nine thousand had 
put an army of eighty-nine thousand three hundred and 



254 HISTORY OF XOPvTir CARUl.lXA. 

forty-four volunteers in the field. This estimate docs not 
include the thirty thousand conscripts raised under acr 
of the Confederate Congress. 

3. On February 7th, 1862, General Ambrose E. Burn- 
side, having collected a large naval force within Croatan 
Sound, and having, besides this fifteen thousand Federal 
troops, moved to the attack of a small command under 
Colonel Henry M. Shaw, who had taken position at dif- _ 
ferent points of Roanoke Island. This famous locality is^l 
at the foot of Albemarle Sound and is of limited area. 
It was utterly indefencible against any serious naval at- 
tack by reason of the impossibility of preventing strong 
ships-of-war from passing by the western shore. 

4. After a furious bombardment of Fort Bartow, Gene- 
ral Reno, with ten thousand men, was landed in the rear 
of that work and completely neutralilzed its efficac3dn the 
defence of that portion of the Island. The Federal fleet 
in the meanwhile moved on and engaged the few Con- 
federate gunboats, which were gallantly defending the 
barriers which had been erected to prevent the passage of 
the invaders. Not one hundred of the Confederates had 
ever been under fire, and Colonel Shaw was wholly un- 
used to military affairs. 

5. Upon the turning of Fort Bartow, only one resource 
was left to the small force under the Confederate command- 
er. Fie fell back to the middle of the Island and manned 
an intrenchment which had been made between two moras- 
ses, indenting the eastern and western shores. Here were 

Questions. -What is said of the war? 2. How flid Nortli Carolina 
answer tlie call to arms? .'}. AVhat happened at Roanoke Island? 4. 
Where was a stand made? G. What cansed \\)ei Confederate retreat? 



GOVERNOR CLARKE. 255 

collected sucli portions of the Eightli and Thirty-firs* 
North Carolina Regiments, and Captain 0. J. Wise's Vir- 
ginians, as were necessary to man the intrenched lines. 
It was believed that the morasses on each flank were im- 
passable and that the enemy's only available approach 
was directly in front. General Reno made many assaults 
from that direction early in the morning of the 8th, and 
was driven back with heavy loss. Wise's artillerymen 
stood bravely to their guns, and, with their infantry sup- 
ports, repeatedly repelled the desperate assaults of the 
swarming thousands in their front. 

G. Hope was high of a successful defence, when, late in 
the day, it was discovered that the morasses had been 
crossed, and the enemy was massing on both flanks. 
Nothing was left but hasty retreat and inevitable surren- 
der at the northern end of the Island. A thousand men 
had withstood every attack in front of more than ten times 
their number, and the twenty-two gunboats had been held 
at bay by six merchant steamers under Commodore W. 
F. Lynch of the Confederate States Navy. 

7. The Confederate loss in killed and wounded did no^ 
exceed one hundred. Their antagonists in their bloody 
repulses were heavily reduced. The two thousand men 
under Colonel Shaw became prisoners of war, but Briga- 
dier General Henry A. Wise, who had been in command 
previously, eff'ected his escape from Nag's Head, where he 
lay sick at the time of Burnside's approach. 

8. This blow resulted in opening all the Albemarle 
Sound and its tributaries to the visits of the Federal gun- 
boats. On February 20th, three of them having ascended 
7. What was the loss hi this battle ? 8. What was the ettecton East- 



256 HISTORY OF XOKTH CAROLIXA. 

the Chowan River as high as Winton were tired upon b} 
some troops posted at that point. They dropped down 
the river to Barfields, and, having shelled the village of 
Winton until the Confederates retired, landed and set 
tire to the buildings and consumed the town. 

9. As all had foreseen, General Burnside's success at 
Roanoke was but the precursor of an attack upon New 
Bern. This large and important place is situated at the 
continence of Neuse and Trent Rivers. It Avas susceptible 
of easy defence, but was left to its fate by the Confederate 
authorities. Brigadier General L. O'B. Branch, who had 
then never set a squadron in the field, held the command 
of a brigade consisting of the Seventh North Carolina reg- 
iment. Colonel R. P. Campbell ; Twenty-seventh, Colonel 
Sloan; Twenty-sixth, Colonel Z. B.Vance; and Thirty- 
ninth, Colonel Sinclair. Colonel S. B. Spruill's Second 
North Caralina Cavalry, and Brem's and Latham's Light 
Batteries, together witli a small number of militia, made 
the entire force to amount to a little less than four thou- 
sand men. 

10. These were posted below the junction of the rivers, 
with the Confederate left resting on Fort Thompson — the 
strongest of the works constructed along the river. The 
line of battle reached from this point across the railway 
and Weathersby road to an impassable swamp, which 
abundantly protected the right flank. General Burn side 
landed fifteen thousand troops from his transports and at 
7 o'clock in the morning of March 19th, 1SG2, the battle 
began. Relying upon the demoralizing efiect of the fire 
from the great guns of the fleet, the main assault was 

oni Carolina? 9. What city was next threatened? 10. ITow were 



GOVEIINOK CLARKE. 257 

made on the Confederate left between the fort and the 
raih'oad. Here the battle raged, until the enemy having 
' been repeatedly driven back, at last that portion of Gen- 
eral Branch's line held by the militia gave back. This 
occurred at 12 o'clock, and was fatal to the further con- 
tinuance of the battle. A rapid retreat, with the loss of 
two liundred prisoners and many military stores, ensued, 
and the beaten men of North Carolina were in a few days 
joined at Kinstonby reinforcements from Virgii:^ia, which 
would have easily driven back General Burnside to his 
ships, had they been at the battle of New Bern. 

11. The reduction of Fort Macon was a necessary con- 
sequence of this last disaster. The five companies that 
constituted the garrison, under Colonel M. J. White, after 
enduring ten hours bombardment from the investing bat- 
teries and Federal fleet, surrendered at 4 o'clock in the 
evening of April 20th, 1SG2. The fort had returned the 
beseigers' fire until seventeen of its guns were disabled, 
and twenty-eight men killed and wounded. 

12. At this time General Joseph E. Johnston had with- 
drawn his army from Manassas, and was confronting the 
great host of General ]\IcClellan, who was seeking the cap- 
ture of Richmond by approaches from York River. At 
Williamsburg, in Virginia, the Confederate leader halted 
the Division of Major General Longstreet and bloodily 
checked the pursuit of the Union forces. The Fifth North 
Carolina regiment, under Colonel McRae, suff'ered horri- 
bly in charging tlie enemy in this engagement, and with 
the loss of two-thirds of its ofiicers and a large proportion 

Gciiei-al Bninch's men posted ? 11. What is said of Fort Macon ? 12. 
^\ hat North Carolina regiment was cut to pieces at Williamsburg? 



258 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

of the men, established a repatation for unflinching cour- 
age. 

13. In the meanwhile General T. J. Jackson had grown 
immortal by his victories in the Valley of Virginia. The 
Twenty-first North Carolina regiment, under Colonel W. 
AV. Kirkland, opened the battle at Winchester, and was 
fearfully cut up. Here General Banks, of the Union 
forces, made his last stand. There were few of the North 
Carolina ^roops then in the army of the Shenandoah, 

14. General Johnston was no more molested after the 
battle of Williamsburg until his arrival before Richmond. 
General McClellan had posted his army on both sides of 
the Chickahominy, when a sudden freshet in that small 
river suggested to the Confederate Commander that he 
might attack the left wing of the Army of the Potomac 
without encountering the whole strength of McClellan's 
one hundred and twenty thousand men. The bridges 
had been carried away by the water and only the bravery 
and plans of General Sumner saved a large portion of the 
Union force from capture or destruction. As it was, the 
battle of Seven Pines, fought on May 26tli, 1862, resulted 
in one of the bloodiest conflicts of the whole war. Major 
General Daniel H. Hill, with Longstreet and others, drove 
the enemy several miles before the darkness closed the 
conflict. Thousands of North Carolinians were among 
the killed and wounded. The Fourth North Carolina 
regiment lost four hundred and sixty-two out of five hun- 
dred and twenty men. General Johnston himself was 
wounded and tlie next day General R. E. Lee assumed 

13. At Wincliester? 14. What occurred at Seven Pines? lo. At 



GOVERNOR CLARKE, 259 

command of the army and withdrew the Confederate 
troops from the attack. 

15. There were few military movements in North Car- 
olina during the Summer of 1862. On June 5th, Colonel 
G. B. Singletary with his command, the Forty-fourth 
North Carolina regiment, engaged some Federal Troops 
on Tranter's Creek, near Washington, and was slain in 
the progress of the skirmish. 

16. General Branch, with his North Carolina brigade, 
was posted on the extreme left of General Lee's army du- 
ring the latter portion of June, 1862. This Avas near Han- 
over Court House in Virginia. Here he w^as attacked by 
Major General Fitz-John Porter with a whole Federal 
army corps, and with his small force so nobly contested 
the field as to win high commendation from General Lee, 

17. This great commander had assembled nearly eighty 
thousand troops at Richmond by this time, On June 
26th, he sent Generals A. P. and D. H. Hill to assail the 
enemy's right flank at Ellyson's Mill. It was a bloody 
and fruitless affair that evening, for hundreds of brave 
men were lost without inflicting damage upon the foe, 
Colonel Stokes and Major Skinner, of the First North Car- 
olina, were killed, and General W. D. Pender and Colonel 
McElroy, of the Sixteenth North Carolina, were among 
the wounded, 

18. The enemy were the next day assailed at Gaines' 
Mill, where General Jackson, wuth his men from the vaL 
ley joined in crushing the right wing of McClellan's army. 
Day after day that vast host was driven back, until their 

Tmnter's Creek? 10. At Hanover Junction? 17. Where did the 
styen ^ays of battle before Rjoljuioiul beg-in'^ 18, Where enc]? 



260 HISTOEY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

last stand was taken at ^lalvern Hill. With this terrible 
contest ended the seven days of battle before Eichmond, 
The army which had come to capture the Confederate 
Capital shrank cowering under the protection of the Fed- 
eral gunboats. 

19. North Carolina, as at Seven Pines, had lost several 
thousands of her soldiers. The divisions of Generals 
Jackson, Longstreet, D. H. Hill and A. P. Hill, were those 
engaged in driving back the beleaguring host — and nine? 
ty-two regiments composed the whole of this Confederate 
force. Of these forty-six were from North Carolina, whose 
regiments were notoriously larger than those of any other 
Southern State ; so it may be safely asserted that more 
than half the Southern force engaged were from the Old 
North State. Colonel Campbell of the Seventh, Colonel 
Lee of the Thirty-seventh, Lieutenant Colonel Faison of 
the Twentieth, and Colonel Gaston Meares of the Third, 
were among the slain. 

19. What is said of North Carolina losses? 




GOVERNOR CLARKE, 2(]1 

CHAPTER XXXy. 

A. D. 18G2 TO 1863. 

Tlie Military Status in Xortli Carolina — Colonel Vance elected Gov- 
ernor — General Jackson advances upon General Pope's Ami}' — 
Battle of Cedar Run— Jackson indulges in a bi"* Flank Movement 
—Gets beliind Pope— Second Battle of .^lanasas-Ox Hill and 
Harper's Ferry — Sharpsburg and the North Carolina Losses — 
Generals Branch and Anderson — The Assembly of 1862— Giles 
Mebane— Judge Gilliam— Colonel Martin's Attack upon Plymouth 
—Lieutenant Ruffln and the Gunboat— Governor Vance and 
his able Policy — General Burnside is beaten at Fredericksburg— 
Affair below Kinston— Battle of White Hall— Battle of Goldsboro, 

fiN North Carolina there had been but few movements 
i^ on either side by troops. They had been mostly 
transferred to Virginia. Federal garrisons had been 
placed at Roanoke Island, Elizabetli City, Plymouth and 
New Bern. To observe these, Colonel William F. Martin, 
with the Seventeenth North Carolina regiment, was sta- 
tioned at Rainbow Bend, on Roanoke river, and a brigade 
was left at Kinston. Colonel William Lamb, with the 
Thirty-sixth North Carolina, was at Wilmington. 

2. In the August elections, Zebulon Baird Vance, Col- 
onel of the Twenty-sixth^ North Carolina regiment, was 
elected Governor over William Johnson, of Charlotte, late 
Commissary General of the State. This was a rebuke to 
the men who had been forward for secession; for Gov- 
ernor Vance had been brought out by those who had been 
the last to consent to separation from the United States, 

Qrestions. — What military posts were established in North Caro-^ 
lina? 2. Who was elected Governor in 1862? 3. What North Caro- 



262 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

3. After the defeat of the great Union Arrny before 
Richmond, General Jackson was sent to threaten Wash- 
ington by way of the Valley of the Shenandoah. Mr. 
Lincoln had sent General John Pope, with an army of 
forty thousand men, to approach the Confederate Capita] 
by way of Gordonsville, General Banks was soon en- 
countered and driven in confusion from Cedar Mountain. 
The North Carolina brigades of Generals Fender and 
Branch were brilliantly effective on this field, and rescued 
General Garnet from impending destruction, 

4. General Lee immediately after this battle put Gen- 
eral Longstreet's Corps in front of the enemy, and sent 
General Jackson, by a wide detour, to cut Pope's commu- 
ideation with Washington. An army that is shut from 
its base of supplies is put in great danger of starvation or 
Burrender. With secrecy that baffled all attempts to find 
where he was gone, the great Stonew^all passed west of 
the Blue liidge Mountains and, to the complete surprise 
of the Northern commander, appeared at Manassas. 

5. General Pope saw his danger, but hoped, with the 
help of the large re-enforcements he had received since 
the battle of Cedar Mountain, to crush the sixteen thou- 
sand men wlio had so daringly interposed upon his line 
of retreat. Throughout the 28th and 29th of August, 
1862, Jackson's men withstood all the attacks made upon 
them, but looked with longing eyes to the mountains, 
from wdiich Longstreet was speeding with succor. Again, 
on the third day, General Pope moved his masses upon 
the men who had, at such fearful odds, withstood his pre- 

lina Bri^a(1<»s were in the battle of Cedar Motintaiii? 4. Where did 
Brf'Jjeivall J;)eUsoj) £0 after thiit? o, \Yh:if. other b;}ft)e oeciMTcd at 



GOVEKXOli CLARKE. 263 

vk)us attacks; but General Lee had come up in the mean- 
Avliile, and again at Manassas anotlier Southern victory 
^vas achieved. 

0. General Jackson the next day fell upon tlie Federals, 
ivIkj had halted at Ox Hill, and again inflicted defeat 
upon tliem. The remnants of the great Army of the 
Potomac sought the shelter of tlic strong ^^vorks encom- 
passing Washington, and the terrible Stoncvrall passed to 
fresh prey at Harper's Ferry. 

7. The Confederates had crossed into Maryland, and 
the utmost consternation was in "Washington and Penn- 
sylvania. General ]\IcClellan was reinstated, and an im- 
mense force from all directions was collected to withstand 
the Confederate invasion. The battles and marches had 
fearfully weakened the number of men with which Gen- 
eral Lee had begun the last campaign. Before Jackson 
could complete the capture of the eleven thousand troops 
at Harper's Ferry, Generals D. H. Hill and ]\IcLaws were 
pushed from the barriers of South Mountain and joined 
General Lee in his portentous tryst at Sharpsburg. 

8. This little German hamlet witnessed the most terri- 
ble engagement which had yet occurred in the war. On 
September 17th, 1862, General McClella]i, with ninety 
thousand men, came up and confronted the Confederate 
leader, whose force was less than half that number. A 
furious cannonade was all that was attempted that even- 
ing ; but all day long on the succeeding day the noise 
of battle rolled along the Southern lines. As Burn- 
side, with fresh thousands of the men who had been at 

the end of Au^u-t? 6. What was Gi-ncral Jacksoirs course then? 
7. Where did the Confederate Ami)' go? 8. What happened at 



264 HISTORY OF NOUTII CAROLINA. 

E-oanoke and New Bern, seemed hopelessly crushing 
General Lee's extreme right, A. P. Hill just reached the 
field from Harper's Ferry, and at once turned the tide of 
success into a bloody repulse. This was late in the even- 
ing, and the Northern troops forbore further attack. 

9. All the next day General Lee and his foiled antago- 
nists awaited a renewal of the struggle. It did not ensue, 
and the great Virginian withdrew his dauntless and 
shattered ranks and went across the Potomac River, upon 
which his flank had rested in the battle. General Mc- 
Clellan attempted pursuit, and saw his troops dreadfully 
slaughtered at Shepherdstown. 

10. Many thousands of the men of North Carolina had 
fallen in this fearful cam])aign. Brigadier General 
Branch had most nobly redeemed his defeat at New Bern 
in many a bloody and furious conflict. Just as he was 
driving General Burnside across the Antietam he was 
slain to the inexpressible regret of the whole Southern 
people. So, too, with the youthful and gallant Brigadier 
General Anderson. Struck on the field in a manner that 
did not promise serious danger, he came to Raleigh but 
to die and add to the sorrow occasioned in the loss of his 
comrad. Colonel C. C. Tew of the Second North Caro- 
lina regiment, Avas also among the slain, and increased 
the poignancy of liis loss by the cruel pangs of uncertain- 
ty as to his fate. 

11. The Legishiture of 1862 met at the usual time in 
November. Giles i\Iebane, who Avas the son of James 
Mebane wlio presided in tlic House in 1832 and was then. 

i 

SliMrpsbiirir? 9. Wluit followed? 10. What is said of the ISTorth CaH 

oliniaus slain V 11. Who presided in thj Legislature of 18(32? 18. 



J 



GOVERNOR CLARKE, 



265 




living in Alamance, was President of the Senate. He 
had the virtues and ability so long observable in his fam- 
ily, and yet survives in honored old age. 

12. Robert B. Gilliam, of Granville, was made Speaker 
of the House, but was also elected Judge of the Superior 
Courts, and Avas succeeded in the chair by N. N. Fleming. 
Judge Gilliam v;as greatly esteemed for his learning and 
social amenities, and, like the President of the Senate, 
was a Chapel Hill man. 

13. At Plymouth on September 6th, the Seventeenth 
North Carolina regiment, under Colonel W. F. Martin, 
attacked the Federal garrison. The place was carried 
and held for three hours, but after tlie lapse of that time, 

12 



266 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

the Confederates having been continuously under fire from 
the enemy's gunboats, withdrew, carrying with them 
three pieces of captured artillery. Lieutenant Thomas 
Ruffin, of Bertie^, with a single Company — C, Fourth 
North Carolina Cavalry — gained high distinction on 
Blackwater Eiver. One of the formidable double-enders 
had ascended the narrow and crooked stream to a point 
near Franklin, Virginia. There Ruffin with his handful 
of troopers assailed the steamer with their rifles^ and drove 
every man from her decks. She lay helpless until con- 
sorts from down the s'tream came to her rescue and with 
their guns drove the assailants from their prey. 

14. Colonel Vance succeeded Governor Clarke in the 
executive functioiis in September, 1862. He at once ex- 
hibited great zeal and energy in the conduct of the war. 
He adopted a suggestion of General Martin, and sent Col- 
onel Crosson to England where a fine sea-going steamship 
called the Lord Clyde, was purcliased for the use and ben- 
efit of North Carolina. This vessel was called Advance, 
in compliment to the Governor's wife, and proved of very 
great benefit to the troops and people. 

15. General McClellan was again removed from the 
command of the Army of the Potomac, and Mr. Lincoln, 
in the latter portion of the Fall of 1862, substituted Gen- 
eral Ambrose E. Burnside in his place. This new com- 
mander soon resolved to move upon Kichmond, leaving 
his base of supplies at Acquia Creek and Fredericksburg. 
General Lee forestalled him in occui)ying the latter })lace, 
and on December 13th, 18()2, the great Army of the 

"What occurred at Plymouth and on the Dlaekwater? l4. Who he- 
came Governor ? 15. Who was General Burnside ? 16. Descrihe the 



» 



GOVERNOR VANCE. 267 

Potomac, then numbering one hundred and forty 
thousand men, was moved to the assault of the Confed- 
erates. The latter did not quite reach sixty thousand 
soldiers of all arms, but were strongly posted, and im- 
posed horrible defeat upon the assailants. 

16. General Franklin commanded the Federal columns 
of attack upon the right, and was terribly worsted in his 
assault upon Marye's Hill. General Sumner, on the left, 
had better success for awhile; and the Federal Major 
General Meade at one time endangered General Lee's 
right by a bold and impetuous attack, succeeding in 
forcing back the North Carolina Brigade of General Lane 
and wedging in between that command and that of Gen- 
eral Archer. This success was only momentary, and the 
assailants were soon driven back, with great loss^ from the 
position they had won, 

17. General Burnside had lost nearly thirteen thousand 
men in this bloody failure, while his opponents suffered 
less than half such decrease. General Pender of North 
Carolina, was wounded, and, as on other fields, greatly 
distinguished himself for courage and conduct. 

18. On the day after the battle of Fredericksburg, 
Brigadier General N. G. Evans, with his brigade of South 
Carolinians, was posted at Kinston, on the Neuse River. 
On that day his pickets were driven in on the Trenton 
road by a small force of the enemy. Upon the approach 
of the latter to the river bridge, they were confronted by 
the four regiments under General Evans and driven back. 
The pursuit soon ended , for the single brigade quickly found 

Vinttle of Fi't'dericksbiir^. 17. What was tlie loss on both gldeg? 18, 
^y]n}X happe))ec] tlje ne^t cjay iji N.ort)) C^foJlna? 10. What was Gen- 



268 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

itself in an ambuscade, and at once engaged a Federal 
army of more than twenty thousand men, under Major 
General A. G. Foster. After a short and desperate con- 
flict, the Confederates beat a hasty retreat, but could not 
reach the bridge sufficientl}^ far in advance of the enemy 
to destroy it, and thus prevent their crossing. 

19. General Evans saved the greater portion of his com- 
mand and being reinforced, the next day took position 
on a mill pond near Kinston. General Foster moved up 
the other side of the Neuse and attempted, on Monday^ 
15th, to cross at White Hall, and tlius cut otT Evans' re- 
treat on Goldsboro. 

20. Brigadier General Beverly Robertson, with the 
Eleventh and Thirty-first North Carolina regiments, the 
Fourth and Fifth North Carolina Cavalry and the right 
section of Badham's Battery (Third North Carolina bat-. 
talion) burned the bridge in Foster's front and deterred 
his crossing that night. Early in the morning, under the 
fire of thirty pieces of artillery, strong columns were 
moved to drive off the Confederates and lay down a pon- 
toon bridge. For eight hours the struggle continued for 
this purpose. Colonel Leaventhorpe with his command, 
the Eleventh or Bethel regiment, supporting the guns 
under McCleese, bore th^ brunt of the battle and bravely 
drove them from the river banks. 

21. In this highly creditable battle the enemy were defeat- 
ed with the loss of more than a thousand men, while the 
Confederates disabled were less than one-liftli of that 
number. 

eral Foster's next move? 20. AVliat h.-ippciuHl atWliitellall? 21, 
What was the loss there? 22. AVhat follo'vcd at Gohlsboro y 



GOVEBNOR VANCE, 



269 



22. General Foster finding it impossible to force a cross- 
ing at White Hall, pushed on for Goldsboro and succeed- 
ed in burning the bridge over the Neuse, Several thou- 
sands of troops were in the town, two iriiles away, but only 
Clingman's Brigade and two battalions of South Carolin-. 
ians were ordered by General Evans to assail the army of 
the invaders. They did so to no ])urpose, and were drive^ 
back. General Foster at once retreated to Isew Pern, 




270 JJJBTORY OF NOBTH CAROLINA, 

CHAPTEE XXXVI, 

A. D. 1863. 

Yellow Fever at Wilmliio:ton — General Wliitinc^— The Blockarle — Con^ 
dition of the State — Great Military Efforts — The Hospital? — Ad- 
jutant General Fowle— ^Sur<^eon Genei-al Warren — Dr. Charles 
3^. Johnson— Condition of Civil Ki^^hts— Messrs. B. F. Moore and 
Lewis Thompson— Generals Brago-, Polk, D. H. Hill, Holmes, 
J^oring-, Robert Ransom and McCulloh= — Brii^adier Generals — -. 
Colonel Peter Mallett and the Conscripts — Hooker is beaten at 
Chaneellorsville— Death of Stonewall Jackson-^Captiire of Win^ 

Chester The Great Disaster at Gettysburg; North Carolina 

Losses — Generals Pender and Pettigrew— Affairs at HilPs Bridii'e 
and Boone's Mill — Brandy Station— Depression. 

iLMiNGTON b.ad been terribly scourged by yellowy 
?^4 fever in tbe Fall of 1862. More tlian two tbou^ 
jsand persons perished in that city; then containing less 
than five times that population, Brigadier General W, 
H. C, Whitingj formerly of the Engiiieer Corps in the 
United St^>tes Army, had highly distinguished himself as 
commajider of a division in the Army of Xorthern Vir^ 
ginia, He was sent, about December 1st, 1862, to take 
charge of the Department of the Cape Fear. The strict? 
ness of the blockade off other southern seaports made 
Wilmington of inestimable value to the Confederate gov^ 
crnment. The nature of the coast at the mouth of Cape 
Fear River rendered it impossible to prevept success ox\ 
favorable occasions. 

2. With the new year of 1863 North Carolina was still 
buoyant and unabated in devotion to the Southern cause, 
Gre^it battles h^d liHcd the State with grief for gallant 




GOVEilNOll VAN'CE. 271 

men lost, but thousands were still going forward to fill 
the gaps occasioned by so many deaths. Sixty-six regi- 
ments and ten battalions had been sent to the front, and 
under the law of conscription continual levies were being 
made as the young men beeame liable to military service. 

3. Under the management of Governor Vance great 
supplies of clothing for the troops, of medicines, cotton 
and woolen cards, and other necessary foreign articles, 
Avere brought in b}^ the steamer Advance and distributed. 
]\Ieans were used to secure supplies of salt, and wayside 
hospitals were established at different points for the ac- 
commodation of sick and travelling soldiers. The great- 
est of these was at Petersburg, Virginia, and was put in 
charge of Drs. William C. Warren and W. A. B. Xorcom, 
of Edenton. 

4. Lieutenant Colonel Daniel G. Fowle, late of the 
Thirty-first regiment, succeeded General Martin as Adju- 
tant General of the State, and Dr. Edward Warren re- 
placed Dr. Charles E. Johnson as Surgeon General. Miss 
Mary Pettigrew, like another Florence Xightingale, went 
to Petersburg and became the matron of the North Caro- 
lina hospital at that place. 

5. In civil wars there is generally but slight regard 
manifested for the rights of people who do not agree with 
those prosecuting hostilities. This was not the case in 
North Carolina at any time in the great struggle, and the 
legal rights of all men could be vindicated by appeal to 
the courts. Some were arrested and imprisoned, but they 

Qrestions.— What is said of General Wliltino- and Wilmington? 
2. Wli:it was the spirit in North Carolina ? 3. What was accomplish- 
ed by the steamer Advance ? 4. Who were the new military ap- 



272 HISTORY OF NOKTH CAROLINA. 

were generally persons who committed open acts of hos- 
tility to the Confederate States, while some distinguished 
23ersons, like Messrs. B. F. Moore and Lewis Thompson, 
were all the while opposed to the whole secession move- 
ment, and were yet undisturbed. This was because these 
gentlemen were understood to yet love the South and 
only disapproved the mode of vindication. 

6. Many North Carolinians had by this time risen to 
prominence in the different Southern armies. General 
Braxton Bragg, Lieutenant Generals Leonidas Polk, D. 
H. Hill and T. H. Holmes, Major Generals Loring, Robt. 
Ransom and Benjamin McCulloh, conferred honor upon 
the commonwealth. 

7. With General Lee were the North Carolina infantry 
brigades commanded by Generals W. D. Pender, M. W. 
Ransom, Junius Daniel, Alfred Iverson, James H. Lane, 
James J. Pettigrew, A. M. Scales and John R. Cooke, 
while the two cavalry brigades of Generals L. J. Baker 
and Beverly Robertson were likewise of the same State. 
The brigade of General Clingman was at Charleston, that 
of General Martin on the Roanoke, another under Gene- 
ral Hebert at the mouth of the Cape Fear, and yet another 
in the Army of Tennessee. 

8. The work of enrolling conscripts and sending them 
to the field was committed to Colonel Peter Mallett. He 
had his quarters near Raleigh and added another battal- 
ion to the army which afterwards did good service under 
Major Hahr. 

pointees on the Governor's staff? 6, Wliat men of the State had be- 
come prominent in the war? 7. What Nortli Carolina brii^ades are 
mentioned? 8. Who had charge of enrolling conscripts? 9. What 



GOVERNOR VANCE. 273 

9. General Burnside lost his position as Commander of 
the Army of the Potomac by his defeat at Fredericksburg. 
He was succeeded by Major General Joseph Hooker. The 
new generalisimo had massed one hundred and thirty- 
two thousand men in front of General Lee when April, 
1863, was drawing to its close. The Confederate Chief 
had sent Longstreet and his corps to threaten Suffolk and 
gather subsistence from the rich Albemarle region of 
North Carolina, and could only muster forty-six thousand 
men Avhen it was found that eighty thousand of the ene- 
my had crossed the Rappahannock River and were turn- 
ing the left flank of the Army of Northern Virginia. 

10. Stonewall Jackson at once asked and obtained leave 
to arrest this dangerous movement. In the darkness of 
a gathering night the astonished men of the North were 
stricken in the rear and driven in headlong ruin upon 
Chancellorsville, where General Lee was attacking from 
a different direction. General Hooker, fearfully situated, 
was saved by the fall of General Jackson and Sedgewick's 
attack with forty thousand men upon the small force left 
at Fredericksburg. When General Lee returned from 
the defeat of this movement the Army of the Potomac 
had secured its escape across the Rappahannock. 

11. No victory in the world's history ever reflected 
greater credit upon the genius of the leaders or the cour- 
age of the men than the battle of Chancellorsville. It 
filled the North with dismay and led General Lee to con- 
sider his army almost invincible. But triumph came at 
fearful cost. General Jackson with a small escort, while 

happened at Chancellorsville ? 10. What ^reat Southern leader was 
wounded there? 11. What is said of the battle ? 12. Did North Car- 



274 HISTORY OF XOKTM CAROLINA. 

riding at night in front of the Confederate lines, was mis- 
taken for Federal cavalry and fired upon by his own men. 
He was mortally wounded and died a few days afterwards, 
and there was no man in all the world who could fill his 
place. Stonewall Jackson was exceedingly dear to his 
people, and at the news of his death the entire South w^as 
plunged in deepest grief and even hardened soldiers, un- 
der other leaders far away from the field of the disaster, 
wept aloud when the sad tidings were told. An eminent 
historian has said : " Indeed, it was not only the military 
achievements of Jackson that had endeared him to the 
Southern people, but something pre-ominently great in 
his character. He was so pure, so noble, so untiring and 
so brave, that all heads bowed down to him. His splen- 
did victories had excited the admiration of the world, but 
the fame of his warlike deeds was even obscured by the 
brightness of his virtues. Even his enemies praised him, 
and admitted that his angelic goodness almost consecrated 
the cause for which he fought." This great man married 
the daughter of Dr. R. H. Morrison, of Lincoln county. 

12. The North Carolina brigades were heavily engaged 
in this great battle, and they constituted much the larger 
portion of the force tlieii with General Lee. Of the ten 
thousand men lost by the Confederates also a majority 
were of the same brave and loyal people. General Pender 
was again wounded, and promoted for his conspicuous 
valor and good conduct on the field. 

13. General Hooker, like Burnside, lost his place by 
the fearful disaster at Chancellorsville. Mr. Lincoln 
could not forgive his loss of twenty thousand men, and 
General Meade was made his successor. General Lee 



GOVERNOR VAXCF. 275 

started early in June upon the Federal lines of commu- 
nication. Meade went back upon Washington, and Gen- 
eral Ewell, mainly with North Carolina troops, on the 
17th, captured four thousand men and large supplies at 
Winchester. 

14. The bloodiest encounter of the whole war was at 
Gettysburg on the first three days of July. General Heth 
began the action with his division but was soon wounded 
and replaced by General J. J. Pettigrew. This division 
consisted of Pettigrew's North Carolina and three other 
brigades. The fighting was extremely obstinate, but the 
enemy were driven from Cemetery Ridge and through 
the town. Colonel H. K. Burgwyn was slain and his reg- 
iment, the Twenty-sixth North Carolina, lost five hundred 
and forty-nine out of eight hundred men, 

15. Again on the second day General Lee renewed the 
assault. The divisions of Hood and McLaws forced their 
way, on the extreme Confederate right, into possession of 
Round Top Hill, and greatly endangered the integrity of 
the whole Federal position. Early and Johnson were 
launched in the evening from the left against Gulp's Hill 
and the end of Cemetery Ridge. At nightfall the great 
army of General Meade was still in possession of its im- 
pregnable position. 

16. On June 3rd, 1863, was the last and deadliest of the 
Confederate assaults. They had so often beaten the Army 
of the Potomac that General Lee might well believe he 
could dislodge his foes even from that terrible stronghold 

olina loose heavily? 13. What happened at Winchester? 14. What 
division of the Southern Army beo^an the battle of Gettysburg? 15. 
What was done oi) the second day of the battle? 16. \Yhat i^ said o| 



276 HISTOPvY OF XOKTII CAROLTXA. 

they so valiuiitly defended. But the odds were too great 
for even his incomparable infantry. At the main point 
of attack the lines so curved as to enable General Meade 
to bring up any amount of reinforcements, and though 
the divisions of Pickett, Pettigrew and Pender reached 
the Federal works and drove them from their position, it 
was impossible to retain the lodgment made, and the 
costly sacrifice of life was of no avail. 

17. General Lee was foiled at Gettysburg precisely as 
General McClellan had been at Sharpsburg. After great 
and bloody efforts he found it impossible to dislodge his 
foes and retired sorrowfully from the mighty contest. It 
was the turning point in the war, and the Confederate 
cause could never rally from this bloody check. The 
twenty-three thousand men lost in the Federal Army could 
be easily replaced, but who were to close the great gaps in 
the Confederate ranks. The flower and hope of the South 
had perished in splendid but unavailing heroism. 

18. North Carolina, as on every other great field con- 
tested by the army of Northern Virginia, lost thousands 
of her best and bravest sons. Major General W. D. Pen- 
der was numbered among the slain and closed a career 
that was of infinite promise. So brave and gentle aiul 
capable was he that all had come to love and reverence 
his name. General Pettigrew was wounded, and unfortu- 
nately mortally injured again a few days afterwards. 
North Carolina has never produced an abler or more ad- 
mirable man. His virtues and acquirements were extra- 
ordinary and his loss most deplorable. Among the slain 

the assaults made on July 3rtl. 1802? 17. How did this batt'.e «^fft*ct 
the South? 18. What North Carolinians arc UKMitioned aniono^ tlie 



GOVERNOPv VANCE. 277 

AYcre Colonels Isaac E. Avery of the Sixth, and J. K. 
Marshall of the Fifty-second. Brigadier General A. M. 
Scales was wounded, as were Colonel Avery of the Thir- 
ty-third, Colonel Lowe of the 28th, and the conspicuously 
brave Captain J. McLeod Turner, commanding the Sev- 
enth North Carolina regiment. 

19. During the month of June Colonel Spear, with a 
regiment of New York Cavalry, made an attempt to reach 
and burn the railroad bridge at Weldon. They disem- 
barked from steamers at Winton, and, after a skirmish 
with Major S. J. AVheeler's Cavalry battalion at Hill's 
Bridge in Hertford county, Avere met and defeated by an 
inferior force, under Brigadier General M. W. Ransom, at 
Boone's ^lill in Northampton. 

20. There had also been much North Carolina blood 
spilled in the great cavalry battle at Brandy Station. 
The ten thousand Confederate troopers all day bore the 
attacks of superior numbers and drove their enemies at 
nightfall from the field. General L. J. Baker was wound- 
ed, and Colonel Solomon AVilliams, of the Second North 
Carolina Cavalry, slain. 

21. The depreciation of Confederate money had become 
a frightful evil at this time. To sorrow and bereavement 
in the many households of North Carolina, was now 
added the grim presence of want. Thousands of brave 
soldiers deserted the ranks because their families were 
at home starving for food. The authorities of the State 
did all that could be expected, but the most enormous 
public charity could not reach the needs of so many thou- 
sands of suffering women and children. 

disabled ? 19. What is said of Colonel Spear's raid? 20. What of the 
battle at Brandy Station? 21. What was the state of Confederate 
money ? •' 



278 HISTORY OP NORTH CAROLINA. 

CHAPTER XXXVIL 

A. D. 1864. 

G-eiierals Kirkland and Cook Ilepiilsecl at Bristoe Station — The South 
still UiisLibduecl— Ex-Governor Bra.^i^ resigns as Attornej" Gene- 
ral of the Confederate States — Ex-Governor Graham succeeds 
George Davis in the Confederate States Senate — Members of Con- 
federate House of Representatives— Pickett's attack upon New 
Bern — -Generals Clingman and Hoke — Death of Colonel H. M. 
8ha\v— General Martin and tiie iJattle of Shepherdville — Deaths 
of Governor Branch, Senator Borland and Judge Manney — Major 
General Moke and the Battle of Plymouth — The Ram Albemarle 
und the Naval Battle — Battles of the ^Vilderness, Sportsylvania 
and Cold Harbor — North Carolina Losses — Butler and Bermuda 
Hu'idreds — Seige of Petersburg — Battle of Winchester and Death 
of General Ramseur — Governor Vance? Re-elected — Battle of 
Reams' Station— Deatii of Lieutenant Colonel Bird— Major Gene- 
ral Bryan Grimes — Assembly of 18(54. 

HEN the Army of Northern Virginia left Gettys- 
burg, the old lines of defense were resumed on 
the Rappahannock and Rapidan rivers. Again in October 
General Lee had renewed offensive movements and the 
North Carolina brigades-of Generals Kirkland and Cooke 
suffered a bloody repulse at Bristoe Station. 

2. In the l:)eginning of 1804, notwithstanding the great 
reverses at Gettysburg and \''icksburg, the Confederate 
leaders were unabated in their determination to achieve 
separation from the Union and independence for the 
South. The vast and increasing armies of the Nortli 
were still confronted by antagonists, who supplied their 
want of numbers by superior strategy and desperate 
courage in the lields. 

3. Ex-Governor Thomas Bragg had retired from the 



OOVKKXOK VANCE. 279 

position of Attorney General of the Confederate States. 
The learned and eloquent George Davis, of Wilmington, 
^vas also succeeded in the Confederate States Senate by 
Ex-Governor William A. Graham, of Orange. This 
great and immaculate statesman had a fit associate in the 
bold, able and resolute William T. Dortch, of Wayne. 

4. In the House of Representatives, the North Carolina 
delegation consisted of Messrs. W. N. H. Smith of Hert- 
ford, R. R. Bridgcrs of Edgecombe, Thomas C. Fuller of 
Cumberland, James M. Leach of Davidson, J. T. Leach 
of Johnston, .Josiah Turner of Orange, John A. Gilmer 
of Guilford, James G. Ramsay of Mecklenburg, Burgess 
S. Gaither of Burke and George W. Logan of Cherokee. 

5. In the last days of January, General Lee sent from 
Virginia five brigades under Major General Pickett to 
assail the Federal garrison at New Bern. The brigade 
of General Clingman in a skirmish on Bachelor's creek 
had the great misfortune to lose Colonel Henr}^ M. Shaw, 
the brave and capable commander of the Eighth North 
Carolina Regiment. 

6. Generals Clingman and Hoke, after terrifying the 
enemy by their approach, were withdrawn upon the re- 
turn of Brigadier General Barton, who had been sent 
across the Trent river to cut the Federal communications. 

7. This had been already most effectually accomplished 
by the force under Brigadier General Martin. This lat- 
ter officer with the Seventeenth and Forty-second North 

Questions.— Whose brigiides wei-e cut up at Biistoe Station '? 2. 
Wliat was the feeling of the South '? 3. Wlio were Confederate States 
Senators in 1864? 4. Who were Representatives in Congress? 5. 
Who went to assail New Bern? G. What did he accomplish? 7. 



280 PIISTORY OP \OKTH CAEOLIXA. 

Carolina regiments, four companies of the Fifth South 
Carolina Cavalry, and Ellis' and Paris' Light Batteries, 
had encountered an equal force of the enemy at Shep- 
herdsville and achieved a brilliant and complete success. 
Two forts, fifteen guns and two hundred prisoners had 
been won, when the news of Pickett's retreat necessitated 
instant movements of a similar nature. The loss in 
General Martin's column did not exceed sixty men. 

8. Governor John Branch at Halifax, ex-Senator vSolon 
Borland in Texas and Judge Thomas Manney in Ten- 
nessee, all died in the progress of the year. They had 
all reflected honor upon their native State by useful and 
honored liyes. 

9. For much distinguished service in the Army of 
Northern Virginia Robert F. Floke of Lincoln, had been 
recently made a Major General in the Confederate service. 
His father was Colonel Michael Hoke, who had so bril- 
liantly opposed Governor Graham in the State elections 
of 1844. General Hoke was sent by General Lee to assail 
the Federal garrison at Plymouth in Washington county. 
On the 19th of April, 1864, the fine Division of the capa- 
ble and youthful commander assaulted and captured the 
outposts west of the town. On the next day occurred the 
main battle. Brigadier General M. W. Ransom was sent 
around to assault the strongest works which lay on the 
east of the defences. He lost five hundred men in the 
desperate charge but was completely successful and nearly 
three thousand prisoners and many munitions and stores 
were captured. 

What is said of the battle of Shepherdsville? 8. What distingui;'hed 
civilians died ? 0. What happened at Plyiiioiitli ? 10. What was the 



GOVERNOR VANCE. 281 

10. The iron-clad ram, Albemarle, under Captain Cooke, 
co-operated in the attack and having sunk one and driven 
off the rest of the Federal gunboats, took the formidable 
Federal works in reverse with her fire and greatly assisted 
in their discomfiture. 

11. The apparition of this floating batter}^ produced a 
great sensation among the naval men belonging to the 
United States' service then in North Carolina. It had 
been built at the town of Halifax. In a few days a fleet 
of double enders were collected at the mouth of Roanoke 
river and Captain Cooke took the Albemarle down the 
stream to look after them. One of the most desperate 
and prolonged naval battles on record occurred in the 
Albemarle Sound. For hours the contest raged and re- 
sulted in the defeat of the Federal fleet and their flight 
from the scene of contest. 

12. Lieutenant General U. S. Grant had by this time 
won the command of all the United States armies. Gen- 
eral Lee's thinned ranks were now confronted by a greater 
host than had yet been encountered. At the Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania and Cold Harbor, General Grant's tremen- 
dous assaults were all met and repulsed. Sixt}^ thousand 
Federal soldiers were lost but eighteen thousand of the 
forty-two thousand Confederates had also been stricken 
down. General Lee's re-inforcements only supplied those 
who were slain and he thus grew hourly weaker in the 
merciless slaughter inaugurated by the Federal chief. 

13. Xo*rth Carolina mourned for a host of gallant 
spirits lost in these tremendous struggles. Among these 

Albemarle? 11. What is said of the naval battle in the Sound? 12. 
What is said of General Grant and the oreat battles in Viro;inia? 13. 



282 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

were Brigadier Generals Junius Daniel and James B. 
Gordon, Colonels J. H. Wood, of the Fourth, Thomas M. 
Garrett of the Fifth, C. L. Andrews of the Second cavalry, 
Edmund Brabble of the Thirty second, C. C. Blacknall 
of the Twenty-second, W. H. A. Spear of the Twenty- 
eighth, C. M. Avery of the Thirty-third, John G. Jones 
of the Thirty-fifth, W. M. Barbour of the Thirty-seventh, 
Major J. J. Iredell of the Fifty-third, and Alexander D. 
Moore of the Sixty-sixth North Carolina regiments, were 
also numbered among those who sealed their faith with 
their blood. 

14. General Butler was foiled by Beauregard in his 
attack upon Eichmond by way of Bermuda Hundreds 
and that battle was the first in which, the now famous 
Gatling guns were used. Dr. llichard H. Gatling, the 
inventor, was born and reared in Hertford county, but 
was, in 1864, a resident of Indiana. This movement 
occurred in May, and North Carolina was nearly stripped 
of troops to make the necessary defense of Richmond. 

15. The seige of Petersburg Avas to be long and desper- 
ately contested. General Lee with less than fifty thou- 
sand men went into lines stretching from Hatcher's Run 
to the James river above Richmond. Soon Brecken- 
ridge's division and Ewell's corps under Lieutenant Gen- 
eral Early, were sent to the Valley, and thus not forty 
thousand men were left in thirty-seven miles of entrench- 
ments. 

16. The gallant and accomplished Stephen D. Ramseur 
was made a Major General in June and went in command 

Name some of the Nortli Carolinians slain ? 14. Where was the Gat- 
ling gun Ih-st used in war? 15. With what force did General Lee 



GOVERNOR VANCE. 283 

of a divison with Lieutenant General Early to the Valley. 
That officer after brilliant successes was confronted by 
the Federal commander, General Sheridan, with forty 
thousand men, ten thousand of whom were cavalry. A 
deadly encounter between these and the twelve thousand 
Confederates occurred at Winchester. The battle lasted 
through the day and at night fall Early's men were 
puslied from the field. They had done all that skill and 
valor could hope to accomplish and only yielded to over^ 
whelming numbers, 

17, On this disastrous occasion. General Ramseur was 
jiumbered among the slain. Like Pender and Pettigrew% 
he perished in the very blossom and promise of a noble 
career. High capacity and a noble disposition had given 
additional charms to his knightly deeds, and sorrow was 
known not alone in North Carolina at his lamented 
deatli. His first connection in the Confederate Army, 
was as commander of the famous Ellis Artillery of 
Raleigh, which battery upon his promotion became the 
charge of Captain Basil C. Manly. 

18, In the State election of 18G4, Governor Vance was 
re-elected by a great majority over W. W. Holden of 
Wake. The people longed for peace but were unwilling 
to adopt Mr. Holden's plan of effecting that object. They 
would onh^ make terms along w^ith the whole South and 
tlius they supported A^ance who still advocated a brave 
prosecution of the war. 

19, As the seige advanced at Petersburg, there were 
many deadly encounters away from the immediate pres-. 

conduct the defence of Petersburj^ ? IG. What able officer was slain 
at Winchester? IS, Who Wfvs electee] Governor iu 1804? 19p I)e= 



284 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

ence of the main armies. On August 24th, a strong body 
of Federal troops, who were intrenched at Reams' Station 
on the Petersburg Eailroad, were attacked by General A, 
P. Hill. They repelled two assaults with such loss to the 
assailants that it was only at the request of the men of 
Cooke's, McRae's and Lane's brigades, that the officers 
consented to a renewal of the bloody contest. Thesaj 
brave men of North Carolina had been so reduced in 
battle that but seventeen hundred and fifty muskets were 
seen in their glorious charge as they won the day. By 
splendid daring the}^ had achieved a victory over greatly 
superior numbers and twenty-one hundred prisoners and 
thirteen pieces of artillery were their trophies. 

20. Among the slain was Lieutenant Colonel Francis 
W. Bird of Bertie, of the Eleventh North Carolina regi- 
ment. He had distinguished himself at Gettysburg and 
was full of bravery and promise. The horror of the 
struggle carried on in this campaign is attested in the 
fact that the three brigades above mentioned, that once 
contained more than ten thousand men, had been wasted 
in conflict down to seventeen hundred and fifty fit for 
service. General CUngman's brigade lost in the three 
weeks, closing with the battle of Cold Harbor, eleven 
hundred and seventy-three men. 

21. Upon the fall of General Ramseur, Bryan Grimes 
was promoted to be Major General in his place. Like 
Robert F. Hoke, lie had begun the war as Major of a 
regiment, Third North Carolina, and by brave and judi- 
cious conduct, had attained this high rank. Colonel 
William R. Cox was made Brigadier General in his place 
and was also an officer of great merit and faithfulness, 



I 



GOVPJRNOR VANCE. 285 

So also William Gaston Lewis of Edgecombe, late Colo- 
nel of the Thirty-second North Carolina regiment, was 
added to the number of Brigadier Generals, as well as 
A^'illiam McRae, of the Seventh North Carolina, Robert 
D. Johnston of the Twenty-third and R. B. Vance of the 
Twenty-ninth North Carolina. 

22. Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were chosen 
President and A'ice President of the United States in the. 
Fall election. Mr. Johnson \\"ds boi^n and reared in. 
Raleigh, and had risen to prominence as a citizeii of 
Tennessee. 

23. In the Legislature of 18G-1:, Giles Mebane, of Ala- 
mance, and Richard S. Donnell, of Beaufort, were the 
presiding officers. The thoughts of the Legislature and 
of the State were all centered upon the perishing fabric 
of the Southern Government, The bloody struggle was 
rapidly drawing to a close as t\}e million men of the 
I^orth step by step drove the few Confederate survivors 
to the wall. 

scribe the b.tttle of Reams' Station? 20. What is said ot Confederate 
losses? 21. Who were made Generals ? 22. What is said of Andrew 
Johnson? 23, Who were presiding officers of the Assembly? 



280 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

CHAPTER XXXYIIL 

A. D. I8G0 TO 1866. 

The Cape Fear Defences — First Attack upon Foi't Fislier — General 
Terr\' Captures thiif: Work — Battle of Kinston^-General Joe E. 
Johtiston — Battle of Averysboro — Battle of Bentonsville — Battle 

of Five Forks — Fall of Petersburg Surrender of Generals I.ee 

and Jolniston — Death of Pi-esident Lincoln—- General Sehofield 
jVIilitary Governor of North Carolina— Emancipation of the Col- 
ored People — W. W. Holden Provisional Governor— Convention 
of 1865— State of Affairs— Conduct of the Freedmen, 

pHE mouth of the Cape Fear River was defended by 
Ji Forts Caswell and Holmes. A few miles above 
these works, upon New^ Inlet, stood Fort Fisher. This 
great fortification had been constructed by Colonel AVih 
liam Lamb, of tlie Thirty-sixth Nortli Carolina regiment, 
under the supervision of Major General Whiting, and had 
been recently pronounced by Ceneral Beauregard as welb 
nigh impregnable. It mounted seventy guns, and with 
all its faces presented almost a mile of continuous bat- 
teries. 

2. On the day before Christmas, 1864, Admiral Porter, 
with a great fleet and a large land force commanded by 
General 3. F- Butler, stood in from the offjng and opened 
fire upon Forth Fisher. He had blown up a powder ship 
the night before with the idea that it would explode the 
magazines in the fort. No such result followed and no 
one on shore dreamed of his intent in wasting so much 
ammunition. 

3, All tliat dav and tlie jicxt the six liundrod great 



GOVKilNOK CLAiiKE. 287 

guns of the fleet and fort joined in their thunderous eho- 
rus, but, on the night of the 2Gth of December, 18(34, the 
Federal armament sailcMl l)ack to Beaufort, completely 
foiled in their vast and costly undertaking. 

4. General Braxton Bragg, then in command, suppos- 
ing the enemy had given up all idea of taking Fort 
Fisher, withdrew the troops that had been collected in 
aiid around that work. He had prepared to march 
against New Bern, and rations had been prepared to that 
end for Hoke's Division and others, when, about mid- 
night of January 12th, 18G5, Colonel Lamb telegraphed 
fatal tidings that the fleet had returned and were making 
preparations to land troops. 

5. Fort Fisher is thirty miles below Wilmington. A 
narrow neck of land divides the Ocean from the Cape 
Fear river. When General Hoke's Division reached 
Sugar Loaf, they found that thousands of the Federal 
troops were in possession of the Peninsular, and had in- 
trenched themselves from river to sea. 

6. A bombardment, such as has been seen no where in 
the world, had in the meanwhile been poured upon the 
land face of the Fortress. This portion of the work was 
defended by vast parapets, above wdiich the huge traverses 
towered still thirty feet higher. 

7. General Terry, the Federal commarider, at three 
o'clock, on the evening of the 10th, signaled the Admi- 
ral to change his hre, and the storm of shells Avhich had 

Questions. — Wnat forts s'l'-'i"''*''^ tl-.e two inlets to Cape Fear 
River? 2. Wiiat luii>pene(l on tlie day before Christina? ii» 1864? 
3. What was the i-e.siilt? 4. What followed on January l-2tl!, 1865 ? 
5. Who seized the peninsular above Fort Fisher? 6. What of the 



288 HISTORY <J¥ XOKTH CAKOLINA. 

for three days been rained upon tiio land face, at once 
went down to the water batteries. Three Federal brigades 
had worked their way close up and at once sprang to 
the assault. They were bravely met, and the command- 
ers of all three lines, with five hundred of their men, 
w^ere cut down in the narrow interval separating the com- 
batants. A lodgment was established in the gun cham- 
bers next to the river from which the dauntless exertions 
of the Confederates could not expel their equally determ- 
ined assailants. 

8. General Whiting and Colonel Lamb had both been 
severely wounded, and yet the struggle still went on in- 
side the Fort and was not ended until ten o'clock, when 
the survivors of the garrison surrendered at Battery 
Buchanan. This was a fell blow to the tottering Confed- 
eracy. It sealed up the last of the seaports and was soon 
followed by the fall of Wilmington. 

9. The Confederates^ under General Bragg, soon encoun- 
tered the army corps of General Schofield at the town of 
Kinston, and after stubborn resistance, retired to Golds- 
boro. Major Edward Mallett, of the Sixty-first North Car- 
olina regiment, was numbered among the slain at this 
battle. 

10. General Joseph E. Johnston assunied control of 
military movements in North Carolina after this, and 
from various quarters collected an army of twenty-five 
thousand men. Against these were moving the great 
army of General Sherman from South Carolina, the cap- 

bouibardiiKMit ? 7. Wliat is said of the assault on Jamiary 13th? 8. 
What was the effect of this capture? 0. What happdicd at Kinston? 
10. Wiiat Confudei-ate General assumed coi'iinand in Xortii Carolina? 



^TiUVKUXoU TAXCE. 



^8^ 



JtoTS of Wilniiiigtoii under Tcj-ry. uiid .still another column 
led by Schofield from Kinstoii. 

11. Tlie first shock of arms was at Averysboro m Har- 
.nett county, where General Hardee stoutlyheld his ground 
vimtil night, and then witlidrew his small force in safety 
from the presence of General Sherman. 

12. On March 10th, 1865, the right wing of General 
Johnston's army rested at Bentonsville. Here were coh 
lected fifteen thousand Confederates, who were assailed in 
;six succes^ve attacks by the vast host under Sherman 
that had overrun Georgia and South Carolina, They 
were driven back with great slaughter, and finally, upon 
«, Southern advance, they were forced from the possession 
of three separate lines of defence. The enemy retired in 
the direction of Goldsboro, which place they entered on 
March 23rd, and were joined by the forces under Generals 
•Schofield and Terry. General Johnston put his men in 
•cantonments around Smithfield, but shortly withdrew 
wdth his force towards Raleigh. 

13. But the end of all was close at hand. General 
'Sheridan came with heavy cavalry reinforcements from 
the Valley of Virginia, and massed them on the right of 
'General Lee's lines before Petersburg. General Hampton 
liad weakened the Confederate Horse by bringing a divi- 
rsion to North Carolina. General W. H. F. Lee assaulted 
;and worsted General Sheridan at Chamberlain's Run, but 
the next da}^ he came back wdth overwhelming infantry 
rsupportsand crushed both Fitz Lee and Pickett at Five 
Forks. 

ai . Who ioLitrlit at Averysboro y 12. Wiio at Bentonsville ? 13. What 
as said of OtMK'ral Lo(;'s ciMnlitlou at Petersburg? 14. W^liat cavalry 
1- 



290 HISTORY OF ^OJRTII CAHOLISA, 

14. Brigadier Generals Riifiis Barxingor and William 
P. Roberts bravely contested these fatal reverses and lost 
heavily from tlieir gallant troopers. Colonel McNeil, 
Lieutenant Colonel Shaw and Major Harris, all of the 
Fifth North Carolina Cavalry, were slain. Lieutenant 
Colonel Gaines, of the Second Cavalry^ and Major McLeod, 
of the First, were both wovmded. 

15. The five thousand prisoners and men disabled in 
these battles were fatal to General Lee. On the next 
morning, after a brave resistance, his attenuated lines 
were pierced in three j^laces. General A. P. Hill, who is 
yet revered by so many North Carolinians as their ancient 
leader, was slain ; — and then foUow^ed the retreat and 
ruin of the hopeless cause. 

16. General Sherman, after increasing his force at 
Goldsboro, took up his line of March tow^ards Raleigh, 
and on April 13th, 1S65, his army entered the North Car- 
olina Capital. General Johnston, with his men, had re- 
tired beyond Hillsboro, and having learned of General 
Lee's surrender to General Grant on the 9th, he knew 
that further resistance would be useless, and therefore 
opened correspondence with General Sherman as to terms 
of surrender. General Johnston, in company with Gene- 
ral Wade Hampton, met in conference wdth General 
Sherman and his stalf, at the farm-house of Mr. Beiniett, i 
about five miles north of Hillsboro, and at this place the i 
articles of capitulation were written and signed by the re- 
spective commanding officers. 

17. Mr. Lincoln had instructed General Sherman as to 

officers are mentioned ? l."3. What followed the defeat at Five Forks? 
16. When did Sherman outer Raleii-h ? When and where did John- 



PROVISIONAL GOVERNOR HOLDEN.. 291 

ih.e arrangement of terms Avith General Johnston and the 
matter had iil ready been agreed on between these great 
commanders, when the lanfortunate murder of President 
Lincoln occurred April 14th. The army was surrender- 
ed near Hillsboro April 26th, and North Carolina, after 
four years of warfare, returned to ways of peace. 

18. The State had sent to the field more than one hun- 
dred and twenty-one thousand men. Of these eighty- 
nine thousand three hundred and forty-four were volun- 
teers in the regular service of the Confederate States : the 
others being volunteers In the State service and conscripts. 
Full fifty thousand had fallen and mourning was in every 
household for those who should come no more. God in 
his mercy had at last ended one of the greatest and most 
cruel civil wars that has been seen in the world. 

19. Governor Vance was deposed and placed in prison 
at Washington, and General Schofield, as Military Gov- 
ernor of the conquered people, announced the liberation 
of the slaves under the late proclamation of the President 
of the United States, 

20. The condition of the State was horrible. Numer- 
ous armies had wasted every portion, and to grief was 
added the cruelest pangs of want. It became necessary 
for the United States officials to aid the suffering people, 
and rations were issued where the oath of allegiance was 
taken. 

21. President Johnson removed every officer in the 
Btate and appointed William W. Holden, of Wake, as 

£ton surrender? 17. What happened to Mr, Lincoln? 18. What 
force had Xorth Carolina sent to the field, and what was their loss? 
Id. Who hGC}],\ne yiU'iUivy Governor? 20, What vyas the leoudition oj 



292 



HISTORY OF NOBTH CAROLINA. 



Provisional Governor. The great body of the people took 
the oaths required, and, under the new order of things,, 
went to work to restore the Government, (4overnor Hoi- 
den appointed Judges and other officers, and ordered an 
election for members of Assembly and for delegates to a 
Constitutioaial Convention, wliich sdiould alter the organic 
law of the commonwealth in certain speciil.>d paiiiculars.. 

22. The Convention met on the 2nd day of October,. 
1865, and selected Edwin G. Reade, of Person,, as Presi- 
dent. Messrs. Giles Mebane, R. S. Donnell., E. J. Warren,, 
Lewis Thompson, John Pool, T. R. Caldwell, M. E. Manly, 
George Howard, P. H. Winston, R. B. Giiliam, Edward 
Conigland, W. P. Bynum, W. A. Wright, Alfred Dockery, 
Thos. Settle, N. Boy den, and William Eaton, were tho 
most prominent members. This body annulled the Seces- 
sion Ordinance of May 20th, 1861, abolished slavery and 
forbade the payment of any portion of the State debt in^ 
curred in the prosecution of the war. These ordinances; 
were submitted to the people and failed, of ratification by 
9) vote of nineteen thousand five hundred and seventy for,, 
and twenty-one thousand fi^ve hundred and fifty -two. 
against. 

23. The compliance of the Convention with the wishes, 
of the Washington authorities resulted in the permission 
for North Carolina to again select a ruler,, and Jonathan 
Worth, of Randolph, was elected over Governor Holden, 

24. The State had apparently resumed the great boon 
of self-government, but was still in a condition of pitiable 
confusion and miser}^ Every fiscal institution was bank- 

the people? 21. Who was made Provisional Governor ? 22. Who. 
\yas l^resideut of the Convention of 1865^ 23. Who was elect d Gov-- 



GOVERNOR WORTH, 293 

rupt. ^luch tho greater portion of those who had been 
wealthy were in the same condition. The courts were 
kept closed in pity for the debtors, and in painful uncer- 
tainty as to the course of Congress the old men died in 
hundreds on every side. 

25. The liberated colored race were much affected by 
their unwonted freedom. Thousands flocked to the cities 
and towns, but the greater portion remained at their old 
pursuits. Perhaps no other people so long subjected to 
restraint wOuld have acted with so much moderation, 
They had been quiet spectators of the struggle which end^ 
ed in their liberation, and, as a general rule, were still 
kindly disposed to their white neighbors. The Confede^ 
rates, so lately in arms, went to their ruined homes, and, 
with hearty submission to the fortunes of war, addressed 
themselves to the work of restoring a wasted land. The 
old secession idol was buried out of sight, and they took 
it as settled that henceforth North Carolina was to be aa 
she had been in her national relations. 

ernor by the people in November? 24. What w^s the fiscal QoriclitiQn? 
go. What is s(iitl of the colored people f 



294 HISTOI^Y OF NOJITH CAROLINA, 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

A. D. 1866 TO 1869. 



^ 




Assembly of 1866— Messrs. Gi-aham and Pool, United States Sen- 
ators — The State Jud«^es —Deaths of Jiidi^e Badger, Governor 
Morehead and Dr. F. L. Ha vylvs —Andrew Johnson and the Re- 
publicans—New AFuendments to the United States Constitution 
— The Political Status— Reconstruction— General Canby — Elec- 
tions—Deaths of Dr. Phillips and Judo*e Saunders-~Oonvention 
of 1868 — Rev. C. H. Wiley and tlie Common Schools— rThe Uni-: 
versity — Wake Forest— Davidison and Trinitj^ C;olleo;es — Female 
Seminaries— Shaw University— The Ku Klux and Loyal Lea^^ue 
-T-General Grant, President — Congressmen— -Civil Disorders. 

I HE Legislature met at the usual tim^ and selectecl 
Judge M. E. Manly as President of the Senate, ancl 
R. Y. McAden as Speaker of the House, Messrs. W. N, 
H. Smith, A. J. Dargan, R. S. Don n ell, D. M. Carter and 
James M, Leach were among the prominent members, 
Among other reforms, Avas tlie law allowing parties to 
suits to become witnesses, and the same privilege was ex:. 
tended to the colored people, who could not previously be 
heard in the court house, except as for or against mem^ 
bers of their own race, 

2. Governor W. A. Gfraham and John Pool were electee! 
to the United States Senate ; but like those also chosen by 
the people as members of Congress, they ^vere not allowed 
to take their seats. D, A. Barnes, R. P. Buxton, Daniel 
G. Fowle, W. M. Shipp, Andersou Mitchell, A. S. Merri. ' 
mon and E. J. Warren were conlirmed in their recent 
appointment as Superior Court Judges. R. M. Pearson, 
W. H. Battle and E. G. Reade were alsp choseii for ihe 
Supreme Court bench, 



GOVERNOR WORTir. 295 

3. In the year 18()G, there were more deaths among the 
prominent citizens. Judge George E. Badger, on May 
11th; Governor John M. Morehead, May 27th, and Rev. 
Francis L. Hawks, on October 28th, each went the way of 
all flesli. 

4. Congress still refused to allow any Southern member 
a seat in its sessions. Between the meml)ers of the Re- 
publican party and President Johnson was a wide differ- 
ence as to the proper line of treatment toward the late 
Confederate States. The National Legislature had resolved 
upon radical changes in the Federal Constitution before 
the South should have any part in shaping future legisla- 
tion. 

5. Three amendments were proposed. The first abol- 
ished slavery, the second laid disabilities on the leaders 
of the late secession movement, and the third gave to col- 
ored men the right to vote at the elections. North Caro- 
lina was especially unwilling to ratify the Howard amend- 
ment, on the ground that it was an unjust discrimination 
against men who were only exponents of the general will 
of the State. 

6. North Carolina had attempted for four years succeed- 
ing May 20th, 18G1, to get out of the Union, and it had 
been insisted that a State had no right to withdraw from 
the original compact of 1787 ; but it was now held that 
before any Southern State should resume its ancient rela- 
tions that they should be reconstructed. 

7. A law to this effect was passed over the President's 

Questions.— What is said of the Assembly of 186G? 2. Who were 
made Judges ? 3. What proinhieiit men died that year ? 4. Wliat 
was the feeiiim' between the President and Cono-ress? 5. What were 



296 HISTORY OF XOKTH CAROLINA. 

veto on March 2d, 1867. Under this arrangement, su- 
preme executive functions passed from Governor AVorth 
and rested in the keeping of Major General E. R. S. 
Canby, of the United States Army. 

8. This officer assuming control, ordered certain desig- 
nated men to open books for registration. All men, white 
and black, were to be allowed to register, unless they had 
held office before the war or were possessed of estates 
worth twenty thousand dollars and had in any way 
favored the Confederate cause. All such were refused the 
right to vote unless pardoned by an act of Congress. 

9. The election held during the three days succeeding 
the 18th of October, 1867, resulted in the choice of mem- 
bers to a Convention to change the Constitution. More 
than twenty thousand of the leading citizens of the State 
could not particij^ate in this choice of delegates, by reason 
of political disability imposed in the XIV. Amendment 
of the United States Constitution. 

10. The year closed in with singular uneasiness and 
grief to the white people at the uncertainty of their future 
institutions. In March, Rev. Dr. James Phillips had 
died at Chapel Hill. He was followed, on April 23d, b}^ 
Judge R. M. Saunders at Raleigh. Their long and con- 
spicuous public service had rendered them both emi- 
nently useful. 

11. On the 14th day of January, 1868, the delegates 
recently elected met in Convention, in the State House at 
Raleigh, and selected Calvin J. Cowles, of Wilkes, as 

the amendnicnts in the Finleral Constitution ? 7. Who superceded 
Governor Wortli ? 8. What I'ldes of re<^istratlon were adopted for 
voters? 10. What two prominent men died in ISfi?? 11. When did 



I 



GOVERNOR HOLDEX. 297 

President. William B. Eoclman, of Beaufort, had made 
reputation as a lawyer ; but neither he nor any other 
member of this Convention had been conspicuous in the 
past legislation of the State. Messrs. Plato Durham, A. 
W. Tourgee, J. C. Abbott, S. W. AVatts, C. C. Pool, A. H. 
Galloway, James H. Harris, David Heaton and Byron 
Laflin were to become conspicuous, but were then first 
made known to the people at large. 

12. Many changes were effected in the Constitution and 
institutions of the State. The courts, the Legislature, the 
University and common schools were all more or less 
changed. New officers were added to the State Govern- 
ment; and upon submission to the people, these altera- 
tions were all ratified by a large majority. 

13. At the elections held soon after the adjournment of 
the Convention, Governor Holden was elected to the 
Chief Magistracy over Thomas S. Ashe, of Anson. The 
new Judges elected by the people for the Superior Courts 
were C. C. Pool, E. W. Jones, C. P. Thomas, D. L. Rus- 
sell, P. P. Buxton, S. W. Watts, A. W. Tourgee, Anderson 
Mitchell, J. L. Henry, J. M. Cloud, G. W. Logan and R. 
H. Cannon. P. M. Pearson, E. G. Reade, W. B. Rodman, 
Robert P. Dick and Thomas Settle w^ere chosen in the 
same way for the Supreme Court. 

14. The Assembly was speedily convened. The Lieu- 
tenant Governor, Tod R. Caldwell, presided in the Senate, 
and Joseph W. Llolden, of Wake, in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. Judge J. W. Osborne of Alecklenburg, Major 
W. M. Robbins of Davidson, Colonel W. A. Allen of 

tlie Constitiitioiinl Convention meet? 12. What clinn^es were made? 
VS. Who were the new Jiulges? 14. What is said of the Assembly of 



298 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Duplin, Captain T. J. Jarvis of Tyrrell and Captain Platd 
Durham were the leaders on the Democratic side, while 
Generals Abbott of New Hanover and Byron Laiiin of 
Pitt, A. H. Galloway of Brunswick and James H. Harris 
of Wake were those of the Republicans. 

15. A great majority of the latter party were returned 
to the Legislature, and wild schemes of internal improve- 
ment were undertaken, in spite of the provisions of the 
new Constitution. About fourteen millions of dollars in 
new bonds were ordered to be issued ; but these were so 
depreciated in value that scarcely any benefit accrued 
from them. Many of the members Were sadly vranting 
in experience and fitness for the positions they held. 

16. The common schools had long been under the su- 
perintendence of the Rev. Calvin H. Wiley, of Guilford. 
He had manifested great zeal and usefulness^ and is yet 
remembered as one of the most effective promoters of gen* 
eral education at any time known in the State. He was 
succeeded by Rev. S. S. Ashley, who found, like his pred- 
ecessor, that in the general wreck of the war the school 
fund was utterly lost. 

17. The University had been continuing its sessions 
with diminished patronage. It passed to the control of 
Rev. Solomon Pool and a new faculty. Governor Swain 
died, and with him for a time perislied this venerable 
seat of learning. Instead of crowds of students, only 
silence reigned in the stately halls from which had issued 
so many orators, statesmen and eminent divines. 

18. Wake Forest, Trinity and Davidson colleges were 
reviving from the disasters of the period, and the female 

18G8? 16. What of the common schools? 17. The University? 18. 



I 



GOVERNOR HOLDEN. 299 

seminaries in ev^ry portion of the State were sustaining 
their former relations. Those at Salem, Raleigh, Mur- 
freesboro, Greensboro and elsewhere were giving abun- 
dant tokens of undiminished usefulness. 

19. Education too was in store for the colored people. 
Under the law they became equall}^ entitled to a share of 
the common school funds and of that which was given 
by the noble generosity of George Peabody. Rev. H. M. 
Tupper, of Massachusetts, determined to devote his life to 
their enlightenment, and established in Raleigh an ex- 
cellent institution, which at present includes both Shaw 
University and Estey Seminary. These names are those 
of Xew Enghmd benefactors, who have most generously 
contributed to the cause of African education in the 
South. 

20. The most unhappy symptoms of these times of re- 
construction were the feuds of the rival secret societies, 
known as the " Loyal League" anvl " Ku-Klux-Klan." 
They were political engines of the parties, and happily 
now are only parts and parcels of the dreadful past. The 
life of every free people is full of convulsive throes and 
multiplied agonies. Only in despotisms are the conflict- 
ing views and wishes of the human race to be stifled into 
gilence. But charity and forbearance might w^ell replace 
the wisest counsels born of mere partisan contests. 

21. President Johnson was in 1869 succeeded by Gen- 
eneral U. S. Grant in the C'hief Magistracy of the nation. 
The former had waged a long and bitter contest with the 
men who had elected him to office, and was again the 

Other institutions? 19. What of George Peabody? 20. What is 
said of secret sociijties ? 21. Who succeeded Andrew Johnson in the 



S^OO HISTORY OF NOflTH CAROLIXA. 

advocate of the same political views that had marked his 
career previous to the war. 

22. There was much grief in North Carolina in Octo- 
ber for the death of Colonel David Outlaw, of Bertie. I 
His many virtues, large abilities and long service had ' 
given him public admiration. The condition of affairs ^| 
weighed heavily upon his failing energies, and, like hosts 
of others, he tired of the grt^at struggle and rested from 
his labors. His compeer, Lewis Thompson, of the same 
county, had also recently come to his death, 

23. North Carolina w^as at this time represented in 
Congress by John R. French, David Heaton, J. T. Dew- 
eese, 0. H. Dockery, I. G. Lash and A. H. Jones, in the 
House of Representatives, and by General J. C, Abbott 
and John Pool in the Senate. George W. Brooks, of Pas- 
,quotank, had been appointed Judge for the United States I 
District Court of North Carolina. 

24. There were scenes of violence in certain districts 
that were discreditable to the whole State. In Jones and 
Robeson were outlaws who set the courts at defiance and 
rioted in rapine and bloodshed. Many good citizens lost 
their lives, and only by long and extraordinary exertions 
were the desperadoes exterminated. Henry Berry Low- 
ery and his " Swamp Angels," like Italian bandits, long 
evaded the punishment they deserved, and will be re- 
membered as fit imitators of David Fanning in his most 
atrocious exploits. 

Presidency? 22. Wliat is said of Colonel Outlaw? 23. Who were 
then Congressmen? 24. What of Lowery and his gang? 



GOVKRXOJi HOr.OE.V. 301 

CHAPTER XL. 

A. D. 1870 TO 1879. 

The Shoffner Bill— Murder of J. W. Stephens— Kirk Marches to Yan- 

coyville— Jud^e Brooks Releases the Prisoners Assembly of 

1870 — Impeachment of Governor Holclen— Conj^ressmen — John 
H. Bryan and Bedford Brown die Death of General Lee — At- 
tempts to Chan<?e tlic Constitution of ISfiS— Fiscal Affiiirs— Polit- 
ical Changes— Assembly of 1872— Tlie Judges — Death of ex-Gov- 
ernor Bragg — Congressmen — The Orplian Asylum Deaths of 

General Barringer, General Dockery and Weldon N. Edwards — 
Change of Northern Sentiment — Congressmen— Assembly of 1874 
— Colleges — Deatljs of Governor Clarke, Dr. Jolmston and Rev. 
Dr. Mason — Mecklenburg Centennial — Deatii of Governor Gra- 
ham — Convention of 187.") — Governor Hayes, President — Congress- 
men—Judges—State Government— Assembly of 1877 — Congress- 
raen— Ciiptain Jarvis Governor — Deatli of Judge Battle. 

^piE year 1870 saw the same condition of affairs in 
;, North Carolina. Governor Holden issued a procla- 
mation against the alleged acts of violence, and a bill was 
passed creating a military establishment to be at the con- 
trol of the executive. This was known as the Shoffner 
Bill, and was ratified August 17th, 1868. 

2. The only State officer to be elected in 1870 was the 
Attorney General, Ex-Judge W. M. Shipp, of Lincoln, 
and Samuel F. Phillips, of Orange, were the candidates. 
Members of the Legislature were also chosen and the con- 
test was becoming heated, when the whole State was 
thrilled by the announcement of a horrid crime at Yan- 
ceyville. In the Court House in that town, in open day, 
some unknown persons niost foully am] mysteriously 



S02 HISTORY OP XORTtt CAROLINA. 

murdered John W. Stephen-'^, the State Senator for Cas- 
well county> 

3. Under the ShofFner Bill, Governor Holden ordered 
George W. Kirk -at the head of a considerable body of 
troops to ]\Iarch from Raleigh to Alamance, Orange and 
Caswell counties, which were declared to be in a state of 
insurrection. Josiah Turner, John Kerr and others, were 
seized by the soldiers and committed to jail. 

4. The lawyei^ who sought the release of these prison- 
ers were told by Judge Pearson that he was powerless to 
relieye thom by the use of the writ of habeas corpus. 
Judge George W. Brooks of the United States District 
Court fbr North Carolina, took a different view from Chief 
Justice Pearson, and ordered his ]\Iarshal to bring the 
prisoners before him. Colonel Kirk made no resistance 
to Judge Brooks' orders, and. upon the hearing, as there 
%vas no alleged reason for the longer detention of the men 
in custody, they were discharged, 

5. Judge Shipp was elected by a considerable majority, 
and the party sui)porting him likewise were largely in 
the ascendant in the Legislature. Captain Thomas J. . 
Jaryis, of Tyrrell, was elected Speaker of the House. 
Messrs. Warren of Beaufort, Dargaii of Anson, Allen of 
Duplin, Morehead of Rockingham, Robbins of Dayie, and 
Gilmer of Guilford, vrere all prominent members. 

6. The most signal act of the session was the impeach- 
ment of Goyernor Holden He was arraigned for his 
conduct in the imprisonment of the parties seized by 

Questions.— When WHS tliL- Slioiliier Bill enaoted?' 2. Who ^vas i 
imirdcri'd iiL YiinceyvilJe ? 3. What did Colouei ^^M^ ^^.'- 4. VVho j 
released Ku-k\s prisoners i* o. Wliat is said f;>\ Uie Assembly of 1870? 



liDVERXOtl (.'ALDWl^LL. BOS 

Kirk, aiicl, upon trial, was convicted and removed from 
his place as Governor, and rendered thereby incapable of 
holding any office Under the State Constitution. The 
House of Representatives Were his accusers, and the Sen* 
ate, with Chief Justice Pearson presiding, were the triers 
on this memorable occasion. Tod. R. Caldwell, then 
President of the Senate, succeeded to the office of Gover- 
nor, and Edward J. Warren, Senator for Beaufort county^ 
Was made Lieutenant Governor. 

7. North Carolina was, at this time, represented in the 
United States Senate by John Pool and Joseph G. Abbott. 
In the House were C. L. Cobb, C. R. Thomas, A. M. Wad- 
dell, J. M. Leach, S. PL Rogers, F. E. Shober aiid J. G. 
Harper. 

8. Two prominent citii^ens died in the course of the 
year 1870: John H. Bryan, of Raleigh, and Bedford 
Brown, of Caswell, were both gathered to their fathers. 
They had been long trusted and honored by the people. 
But there was deeper grief w^hen it was known that on 
October 12th, 1870, General Robert E. Lee had also de- 
parted. One of the grandest of men had thus gone to his 
reward. A noble career was ended, and amid the tears 
of mourning myriads he la}' down to rest and to immortal 
honors, in the retirt^ment of a village church-yard. 

9. Thei!»e was an unsuccessful attempt to change the Con- 
stitution in 1871. The people were averse to the change 
on account of the threatened Federal interference in case 
North Carolina too much altered the terms of reconstruc- 
tion. 

G. Who was impeached:-' 7. AVhat is said of Congressmen ? 8. Wliat 
deatlis .ire. mentioned in 1S70? 9. What is said about changing the 



304 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

10. North Carolina had been in the habit of paying, in 
the 3^ears preceding 1848, about seventy thousand dollars 
a year in State revenue. Internal improvements had so 
multiplied this amount that, with the prostration of busi- 
ness in 1867, Kemp P. Battle, the able and sagacious 
Treasurer, had urged accommodations with the public ■ 
creditors as the only means of avoiding the bankruptcy 
of the commonwealth. To the great additional sums 
voted by the Assembly of 1868, were also to be added the 
million and half dollars exacted by the Federal collectors 
of internal revenue. 

11. When 1872 had dawned upon the South seven 
years had elapsed since the end of the great war between 
the States. Hope arose of restoring the concord between 
the two great sections of the nation. As an indication of 
this disposition on the part of the Southern white people 
they, as a general thing, voted for Horace Greeley, of New 
York, as President of the United States ; but he w^as de- 
feated by General U. S. Grant, and died of his disap- 
pointment. 

12. In the State elections Governor Tod. R. Caldwell, 
who succeeded Governor Plolden upon his deposition, was 
elected over Judge A. S. Merrimon, as Chief Magistrate 
of North Carolina. Ex-Governor Vance was elected to 
the United States Senate in place of General Abbott, but 
that body refused him a seat because of the foct that his 
political disabilities had not been removed. For a year 
the State was onl)' represented in the Senate by Mr. Pool. 

Constitution? 10. What wa< tlie State of fiscal airairs in 1871 ? U. 
What is said of sectional feeling? 12. Who was elected to the United 
States Senate in place of General Abbott? 18. Who presided in the 



UOVEKNOK CALDWELL. 305 

Vance finall}^ resigned, and General M. W. Ransom, of 
Nortluinipton, was seated. 

13. In tlie Assembly of 1872, Lieutenant Governor Curtis 
H. Brogden, of Wayne, presided in the Senate, and James 
L. Robinson, of Macon, in the House. The latter is a 
young man of decided ability, and is, in many respects, 
like his mother's brother, the late Governor Swain. 

14. There were several changes among the Judges. In 
the Supreme Court : Judge Settle was made United States 
Minister to Peru and was succeeded by an able jurist in 
William Preston Bynum, of Mecklenburg; Judge Dick 
was put over the new Western District as a United 
States Judge, and his place filled by Nathaniel Boyden, 
of Rowan. E. W. Jones, of the Second District, was re- 
placed by William A. Moore, of Chowan. In the First 
District Charles C. Pool, of Pasquotank, by J. W. Albert- 
son, of Perquimans. So, too, in the Third District, C. R. 
Thomas was followed in office by Col. W. J. Clarke. 

15. There was great sorrow for the death of ex-Gover- 
nor Bragg, who died January 19th, 1872. B. F. Moore, 
Judge Biggs, and he, with others of the Bar, had been in- 
volved in a difficulty with the Supreme Court, which led 
to Judge Biggs' retiring to Norfolk, where he has since 
died. 

IG. Upon the expiration of Senator Pool's term. Gene- 
ral Ransom was joined in the United States Senate by 
Judge A. S. Morrimon. Tliey both reflected great honor 
upon the State and themselves, by their able and judicious 
conduct. In the House were Messrs. C. L. Cobb, C. R. 

Assombl}' of 1872? 14. What is said of the Tiidges? 15. Whose 
deatli is ineiitioned as occurriiio; in 1872 ? IG. Who succeeded Sena- 



300 ' HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Tliomas, A. M. Waddell, Sion H. Rogers, John Manning, 
F. E. Sliober, J. M. Leach and R. B. Vance. 

17. On February 1st, 1872, the Masonic Grand Lodge in- 
augurated a noble charity in the Orphan Asylum at Ox- 
ford. This institution was put under the competent charge 
of John H.Mills, late editor of the ''Biblical Recorder," 
who most nobly justified his selection to so important a 
trust. The white orphans are by him sought out and 
educated and an incalculable good effected, 

18. General Daniel M. Barringer, General Alfred Dock- 
ery, and the still more venerable and illustrious Weldon 
N. Edwards, all died in this year. They had long been 
eminent and useful, and were mourned for as the chiefs 
of an unhappy people. Death had removed them from 
strife and confusion, and " after life's fitful fever they slept 
well." 

19. Slowly, as one who emerges from a great delusion, 
the Northern people were coming to a knowledge of the fact 
that Southern men had become reconciled to the National 
LTnion. In both Houses of Congress were continually 
added men who were willing to bridge "the bloody chasm 
of the past," and unite with the late Confederates in the 
noble work of fulfilling the grand destinies of the nation. 
The touching tributes of flowers were alike bestowed upon 
the graves of the heroes, who had worn the blue and the 
gray, and tears for the fallen replaced the olden hatred 
and fierceness of battle. 

20. The Congressional elections of 1874 resulted in the 
election of Jesse J. Ycates, John A. Ilyman, A. M. AVad- 

tor Poor? 17. W hilt is said of the Oxford Orphan Asyhiin audits 
Superintendent? 18. Who died tliat year? 19. What is said of tlie 



• 



GOVERNOR BROGOENT. 307 

dell, J. J, Davis, A. M. Scales, T. S. Ashe, W. M. Robbins 
and R. B. Vance. Of tbfise Mr. Hyman alone was of the 
Republican party. 

21. TJie General Assembly convened as usual. By the 
death of Governor Cahhvell, Mr. Brogden had become 
Chief Magistrate, and Colonel R. F. Armfield, of Iredell, 
was made President of the Senate, while Captain Robin^ 
son again became Speaker of the House. ^lessrs, Strong, 
Busbee, Jernigan, Morehead, Bennett and Means were 
piost prominent. 

22. Colonel Stephen D. Pool was this year elected as 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. S. S. Ashley had 
succeeded Mr. Wiley in 18G8. Trinity College, in the 
county of Randolph, had been in successful operation 
since 1S53, at which time it had been empowered to grant 
diplomas. Rev. Dr. B. Craven has all along presided 
over its fortunes and by learning and administrative abiL 
ity abundantly justified his appointment as President, 
This excellent institution is under the patronage of the 
North Carolina Methodist Conference, There had been 
several female schools of high order established. Among 
these the Raleigh Female Seminary under Mr. F. P. Hob:> 
good. Peace Institute at the same place, and the schools 
of Wilson were all in flourishing condition. 

23. Ex-Governor H. T. Clarke, Dr. Charles E. John, 
ston, and Rev. Dr. Richard S. Mason had all departed 
this life and left large gaps in society. Life-saving sta^ 
tions along the Atlantic coast of North Carolina were es:. 

etate of feclino^ in the nation ? 20. Who were elected Cono-ressmen 
in 1874? 21. Who presided in the Assembly of that year? 22. What 
Is Sfi.it] of Institutions of Ipai-ninj^r? 23, Wlif^t other dejU^s a.ve meu^ 



308 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

tablished in. 1875, A great storm swept ovex^ the ceiitral 
portion of the State and produced mucli disaster, 

24, On the 20th of May, 1875, occurred at Charlotte the 
centennial celebration of the famous Mecklenburg Decla- 
ration, Judge John Kerr was the orator of the day, but 
speeches were made by ex-Governor Graham and others, 
and many thousands were gathered in honor of the occa» 
sion. 

25, Fresh grief followed the news of the death of Govern 
nor Graham at Saratoga, N. Y., Aug, 11th, 1875, He had 
long filled the foremost position in public estimation, and 
received such funeral honors as have been vouchsafed no 
other citizen of the State. 

26, On September 30th, 1875, the State Convention as^ 
Bembled and chose Dr. Edward Bansom, of Tyrrell, as its 
President, General Clingman, ex-Governor Reid, Colonel 
David Coleman, Judges Albertson and Tourgee, w^ere 
most conspicuous as members, The changes as to the 
Assembly, Courts and County Government, were ratified 
at the polls. 

27, The year 1870 was marked by great political ex^ 
citement. In the State elections ex-Governor Vance and 
Judge Thomas Settle were candidates for the place of 
Chief Magistrate, Vance carried the State by a large ma^ 
jority. In the Presidential struggle between Governors 
Hayes and Tilden arose a complication, which at one 
time threatened the peace and stability of the govern- 
ment. A new tribunal erected by Congress declared R, 

tioned? 2i. When was the ChMrlotte Centeiininl? 25. Where dul 
Governor Graham die? 26. What is said of the Convention of 1875? 
37, Who became President 11^870? 3^- Who were C'ono^ressnien '? 



I 



GOVERNOK VANCE, 809 

B. Hayes entitled to the seat and he was duly inaugu- 
rated. 

28. Messrs. Yeates, Brogden, Waddell, Davis, Steele, 
Scales, Robbins and K. B. Vance were elected to Congress. 
General Ransom was returned to the United States Sen- 
ate, and the Democrats carried both Houses of the Legis- 
lature by large majorities, 

20. Mills L. Eure of Gates, A. S. Seymour of Craven, 
A. A, McKoy of Sampson, John Kerr of Caswell, David 
Schenck of Lincoln, had all been recently elected and 
were seated as Judges of the Superior Courts, 

30. Beside Governor Vance, the State Government con- 
sisted of Thomas J. Jarvis, of Pitt, as Lieutenant Gover- 
nor ; Major Joseph A. Engelhard, who had succeeded W, 
H. Howerton as Secretary of State ; Dr. John M, Worth, 
Avho had replaced David A. Jenkins as Treasurer ; Colo- 
nel Thomas S. Kenan, who followed Colonel T. L. Har- 
grove as Attorney General; John C. Scarborough, of 
Johnston, who became Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion ; and Dr. S, L, Love, of Haywood, Auditor, Wash- 
ington C. Kerr, who had been so long and favorably 
known as State Geologist, was continued in that respon- 
sible position. 

31. In the month of June, 1877, the first Normal School 
w^as opened in the I"ni versify buildings at Chapel Hill, 
This was a new departure in the style of teaching in 
North Carolina, Instruction had been abundant as to 
text-books previously, but then for the first time was at- 
tention turned to the arts of teaching, and a gymnasium 

20. Wlio Judges? 30. Who constituted the new State Government? 
;U , \\\Mt is suld of Noimal Schools c* 82, Wheu wj^s the Ai^ricuUural 



^10 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

was established for the purpose of drilling teachers them- 
selves in the best modes of in^partirjg knowledge. 

32. The Assembly of 1877 was presided over by Lieur 
tenant Governor Jarvis, in the Senate, and by Charles 
Price, of Davie, in the House. The new Lunatic Asylum 
M Morganton was fostered. An institution of similar 
<?haracter, for the colored people, was ordered at Golds^ 
boro, and a Deaf and Dumb and Blind School for the 
same race created at lialeigh in 1868. In compliance 
with the requirements of the amended Constitution, a 
Department of Agriculture was also created and put in 
the wise and energetic keeping of Colonel L. L. Polk, of 
Anson. 

33. Dr. Eugene Grissom, of Granville, had succeeded 
Dr. Fisher in charge of the Lunatic Asylum, in 1868, 
He was continued in that delicate and responsible charge 
and b}^ his learning and capacity justified the long reten^ 
lion of his office. 

34. Chief Justice Pearson died on his way to Raleigh 
to hold the January Term of the Supreme Court of 1878, 
His strong native ability, profound learning and long ju^ 
dicial career have made him immortal in legal circles. 
His place was supplied in the appojutment of William 
Nathan Harrell Smith, who had been leader of the Bar 
jsince the death of Governor Bragg. Great learning, as^ 
siduity, and public and private virtues, yet adorn the 
new Chief Justice, who, with Thomas S. Ashe and John 
H. Dillard, now constitutes a tribunal in every way worthy 
of North Carolina. Bartholomew Figures Moore died on 

Dopartinent ostablii^hecl? 33. Who had chargo of the Ralcio^h Insane 
Asvlijm? 3f WhQ-J; distiniruisliea vm\ tljt'd? 35, Wl)i)t; K-^ s?>i4 of 



GOVKRXOK VANCE. 311 

November 27th, of the same year. This leoal sage liad 
long enjoyed the veneration of tlie Bar and the peo])le. 
Like Governor Bragg and Gavin Hogg thongli never 
clothed with the^ermine, he will be ever remembered as 
a colossus in the courts. 

35. In the elections of 1878, for Congress, J. J. Martin, 
AV. H. Kitchen, D. L. Russell, J. J. Davis, A. M. Scales, 
AV. L. Steele, 11. F. Aimfield and R. B. Vance, were elect- 
ed. The Assembly met and elected J. M. Moring, of 
Chatham, Speaker of the House. Lieutenant Governor 
Jarvis presided in the Senate until just previous to the 
election of Governor A'ance to the United States Senate, 
when Captain J. L. Robinson, of Macon, was elected Pres- 
ident. Messrs. Dortch, Leach, ^lebane, Henderson, Gra- 
ham, Scales, Davidson and Alexander, were most promi- 
nent in the Senate, while in the House Messrs. Cooke, 
Jones, McGehee, Turner and Norment, all took promi- 
nent parts. 

36. Governor Jarvis was inaugurated February oth, 
1870. He is a strong, judicious and faithful public ser- 
vant, and has, in a well known public career in the past, 
given abundant assurance for the future. The most ven- 
erable and beloved ex-Judge William H. Battle, after 
long and illustrious service, has just ceased from his la- 
bors as this little liistory finds its end. He died at Chapel 
Hill, Avliere the University, under the Presidency of his 
soil Kemp P. Battle for three years past, has resumed its 
ancient effectiveness and renown. 

the Assembly of 1879? 33, When was Governor Jarvis inaugurated? 



INDEX. 



Abbott, Gen. J. C, 297. 
Adams, President John, 137, 181. 
Adams. President J. Q., 160. 
Advance, the steamer, 266. 
Advisory Militarv Board, 246. 
Address to the King, 61. 
Alexander, Gov. Nathan'l, 146, 148 
Alexander, Evan, 147. 
Alexander, Gov. William J. 187. 
Alexander, Captain, 311. 
Alexander, Abram, 54, 63. 
Albemarle, Duke of, 11 
Albemarle, the Iron-clad, 281. 
Alien and Sedition Laws, 138. 
Albertson, Judge J. W., 305. 
Allen. Col. William A., 298. 
Allen, .James, 21'), 
Alston, Col. Philip, 99 
Alston. Willis, Sr , 127. 
Alston, Willis, Jr., 

146, 152, 176, 183. 
American Sentiment in 1774, 58. 
Annapolis Convention, 114. 
Anderson, Col. G. B., 248, 264. 
Andrews. Col. C. L., 282. 
Andre, .Major. 85. 
Armadas and Barlow, 7. 
Archdale, Gov. John, 19. 
Arnold. Benedict, 84, 96. 
Armand, Col., 85. 
Armstrong, Major John, 85, 101. 
Arm.strong, Colonel Martin, 107. 
Armstrong, Rev. John, 193. 
Arrington, A. H., 208, 246. 
Armtield. Col. R. F., 307, 311. 
Articles of Confederation, 107. 
Ashe, John, of South Carolina, 20. 



Ashe, Colonel .John, 41, 



rs, 98. 



Ashe and Waddell resist, 43. 
Ashe, Gov. Samuel, 75, 117, 133. 
Ashe, Col. John B., 

101, 115, 118, 123, 129. 
Ashe, Col. Samuel, 136. 
Ashe, Judge Thomas S., 209. 297. 
Ashe, Wm. S., 219, 237, 239, 246. 

14 



Assembly, First Grand, of Albe- 
marle, 12; of 1715, 26; of 1781, 
81; of 1786, 115. 

Avery, Waightstill, 75, 76, 106, 173 

Avery, Isaac T., 153. 

Avery, W. W., 209, 235, 238. 

Avery, Colonel Isaac E.. 277. 

Avery, Col. Clark M., 277, 282. 

Bacon's Rebellion, 13. 

Barnwell, Colonel. 23. 

Baptist zeal for Religious Free 
dom, 38. 

Barker, Thomas, 51. 

Barringer, General Paul, 151. 

Barringer, Daniel L., 187. 

Barringer, Gen. Daniel M., 

191, 197, 306. 

Barringer, Gen. Rufus, 290. 

Baker, Judge Blake, 152. 

Baker. Col. L. J., 277, 

Barbour, Col. W. M., 282. 

Barton, General, 279. 

Barnes. Judge D. A., 212, 246, 294. 

Badger, Judge Geo. E.. 

168, 172, 184, 209, 246, 295. 

Barron, Commodore, 250. 

Bailey, Judge John L., 180. 

Battle, Elisha, 81, 119. 

Battle, Judge William H., 

220. 294, 311. 

Battle, Kemp P., 246, 304. 

Batchelor Joseph B., 238. 

Battle of Alamance, 52; Averys- 
boro, 289; Bentonsville, 289; 
Buena Vista, 217; Brandy wine, 
75; Brandy Station. 277; Bris- 
toe Station, 278; Bis^ Bethel, 
247; Brier Creek, 78; JBull Run, 
248; Brunswick, 31; Camden, 
85 ; Cedar Mountain, 262 ; 
Chancellorsville, 273 ; Cow- 
pens, 92; Ellyson's Mills, 259; 
Eutaw Springs, 100 ; Five 
Forks. 289 ; Fredericksburg, 
267; Gaines' Mill, 259; Ger- 



314 



INDEX, 



Battle of— j 

iiuintov\n. TO; Gettysbursr, 275; 
Goldsboro, 2«;J); Great Bridije. 
()7; Guilford Court House, 95; 
Hanging Kock, 84 ; King's 
Mountain, 89; Kinston, 267; 
Lindlev's Mill, 99; Malvern 
Hill, 260; Moore's Creek, 70; 
Musgrove's Mill, 84 ; Mon- 
mouth, 77; iVew Bern 25(5; 
Ninety-Six C8; Ox Hill, 208; 
Plymouth, 281 ; Ramseur's 
Mill, 83; Ream's Station, 284; 
Roanoke Island, 253; Savan- 
nah, 77; Seven Pines, 258; 
Sharpsburg, 263; Shepherds- 
ville, 280; Stono, 79; Stony 
Point, 78; Sumter's Defeat, 80; 
Waxhaw, 83; White Hall, 208; 

Berkley, Gov., and the Baptists, 9. 

Bertie Precinct erected, 27. 

Berry, Judge, 48. 

Benburv. Thomas, 70. 

Benton,"' Col. Thomas H , 173, 223. 

Bethune, Lauchlin, 190. ! 

Beaufort and Xag's Head 277. { 

Bell and Everett, 242. | 

Beauregard. Gen. G. T., 284. 

Bennett, Col. R. T , 307. | 

Biegleston, Thomas, 55. 

Binshara, Rev, William, 100. \ 

Bingham School, 239. 1 

Biggs, Judffe Asa, { 

201, 239, 240, 305. I 

Bird, Col. F. W., 284. ! 

Biddle, W. P.. 193. 

Blunt, Tom, 25. 

Black-Beard, 27. 

Bloodworth, Timothy, 81, 112.110. 

Blount, Major Reading, 101. 109. 

Blount, William, 112, 115, 110,123. 

Blount, Gen. John Gray, 130. 

Black nail, Col. C. C, 282. 

Bledsoe, Anthony, 107. 

Blackledge, William L., 140. 

Blakeley, Capt. Johnson, 101. 

Beard of War, 97. 

Boone's Mill, affair at, 277. 

Boston Port Bill, 57. 

Boylan, William, 179. 



Boyden, Nathaniel, 210. 
Boyden, Judge Nathaniel. 305. 
Borland Solon. 280. 
Branch, Gov. John, 

155, 170, 188. 280. 
Branch, Gen. L. 0'B..234, 237, 239. 
251, 250. 259, 202, 264. 
Brabble. Col. Edmund, 282. 
Bragg, John, 194. 
Braii:g, Gov Thomas, 

203, 209, 230, 234, 239, 278, 305. 
Bragg. Gen Braxton, 

217, 272, 280, 287. 
Bridgers, R R., 279. 
Brickell, Dr. John, 29. 
Brevard, Dr. Ephraim, 03. 
Brown, Col. Thomas, 100. 
Browne, Peter, 141. 179. 
Brown, Bedford, 1G8. 24(3, 303. 
Brown, John, at Harper's Ferrv, 

240. 
Breckenridge, John C. 242. 
Brooks, Judge Geo. W., 300. 302. 
Brogden, Gov C. H., 205. 305, 307. 
Bryan, Col. Nathan, 117. 
Bryan, Joseph H., 103. 
Bryan, John H., 105. 176, 303. 
Bryan, James W., 201. 
Bryan, Francis T , 218. 
Bruce, Charles, 110. 
Burrington, Gov. George, 27, 29. 
Burgwyn, John, 54. 
Burgw'yn, Capt. J. H. K , 218, 
Burgwyn. Col. H. K., 275. 
Burke, Gov Thomas, 72, 75, 

76, 79, 91, 98, 100, 105, 109. 
Buncombe, Col. Edward, 76. 
Buford, Colonel, 83. 
Butler, Gen. John, 99. 
Butler, Gen. B. F., 249, 282, 286. 
Bursiess, Dempsey, 133. 
Burkitt, Lemuel, 149. 
Burton, Gov. H G., 150. 173, 176. 
Burning of the Capitol, 194. 
Buchanan, President James, 235. 
Burnside, Gen. A. E., 

254, 256, 263, 266. 
Busbee, C. M., 307. 
Buxton, Judge R, P.. 294. 
Bynum, Jesse A., 175. 



JNDKX. 



315 



Byiiuiu, Judi;e W. P., ;30.j. 
C'AUOLixA Namp:d, 11. 
Cartvvrif;ht, Governor, 15. 
Ciirc}', Gov. Thomas, 20. 
Campbell, John, 34. 
Campbell, William, 89. 
Cape Fear Duel, 4:j. 
Caswell. Gov. Richard, 51, 62, 68, 
69, 71, 73, 74, 78, 80, 82, 106, 
112, 115, 123. 
Carlton. Sir Guy, 102. 
Caldwell, Rev. Dr. David. 

119, 131, 149. 168. 
Caldwell, Rev. Dr. Jos., 168, 169. 
Caldwell, Ju-ke D. F., 168, 193. 
Caldwell, Green W. , 208. 
Gala well, Joseph P., 220. 
Caldwell, Gov. Tod. R. 209, 303. 
Garden, Major, 84. 
Cabarrus, Stephen, 122, 124. 
Cameron, Judge Duncan. 162, 176. 
Cannon, Judge R. H., 297. 
Carson, Samuel P.. 183 
Can by, Gen. E. R. S. 294. 
Carter, Col. D. .M., 294. 
Charles II., 10. 

Charlestown on the Cape Fear, 12. 
Chatham, Earl of, 58. 
Charlotte, Davie's fight at, 87. 
Charlotte Military Institute, 239. 
Chadwick, William, 133. 
Cherokee Indians, 35, 73. 
Cherokee Line and the New Pal- 
ace, 49. 
Chronicle, William, 90. 
Cherrv, William W., 204, 212, 214. 
Cherry, William, 141, 
Chowan Baptist Association, 156. 
Chowan Baptist Female Institute, 

218. 
Clarendon, Earl of, 10. 
Clinton, Sir Henry, 82. 
Cleaveland, Colonel, 80. 
Clark, Gen. Thomas, 116. 
Clark, Col. James W., 161. 
Clarke, Gov. H. T., 248, 251. 
Clarke, Judge William J., 305. 
Clay, Henry, 181, 212, 213, 221- 
Clingman, Gen. T. L., 211, 216, 

225, 237, 239, 272, 279. 



Cloud, Judge J. M., 297. 

Counties and Precincts in 1670, 14. 

Court Law Troul)les, 36, 39. 

Court Ridings Estal)lished. 127. 

Corbin, Francis, 36. 

Cogdell, Captain. 38 

Congress, Firs|; Provincial, 56; 

Second Provincial, 65; Dele- 
gates to Second Contin'nt'l, 57. 

Cogdell. Richard, 62. 

Cornwallis, Lord, 

70, 82, 85, 88, 90, 94, 95, 96. 

Continental Battalions, 65, 67, 
68, 75, 77, 78, 79, 82, 97, 106. 

Confiscations, 79. 

Coor, James, 81, 110. 115. 

Cowan's Foard, Affair at, 93. 

Co^van, William H., 200. 

Council Extraordinary, 97. 

Collins, Josiah, 125. 

Cochrane, James, 153. 

Connor, Henry W., 173. 

Convention of 1835, 200; of 1861, 
245; of 1865, 292; of 1868, 
296; of 1875, 308. 

Common Schools Established, 207. 

Cooke, Gen. John R., 272, 278. 

Cooke, Capt. C. M., 311. 

Cox, Gen. William R., 284. 

Conigiand, Edward, 292. 

Cobb, C. L., 303. 

Coleman, Col. David, 308. 

Cowles, Calvin J., 296. 

Craig, Maj. Jas. H., 96, 100, 101. 

Craig, John, 168 

Craige, Burton, 230, 287, 239, 246. 

Craven, Peter, 48. 

Craven, John, 137. 

Craven, Rev. Dr. B., 307. 

Groom, Hardy B., 189. 

Crudup, Josiah, 173. 

Culpepper, John. 16. 

Culpepper, Rev. John, 152. 

Dare, Virginia, 8. 

Daniel, Gov. Robert, 19. 

Davis. James, and the Printing 
Press, 32. 

Daves, John, 78. 

Davie. Gen. William R., 79. 84, 
86, 102, 106, 115, 123, 133, 151. 



816 



INDEX. 



Davis, Gen. Thomas, 158. 
Davis, George, 246. 279. 
Davis, Capt. Joe J., 807. 
Davidson, Gen. W. L., 8(5, l»l, 93 
Davidson Colle,i?e. 207, 2!»8. 
Davidson, A. t , 240. 
Davidson. Colonel, 311. 
Dawson, William J., 127, 129. 
Dargan. Atlas J., 223. 294. 
Daniel, Judge Joseph J., 152, 219. 
Daniel. John R. J.. 194. 
Daniel, Gen. Junius, 272, 282. 
Deliossette, Lewis, 34. 
Declaration of Independence, 73 
DeKalb, Baron, 84, 80. 
Delegates to Philadelphia Conven- 

vention, 115. 
Devane, Thomas, 121. 
Deberry, Edmund, 151. 
Dews, Thomas, 196. 
Deems, Rev. Dr. Charles F., 211. 
Deweese, Col. John T., 300. 
Department of Agriculture, 310. 
Dinwiddle, Gov., of Virginia, 33. 
Diligence, Arrival of the, 42. 
Dickson, Colonel, 86. 
Dickson, Joseph, 139. 
Dismal Swamp Canal, 125. 
Dickersou, Gen. Joseph F., 162. 
Dickerson, P. K , 200. 
Dickens, Samuel, 163. 
Dick, Judge John M., 194, 252 
Dick, Judge Robert P., 297. 
Dix, Miss Dorothea, 219. 
Dillard, Judge John H., 310. 
Dobbs, Gov. Arthur, 34. 
Donnell, Judge John R., 165. 
Donnell, Richard, S., 216,285. 
Dockery, Gen. Alfred, 

184, 202, 230. 
Dockery, Col. O. H.,300. 
Dobbin, Jas. C, 219, 223, 226, 237. 
Douglas, Judge Stephen A., 

231, 242. 
Dowd. Rev. P. W., 193. 
Dortch, William T., 246, 279. 
Drummond, Gov. William, 11. 
Drumgoole, Rev. Edward, 149. 
Drew, William, 153. 
Durant, George, 10. 



Duoraore, Lord, 67. 

Dukenfield, Sir Nathaniel, 79. 

Duffy, William, 151. 

Dudle)% Gov. Edward B., 155, 201. 

Durham. Capt. Plato. 297. 

Eastohurch and Miller, 15. 

Eaton, William, 204. 

Eccles, John D., 191. 

Eden, Gov. Charles, 26. 

Edmonson, William, 15. 

Ellis, Gov. .John W., 

212, 238, 243, 246, 247. 
Ellis, Capt. A J., 280. 
Estey Seminary, 299. 
Engelhard, Major J. A , 309. 
Eure, Judge, Mills L , 309. 
Evans, Gen. N. G., 267. 
Ewell, Gen. R. S.. 275. 
Fanning, Col. Edward, 37, 49. 
Fanning, Col. David, 99, 104. 
Fagg, Col. John A., 215. 
Fall of Fort Sumter, 243. 
Ferguson, Maj. Patrick, 84, 86,89. 
Federal Constitution Adopted. 121. 
Fisher, Charles, 172, 176 153, 221. 
Fisher, Col. Charles F., 248. 
Fisher, Fort, attack on, 286; sur- 
render of, 288. 
Filmore, President Millard, 220. 
Fleming, N. N., 265. 
Force Bill, 50. 
Folsome, Ebenezer. 76. 
Forney, Gen. Peter, 131, 157. 
Forney, Daniel M., 163. 
Fort Bartow^ Bombarded. 254. 
Fort Macon Reduced, 257. 
Foster, Gen. A. G., 268. 
Fowle, Judge D. G, 271, 294. 
Frankland, State of, 113. 
Franklin, Jesse, 113. 139. 
Franklin, Meshack, 152. 
Freeman, Rev. Dr. Jonathan O., 

166. 
Free Negroes, condition of, 224. 
French, John R. , 300. 
Fundamental Constitutions, 14. 
Fugitive Slave Law, 222. 
Fuller, Col. Thomas C. 279. 
Gadsden, Christopher, 77. 
Gates, Gen. Horatio, 84, 86, 90. 



INDKX. 



61 i 



Ga=ston, Judge William, 

141, 143, 159, 163, 179, 201. 212. 
Galling, Alfred M., 178. 
Gat I in, Gen., 250. 
Gatlin, Dr.jH. J.. 282. 
Gales, Joseph, 170 
Gales, Weston K., 208, 221. 
Gaither, B. S 212, 279. 
Garrett, Col. Thomas M,, 282. 
Galloway, A. H., 297. 
George 11., 39. 
George III., 39, 50, 71, 102. 
Geddy, Colonel, 86. 
Gilbert, Sir IIumphre3% 7. 
Gilbert-town, 89. 
Gillespie, James, 129. 
Gilliam, Judge K. B., 202, 2G5. 
Gilmer, John A., 

284, 237, 239, 246, 279. 
Glasgow, James, 138. 
Glover, Governor, 21. 
Gold Hill Gold Mine, 216. 
Gordon, Gen. James B., 282. 
Graffenreid, Baron de, 21. 
Granbury, Josiali T., 203. 
Graham, Gen. Joseph, 

87. 94, 121, 161. 
Graham, George, 89. 
Graham, James, 180. 

Graham, Gov. Wm. A., 196, 197, 
199, 211, 246, 279, 294, 308. 

Graham, Major Wm. A., 311. 

Graves Calvin, 209, 219. 

Grant, President U. S., 281, 299. 

Green, Roger, 19. 

Greene, Gen. Nathaniel, 

90, 91, 94, 100, 106. 

Greensboro Female College, 211. 

Gregory, Gen. Isaac, 91, 97, 106. 

Grenville, Sir Richard, 8. 

Grimes.' Gen. Bryan, 284. 

Grissom, Dr. Eugene, 310. 

Grove, William Barry, 117, 129. 

Hackluyt, Sir Richard, 0. 

Harvey, Gov. John, 18. 

Harvey, Gov. Thomas, 19. 

Harvey, John, Speaker, 

43, 53, 56, GO, 64. 

Handcock overthrown, 23. 

Hazell, James, 53. 



Harnett, Cornelius, 

65, 72, 70\ 79, 98. 
Halifax Convention of 1776, 73. 
Hamilton, Colonel John, 77, 108. 
Hamilton, Alexander, 80, 116. 
Haywood, William, 81. 
Haywood, Judge John, 134, 131 
Haywood, Jolin, 186. 
Haywood, Wm. H., 197, 202, 209. 
liawkins, Benjamin, 

83, 98, 108, 116, 123. 
Hawkins, Gov. William, 154 
Hawkin.s, John D., 165. 
Hawkins, M. T., 396. 
Hawks, Rev. Dr. Francis L., 

165, 174, 295. 
Hambrite, Major, 90. 
Hall, Colonel, 93. 
Hall, Rev. Dr. James. l49. 
Hall, Judge John, 169. 
Hall, Dr. Thomas H., 172. 
Hampton, Col. Wade, 98. 
Hampton, Gen. Wade, 290. 
Hay, John, 106, 110. 
Hargett, Frederick, 131. 
Harris, Judge Edward, 156. 
Harris, Major, 290. 
Harris, James H., 297. 
Harrison, President W. H., 208. 
Hatteras Bombarded, 250. 
Hahr, Major, 272. 
Harper, J. G., 303. 
Heath, Sir Richard, 
Heath. Judge R. R.. 241. 
Henderson, Judge Richard, 43. 
Henderson, Col. Pleasant, 100. 
Henderson, xlrchibald, 139, 175. 
Henderson, Judge Leonard, 

152, 169, 196. 
Henderson, Col. Thomas, 179. 
Henderson, John S.. 311. 
Henry, Louis D., 176, 194. 
Henry, Judge J. L., 297. 
Hebert, Gen. Louis, 272, 
Heth Gen. Harry, 275. 
Heaton. Col. David, 297. 
Hillsboro Election Riot, 39. 
Hillsboro Military Institute, 239. 
Hillsboro Circuit Established, 43. 
Hillsboro, capture of, 99. 



:]18 



INDEX. 



Hill Wliitmel. 76, 77, 79, 91 
Hill, Coloael. 98. 
Hill, William H., 124. 
Hill, Joseph A., 171), 199. 
Hill, John 20G. 
Hill, Samuel P.. 232. 
Hill, Gen. D. H. 

239 247. 250, 2.")8, 272. 
• Hill. Gen. A. P, 2(J4. 

Hill's Bridge, Affair at, 277. 
Howard, Chief Justice, 43. 
Howard, Judge Geo., 241. 
Hooper, William, 

54, 62, 76, 81, lOG, 124. 
Hooper, Rev. Dr. Wm., 165, 229. 
Howe, Gen Robert, 

67. 77, 84, 92, 108, 116. 
Howe, Lord, 75 
Houston, Gov., of Georgia, 77. 
Holmes, Samuel A., 133. 
Holmes, Gov Gabriel, 157, 187. 
Holmes, Gen. T. H., 272. 
Holland, James, 144. 
Hooks, Charles, 163. 
Hogg, Gavin. 165, 179. 
Howell, Rev. Dr. R. B. C, 174. 
Hort, W. P., 200. 
Hoke, Col. Michael, 202, 211. 
Hoke. Col. J. F., 246. 
Hoke, Gen. R. F., 379, 280, 287. 
Hooker, Gen. Joseph, 273. 
Holden, Gov. W. W., 

221, 246, 283, 291, 2!)7, 301. 
Holden, Joseph W.. 297. 
Hobgood, F. P., 307. 
Howerton, Dr. W. H., 309. 
Husbands, Herman 

39, 50. 52, 131. 
Hunter, Isaac, 120. 
Hunter, Rev. Dr. Humphrey, 149. 
Hyde, Gov. Edward, 22. 
Hyman, John A.. 307. 
Indians in the XVI. Century, 5. 
Inness. Col. James, 33, 
Insane Asylum, 219. 
Iredell, Judge James, 

75. 76, 105, 123. 
Iredell, Gov. James, 169. 
Iredell, Major James J., 282, 
Irwin, Col. James, 76. 



Ives, Bishop L. S., 205. 230. 
Iverson, General Alfred, 272. 
Jamestown. Settlement of, l). 
James, Hinton, 133. 
Jackson, Geii. Andrew. 

161, 163. 189, 201. 
Jackson, Gen. T. J.. 258, 262. 273. 
Jarvls, Gov. T. J., 298, 303, 311. 
Jaruagin. Judge Spencer, 195. 
Jefferson, President, 71, 132. 
Jenkins, David, 309. 
Jenkins, Gov. John, IS. 
Jenkins, Col. W. A., 236. 
Jernigan, T. R., 307. 
Jocelyn, S. R., 179. 
Johnston, Gov. Gabriel, 29, 33. 
Johnston, Gen. R. D., 285. 
Johnston, Gov. Samuel, 64, 71, 74. 
Johnston, Gen. Joe E. 

257, 288, 290. 
Jones, Willie. 

54, 71, 81, 91, 107, 115, 124. 
Jones, Gov. Allen, 72, 77, 79, 91. 
Jones, Thomas, 72, 76. 
Jones, Edmund, 311. 
Jones, Col. Edward, 121. 124. 
Jones, A. H., 300. 
Jones, Joseph, 125. 
Jones, Judge E. W., 297. 
Jones, Benjamin, 125. 
Jones, Hamilton C, 189. 
Jones, John D., 178. 
Jones, Col. John G., 283. 
Johnson, Charles, 105, 122. 
Johnson, Col. William, 231. 
Johnson, Dr. Charles E., 271. 307. 
Johnson, President Andrew, 

28o, 291, 295, 299. 
Kehukee Bap. Assoc't'n, 126. 
Kenan, Thomas, 147. 
Kenan, Col. Thomas S., 309. 
Kennedy, William, 153. 
Kerr, Rev. David, 133. 
Kerr, Rev. John, 167. 
Kerr, Judge John, 230, 302. 
Kerr, W. C, 309. 
Kinchin, John, 72. 
King, Vice-Pres. W. R., 153, 225. 
Kinney, Charles R., 215. 



INDEX. 



;ni) 



Klrkhmd, Gen. W. W., 208, 278. 

Kirk, Col. Geo. W., 302. 

Kitchen. W. FI., 811. 

Know-Nothings, 231. 

Kn-Klux-Klan, 299. 

Lane, Gov. Ralph, 7. 

Lane, CoL Joel, 129. 

Lane, Joseph. 242. 

Lane, Gen. James H., 272. 

Lawson, Jolni, 23. 

LaFayette, Gen., lOG, ISO. 

Lawrence, Peter P., 193. 

Lamb, Col. William, 201, 280, 287. 

Laflin, Gen. Bvron, 297. 

Lash, I. G., 300. 

Lexin.gton, Xews from, 63. 

Lee, Col. Heun;-, 94. 

Lee, Gen. Robert E, 240, 2.-J8, 

2.59, 203, 206, 303, 
Leslie, General, i)6. 
Lenoir, Col. W., 117, 124, 13 J. 
Leiojh, John, 121, 130. 
Lea, Rev. S., 211. 
Leaventhorpe, Col. Collett, 268 
Leach, Col. James M. , 279, 303. 
Leach, Dr. James T., 279. 
Lewis, Gen. Wm. Gaston, 285. 
Lillintrton, Gov. Alexander, 19. 
Life and Manners in 17.59, 37. 
Lincoln, Gen. Benj., 77, 78, 79, 82. 
Lincoln, Pres, Abraham, 

242, 285, 290. 
Little. Col. Archibald. 109. 
Locke, John, 14. 
Locke, Jnd.fje Francis, 83, 175. 
Locke, Matiiew, 105, 129. 
Long, Nicholas, 110. 
Lontr, John, 156. 
Lowrie, Judge Saranel, 157. 
Love, William C, 163. 
Love, Dr. S. L., 309. 
Loring, Gen., 272 
Longstreet, Gen. James, 273. 
Logan, Judge Geo. W., 279, 297. 
Loyal League, 299. 
Lowery, Ilenry Berry, 30O. 
Ludwell, Gov. Philip, 19. 
Lynch, Commodore \V. F., 255. 
M.vcLAiNE, Archibald, 

70, 81, 106, 124. 



McAden, Rev. Hugh, 35. 
McBryde, Archibjild, 153. 
McCuVoch, Alexander, 30. 
McChilloch II. E., 50, 79. 
McCalloch, Benjamin, 107, 110. 
McCnlloch, Gen. Benjamin, 272 
McDonald, Gen. Donald, 68, 09. 
McDonald, Flora, 70. 
McLeod. Col. Donald, 08, 09, 70. 
McDowell, Col. Charles, 

84, 89 106. 
McDowell, Col. Joseph, 

81, 84, 89, 106. 129. 
Mclntyre's Ffirm, affair at, 89. 
McFall's Mills, affair at, 99. 
McFarland, Duncan, 147. 
McNeil. Col. Hector. 99. 
McRee. Maj G. J., 109. 
McRee, Col. William, 101. 
McRee Major Sanvl. 218. 
McKay, Judge Spruce, 124. 
McKa3% Col.'M. J , 196, 200. 
McKov, Judge A. A.. 196, 200. 
McCorklc, Rev. Dr., 133. 
McNeill, Archibald, 173. 
McNeill, Col. Jas. H, 290. 
McDowell, T. D., 240. 
McKee, Colonel, 23. 
McQueen, Hugh, 190. 
McRae, Major' Alexander, 200. 
McRae. Col. D. K., 

209, 231 , 248, 357. 
McRae, Gen. William, 285. 
McElroy, Col., 259. 
McCleese, Lieut. Nelson, 268. 
McGehee, Montford, ?11. 
Madison, President, 152. 
Macon, Nathaniel, 

81, 129, 147, 188, 200. 
Mallett, Col. Peter, 272. 
Mall^tt, Maj. Edward, 288. 
Mangum, Judge W. P , 

105, 183, 193, 229, 251. 
^lanteo and Wanchese, 7. 
Manly. Gov. Charles, 165, 218. 
Manlv, Judge M. E., 218, 240, 244. 
Manly, Rev. Dr. Basil, 250. 
Manning, John, 300. 
Mannev, Judire Thomas, 180. 
Manly," Maj. Basil C, 283. 



320 



INpEX. 



Marion, Gen Francis, 100. 
Martin, Gov. Josiali, 53, 61. 62, 101 
Mason, Rev. Dr. R. S , 307. 
Martin, Col. James, 68, 73. 
Martin, Judge F. X., 151, 154. 
Martin, Gov. Alex., 

81, 100, 113, 123, 124, 128. 
Martin, Judge James, 183. 
Martin, Gen. J. G., 

248, 251, 272, 279. 
Martin J. J., 311. 
Martin, Col W. F., 248, 250, 261. 
Marshall, Col. J, K., 277. 
Matthews, Mussendine, 128. 
Mattocks, Captain, 90. 
:Means, Col. P. B., 307. 
Meares, Col. Gaston, 248, 260. 
Mebane, Maj. Robert, 99. 
Mebane, Alexander. 106, 129. 
Mebane. James, 173. 
Mebane, Giles, 246, 264, 311. 
iMccklenburg Declaration, 308. 
Meredith, Rev. Thomas, 193, 225. 
Mexican War, 214. 
Mifflin, Thomas, 108. 
Miller, Gov William, 150. 
Miller, Phineas, 145. 
Military Preparations, 65. 
Mills, J. H., 306. 
Missouri Compromise, 170. 
Mitchell, Col., 23, 
Mitchell. Rev. Dr. Elisha, 238. 
Mitchell, Judge Anderson, 294. 
Montfort, Henry, 107. 
Montgomery, William, 189, 203. 
Moore, Col. James, 19. 
Moore, Gen. Maurice, 27. 
Moore, Judge Maurice, 44, 54, 75. 
Moore, Gen. James, 

65, 68, 69, 70, 75. 
Moore, Col. John, 83. 
Moore. Judge Alfred, 

105, 106, 128, 131, 138. 
Moore, Alfred, Jr., 170, 178. 
Moore, Judge W. A., 305. 
Moore, Judge Augustus, 203. 
Moore, B. F., 203, 272. 305, 310. 
Moore, Dr. G. C. , 194, 218. 
Morehead, Gov. J. M., 

184, 208, 227, 246, 295. 



Morehead, Jas. T , 202. 
Morehead, Col. J. T., 302. 
Morrison. Rev. Dr. R. H., 274. 
Mprdecai, Moses, 179. 
Moravians, 32. 
Moseley, Edward, 27, 29. 
Mosely, W D., 191. 
Murfree, Col. Hardy, 78, 110. 
Murfree, W. H., 156. 
^Murphy, Judge A. D.. 141. 165, 172 
Nash, Gov. Abner, 

54, 72, 75, 76, 81, 98, 108. 
Nash, Gen. Francis, 75, 76. 
Nash, Judge Frederick, 

147, 162, 169, 220, 240. 
Navigation Act, 14. 
Nebraska Bill, 231.. 
New Bern settled, 22. 
New Bern, attack on. 27'J. 
New England Colony on Cape 

Fear, 11. 
North Carolina Troops sent to 

Carthegena, 30. 
North Carolina Railroad, 219. 
Troops. 253. 
" State Troops, 247. 
" " secedes, 244. 

Norment, R. M., 311. 
Norwood, Judge William, 172. 
O'Hara, Gen., 81. 
Orange Presbytery, 126. 
Orphan Asylum, 306. 
Osborne, Judge James W., 

241, 246. 
Outlaw, George, 196. 
OutlPw, Col. David, 196, 222, 399. 
Owen, Col. Thomas, 81. 
Owen, Gen. James, 153. 
Owen, Gen. John, 161, 189, 193. 
Paine, Col. R. T., 215, 233. 
Paper money, first issued, 25. 
Parker, Sir Peter. 72. 
Paxton, Judge John, 169. 
Pearson, Gen. Joseph, 153. 
Pender, Gen. W D.. 

259, 262, 272, 276. 
Pearson, Judge R. M., 

191, 220, 294, 302, 310. 
Person, Gen. Thomas, o4, 72„ 

81, 118, 132, 173. 



INDEX. 



;2i 



Penri, John, 7(5, 75). 
Petersburg, Fall of. 285). 
Pettigrew', Bisliop Charles, 12G. 
Pettigrew, Ebenezer, 208. 
Pc'ttigrevv, Miss Mary, 27'. 
Pettiurew, Gen. J. J.. 272, 276. 
Phifer, John, 16(». 
Pliilip, King, and the Narragan- 

setts. 1.^). 
Phillips, Rev. Dr. James, 294. 
Phillips, S. F., 301. 
Pickens, Gen. Andrew, 94. 
Pickens, Israel, 1.58. 
Pickett, General. 270. 
Pmey Bottom, Affair :it, 09. 
Pierce. Gen. Franklin, 22(5. 
l^ittsboro, Affair at, !)9. 
Plymouth Convention, 222. 
Poindexter, Rev. Dr. A. M., 174. 
Political Status of 1800, 241. 
Polk, Col. William, 98. 
Polk, Gen. Thos., 62, 73, 08, 102. 
Polk, President J. K., 213, 214. 
Polk, Gen. Leonidas, 272. 
Polk, Col. L. L, 310. 
Pool, John, 236, 238. 
Pool, Rev. Solomon, 298. 
Pool, Col. S. D., 307. 
Pollock, Gov. Thomas, 27. 
Population in 1764, 41, 
Porter, Edmund, 30. 
Porter, John. 21. 
Porter, Admiral D. D , 285. 
Porterfield, Colonel, 85. 
Potter, Judge Henry, 144, 230. 
Potter, Robert, 184. 186. 
Prevost. General, 78. 
Provincial Government, 66. 
Purviance, S. D., 146 
Puryear, R. C, 230, 246. 
Pyle, Col. John. 05. 
R.\LEioii. Sir Walter, 7, 9. 
Raleigh, City of, on Roanoke, 7. 
in Wake, 129. 
Kaleigh Register. 179 ; Minerva, 

170; Star, 179; Standard, 221. 
Raid on Hillsboro, 48. 
Railroad, Petersburg, 107; Wil- 

miuston and Raleigh, 199. 
Randolph, John, 181. 

15 



Ransom, Gen. M. W., 

238, 272, 277, 280, 305. 

Ransom. Gen. Robert, 272. 

Ran.vom, Dr. Edward, 308. 

Ramsay, James G., 279. 

Ramseur, Gen.S. D. 283. 

Ravenscroft, Bishop J. S., 167, 205. 

Raw don. Lord, 97. 

Rnyner, Kenneth, 201, 202, 246. 

Reade, Judge Edwin G., 

234. 292, 294. 

Reid, Gov. David S.. 

203, 218, 222, 246. 

Rencher, Gov. Abraham, 102. 

Regulators, 47, 50, 6-^. 

Resolutions against British taxa- 
tion, 50. 

Reno, General, 254, 255. 

Rice, Gov. Nathaniel, 29. 

Richebourg, Philipe de, 21. 

Rogers, Col. Sion H., 230, 303. 

Roberts, Gen. W. P., 200. 

Robards, William, 189. 

Riddick, Gen. Joseph, 10.5, 151. 

Rodman, Judge W. B.. 297. 

Robertson, Gen. Beverley, 268, 

Robbins. Major W. M., 207. 

T?obinson, Lieut-Gov. J. L., 305. 

Rutherford, Gen. Griffith, 

67, 73, 81, 83, 122. 

Ruffin, Judge Thomas, 

161. 179, 184, 240- 

Ruffin, Col, Thomas, of Wavne. 

230, 237, 239. 

Ruffin, Lt. Thos., of Bertie, 266. 

Roman Catholics, 241. 

Sacarusa. 145. 

Salem and the United Brethren, 33. 

Salem Academy, 165. 

Sawyer, Lemuel, 144. 

Sampson, Col. John, 98. 

Sawyer, Samuel T, 191. 

Saunders, Judge R. M.; 

108, 173, 215, 294. 

Settlement on Cape Fear re- 
newed, 29. 

Sevier, Col- John, 89, 113. 123. 

Seawell, Judge Henry, 144, 197. 

Settle, Judge Thomas, Sr., 

172, 186, 188, 197, 237. 



322 



INDEX. 



Settle, Judge Thomas, Jr., 

236, 228, 29^ 
Seizure of Forts Maoon and Cas- 
well, 246. 
Secession Agents to JN". C, 243 
Scotch Immigration, 30 
Scott, John, 187. 
Scott, General, 158. 
Schenck, Judge David, 309. 
Scarborough, John C, 309 
Scales, Gen. A. M., 

Scales, Col. J. I., 311. 

Schofield, Gen., 288, 291 

Shaftsbury, Lord, 17. 

Sharpe, William, 76, 91 

Shelby, Col. Isaac, 89, 107 

Sliober, F. E., 303 

Shober, Gotleib, 148. 

Shober, Emanuel, 180. 

Shepherd, Augustin H., 176 

Shepherd, William B , 192. 

Shepherd, Charles B.. 203. 
Shepherd, James B., 216. 
Shepherd, Judge Jesse G., 235 
Sherman, Gen. W, T., 288 290 
Shaw, Col. H. M., 

237, 346. 254, 279, 290. 
Shaw University, 299. 
Shipp, Judge W. M., 294, 301. 302 
Shoffner Bill, 301. 
Skinner, Rev. Dr. Thos. H 174 
Skinner, Charles W., 193. ' 
Skinner, Major, 259. 
Sitgreaves, .judge John, 106 
Singletary, Col. G. B. 259 
Sliogsby, Colonel, 100. 
Slaves, Regulations as to 132 
Smith, Capt. John, 9. 
Smith, Gov. Benjamin, 

Q -n r. X ^^^' ^31' I'^-l- 

bmith. Dr. James L., 201 
Smith, Judge W. N II 

203,239,240,246,279,310 
Smedes, Rev. Dr. Aldert, 210. 
Smallwood, General, 86. 
Snow Campaign, 67. 
South Carolina Line, 55. 
South Carolina Secedes, 243. 
Society of the Cincinnati, 109, 114. j 



Sothel, Gov Seth. 18. 
Spaniards in America, 
Spottswood, Gov., of Virginia 2'^ 
Spencer. Samuel, 75. " ' 

Spaight, Gov Richard Dobb- 
^ . , ^ 105, 108, ll;j,'i2s 

Spaight, Gov. R. D., .Ir., 

c . , . 165. 178,200, 201. 

Speight, Jesse, 176. 188 

Spear, Colonel, 277. 

Spear, Col. W. H. A., 282 

Stephen.s, Gov. Samuel. 13. 

Stephens, John W., 302. 

State Church, 20. 

Starkey, John, 34. 

Starkey, Edward, 105. 

Stearns, Shubal. 35. 

Stamp Act 1765, 41. 

Steele, Gen. John, 

o , IIS- 123, 131, 155 

Steele, Col. Walter L., 219. 309 
Stokes, Judge John, 124. 
Stokes. Gov^Montford, 168. 
Stokes. Col. M. F., 248, 259 
Stone. Gov. David, I27' 139, 1,52 
Stanford. Richard, 137, 153 
Stanly, John, 

Q. ^ rr. ^^^' 1'^'^' l'<^' 1'^. 1^^4- 
Stardy, Thomas J., 194. 

Stanly, Edward, 203, 21.3 216 

Strange. Judge Rob't 176' 178," 203 

St. Mary's School established, 21(K» 

Strong. Judge Geo. Y., 246, 307. ■ 

Sumner, Gen. Jethro, T 

77, 86, 91, 97, 101. 

Sumter, General, 86, 98, 100 

Swann. William, 27. 

Swann, Major Samuel, 27, 34. 

Swain, Gov. D. L.. 178, 194, 229. 

Synod of the Carolinas, 126. 

Taiieton, Banastre, 82, 93. 

Tatum, Absalom, 107, 133. 

Taylor, Judge John I ouis, 

rr , X 128, 169, 196. 

Taylor, James F., 165, 176 

Taylor, .John W., 171. 

Taylor, President Zachary, 220 

Tennessee, 106, 124. 

Tew, Col. C. v., 239, 247 264 

Terry, Gen., 287. 



INDEX. 



323 



Tlmxton, Col. James. 68. ^ 
Tlioinpson, Lewis, 196. 272. 
Thonipkins, Dr. .1. F , 22(5 
Tliomas Judsre C. R., 297. 
Ti)\ver Hill Bill, 30. 
Torrence's Tavern, Affair at, 9:). 
To«>mer, Jiidi^e John D , 169. 
Tourgee, Judsre, A. W , 297. 
Tryon, Gov. Wm., 40, 48, 49. 51. 
Tranter's Creek, Skirmish, 2.')9. 
Trinity College, 29S, 807. 
Tnscarora War, 22. 
Turner, Gov. James, 145. Wo. 
Turner, Daniel, 187. 
Turner, Col. J. ilcLeod, 297. 
Turner, Capt. Josiah, 279, 802. 
Tupper. Rev. H. M., 299. 
University of N. C., 128. 
Universit.y Normal School, 809. 
Vance David, 186. 
Vance, Gen. R. B., 178, 285, 806. 
Vance, Gov. Z. B., 232, 239, 

261, 266, 283, 291, 304. 
^'an Buren, President Martin, 304. 
Venable, A. W., 246. 
Virscinia Line Traced, 28. 

Virginia House of Burgesses, 55. 

Walker. Gov. Henderson, 19. 

Walker, Felix, 172 

Wahab's Farm Affair at, 87. 

Waddell, Gen. Huoh, 34, 38, 51. 

Waddell. ITnoh, 202. 

Wade, Gen. Thomas, 98. 

Waddell, Alfred M., 303. 

Wait. Rev. Dr. Samuel, 193. 

Wake, Mi.§s Esther, 41. 

Washin,^ton, Gen. George. 

33, 71, 74, 75, 84, 107, 121. 

Wavne. Gen. Anthony, 78. 

Wake Forest College, 207, 298. 

Washington, William H.,208. 

Warren, Judge E. J., 

246, 294, 303. 

Warren, Dr. W. C, 271. 

Warren, Dr. Edward. 271. 

Webster, Lt. Col., 95, 100. 

Whigs and Tories, 15. 

White, Gov. John, 8. 

White, William, 136. 

White. Alexander, 116. 



White, Judge llngh L., 195. 
Wellborn, Gen. James. US. 
William and Mary, 19. 
Williams. Judge John, 105. 
Williams, Gov. Benj.. 105, 129. 
Williams, CoL Otho H„ 95. 
Williamson, Dr. Hugh, 108, 115. 
Wheeler, Col. John H., 187, 231. 
Wheeler, Maj. S. J., 277. 
Wilson. Gen. rioui.-* D.. 

201, 215, 218. 
Williams, Marmaduke, 146. 
Williams, Lewis. 163, 173, 17S, 210. 
Williams, Col. Solomon, 277. 
Williams, Gen. Robt., 137,139,163. 

Weslevan Female College, 223. 

Wingate, Rev. Dr. W. M.. 230. 

Wiley, Rev. Calvin H., 226, 298. 

Winslow, Gov. Warren, 

232, 239, 246. 

Whitaker, Spier. 203. 

White, Col. M. S., 257. 

Whitney, El', 145. 

Whiting. Gen. W. H. C, 270. 

Whitefield, Rev George, 41. 

Winchester, Capture of, 275. 

Wilson, Joseph, 179. 

Winston, P. H.. of Bertie, 223. 

Win ton, Burned, 256. 

Winston, Major Joseph, 117, 129. 

Wilkinson, Gov. Henry, 18. 

Wilmington evacuated, 101. 

Wingina, King, 8. 

Wood, Col. J. H., 282. 

Wright, W. A., 292. 

Wright, Judge J. G., 128, 152. 

Worth. Gov. Jonathan, 238, 292. 

Worth, Dr. John M., 309. 

Wyatt, Private, 247. 

Wynns, Gen. Tliomas, 117, 155. 

Yates, Rev. Dr. Mathew T., 

253. 

Yancey, Bartlett, 

157, 159, 163, 169, 173, 177. 

Yeates. i\Iai. Jesse J., 306. 

Yeamans, Sir John, 12. 
Yellow Fever, 28, 270.